Wednesday, 31st May 2023

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs


ISRO’s new NavIC Satellite NVS-01


Productivity of Loksabha and Implications


Overturning Circulation Slowdown


Recycling Increasing Toxicity


Direct-Seeding Rice (DSR) Make Paddy Sowing More Sustainable


Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP)


China Sends First Civilian into Space


Babul (Acacia nilotica)


Round Tripping


Divya Kala Shakti Program



2   Daily Editorial Analysis


Rural economy diversification

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Daily Current Affairs

ISRO’s new NavIC Satellite NVS-01

In News: ISRO has successfully placed the NVS-01 navigation satellite, weighing about 2,232 kg, into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit by GSLV-F12. Subsequent orbit-raising maneuvers will take NVS-01 into the intended Geosynchronous orbit.

About the NVS-01 Satellite:

  • NVS-01 is the first of India's second-generation NavIC satellites that accompany enhanced features including terrestrial, aerial and maritime navigation, precision agriculture, location-based services in mobile devices and marine fisheries.
  • The first generation had seven satellites in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) constellation, operationally named NavIC, weighing much less.
  • The signals from NavIC are designed to provide user position accurate to better than 20 metres and timing accuracy better than 50 nanoseconds.
  • It offers two services namely Standard Position Service for civilian users and Restricted Service for strategic use and defence navigation in the Indian mainland and even 1500 kms beyond India's borders.

About the NaVIC:

  • NavIC, or Navigation with Indian Constellation, is an independent stand-alone navigation satellite system developed by ISRO.
  • NavIC, also known as IRNSS, is designed with a constellation of 7 satellites and a network of ground stations operating 24×7.
    • There are a total of eight satellites however only seven remain active.
    • Three satellites in geostationary orbit and four satellites in geosynchronous orbit.
  • It was recognized by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as a part of the World-Wide Radio Navigation System (WWRNS) for operation in the Indian Ocean Region in 2020.

Issues faced by NavIC:

  • Atomic clock failure in many of the existing satellites resulted in interruption of relay of locational data.
  • Satellite Replacement: Some of the satellites in the NAVIC constellation have reached the end of their mission life or become partially defunct.
  • Limited Coverage: While NAVIC provides coverage over the Indian landmass and a radius of 1,500 km around it, there is a need for further expansion and ground stations outside India to improve coverage and accuracy in hard-to-reach areas.
  • Mobile Compatibility: Mobile phones in India currently lack compatibility to process NAVIC signals, limiting the widespread use of the system.
  • Security and Encryption: Ensuring the security of NAVIC signals and preventing breaches or spoofing is a significant challenge.

New Features in the NVS-01 satellite:

  • It has L1 frequency (besides L5 and S frequency) which enhances compatibility with wearable devices and personal trackers along with increasing interoperability with other navigation systems.
  • The NVS-01 satellites will have a longer mission life of more than 12 years vis-à-vis 10 years existing satellite systems.
  • The satellite has an indigenous Rubidium atomic clock which ensures accurate positioning.
  • NVS-01 is the heaviest in the constellation of NAVIC satellites.

Future plans of ISRO:

  • ISRO is planning to launch weather satellite INSAT-3DS on the GSLV.
  • ISRO is working on designing a new rocket that can carry much higher luggage and also upgrading the LVM3 rocket to lift up to 5.5 ton from current 4 ton capacity
  • ISRO will also test the crew escape systems for the Gaganyaan project rocket in the coming months.


Keywords: GS-3 Space Technology, Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Productivity of Loksabha and Implications

In News: Recently, India’s New Parliament building was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The day has also brought back stories from the first parliament inauguration, that took place on January 18, 1927.

About the Performance of the 17th Lok Sabha

  • Fewest Sitting Days: The 17th Lok Sabha, currently in its last year, has already held 230 sitting days. Among all the Lok Sabhas that has served a full five-year term, the 16th Lok Sabha holds the record for the fewest sitting days, totaling 331. Considering that there is one more year remaining and an average of 58 sitting days per year, it is improbable for the 17th Lok Sabha to exceed 331 days. If this holds, it would become the shortest Lok Sabha to complete a full term since 1952.
  • Referral of Bills to Committees:There has been a noticeable decrease in the referral of bills to Parliamentary Standing Committees, indicating a decline in comprehensive scrutiny and review of proposed legislation. Since 2004, only 45% of the total bills introduced in Parliament have been sent for committee consideration, raising concerns about the extent of thorough examination they receive.
  • Legislative Output: The legislative productivity of the 17th Lok Sabha has raised concerns due to a declining trend in the number of bills introduced and passed. Out of the 150 bills introduced, excluding Finance and Appropriation Bills, only 131 have been successfully passed thus far.
  • Budget Discussions:The recent Budget session of the 17th Lok Sabha stands out as one of the shortest sessions observed since 1952. The limited amount of time allocated for discussing financial matters, especially the Budget, raises concerns about the extent of in-depth analysis and deliberation on crucial fiscal issues.
  • Debates on Matters of Public Importance: The frequency of debates in the Lok Sabha during the tenure of the 17th Lok Sabha has been relatively low. With just 11 short-duration discussions and one half-an-hour discussion, the opportunities for substantial parliamentary discourse on significant public matters appear to be limited.
  • Delayed Election of Deputy Speaker: Despite the constitutional provision mandating the election of a Deputy Speaker, the 17th Lok Sabha has not elected one, even as it enters its final year of the five-year term. This delay raises concerns about adherence to constitutional norms and the effective functioning of parliamentary proceedings.

Reason for Lower Productivity

Implications of Lower Productivity of Lok Sabha

  • Delayed Legislation: The primary implication is the delay in passing important bills and legislation. It hampers the progress of the country as it impedes the implementation of necessary policies and reforms.
  • Lack of Accountability and Oversight: It hinders the process of holding members of parliament accountable for their actions. This undermines the democratic principle of checks and balances, allowing the executive to push through decisions without sufficient oversight.
  • Diminished Public Trust: When elected representatives are unable to fulfill their responsibilities effectively, it creates a sense of disillusionment and disengagement among the public.
  • Economic Impact: Delayed or inadequate legislation on crucial economic issues can hamper growth, investment, and development.

Keywords: GS-2 Indian Polity and Constitution
Daily Current Affairs

Overturning Circulation Slowdown

In News: New research shows that Deep Ocean Currents in Antarctica are slowing earlier than predicted

About Overturning Circulation Slowdown:

  • Antarctica drives a global network of ocean currents called the "overturning circulation" that redistributes heat, carbon, and nutrients worldwide.
  • New research shows a 30% slowdown in the overturning circulation and declining deep ocean oxygen levels, happening earlier than climate models projected.
  • Melting of Antarctic ice disrupts the formation of Antarctic bottom water, affecting the density and sinking of water masses.
  • The overturning circulation carries carbon dioxide, heat, and nutrients to the deep ocean, playing a crucial role in climate stability.
  • Slowing of the overturning circulation can disrupts the connection between Antarctic coasts and the deep ocean.
  • It is also feared to result in a decline in oxygen supply to the deep ocean, affecting deep-ocean animals and their habitats.
  • Reductions in Antarctic bottom water reaching the ocean floor increase sea levels due to thermal expansion.
  • Freshening of shelf waters slows the deepest parts of the overturning circulation, reducing deep oxygenation.
  • The slowdown may intensify global warming as carbon dioxide and heat are stored in the atmosphere instead of the deep ocean.
  • Ice loss from Antarctica, driven by global warming, is expected to continue and accelerate, further contributing to the slowdown.
  • Thus, there is need for urgent action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate the effects of the overturning circulation slowdown.


Keywords: GS-I: Geography
Daily Current Affairs

Recycling Increasing Toxicity

In News: Greenpeace study warns against Recycling for it increases toxicity of plastics

About Recycling and Link with Toxicity:

  • Greenpeace Philippines has recently published a report on plastic recycling ahead of the Global Plastics Treaty negotiations in Paris.
  • The report highlights that world should focus on capping and reducing plastic production as Recycling processes actually increase the toxicity of plastics
  • Plastics contain over 13,000 chemicals, with 3,200 known to be hazardous to human health and poses a challenge to achieving a circular economy.
  • Plastics industry players, including fossil fuel and consumer goods companies, promote recycling as the solution to the plastic pollution crisis.
  • However, Recycled plastics often contain higher levels of toxic chemicals that can poison people and contaminate ecosystems.
  • The report identifies three pathways for toxic chemicals to accumulate in recycled plastic:
    • Direct contamination from toxic chemicals in virgin plastic,
    • Substances like plastic containers for pesticides entering the recycling chain
    • Heating process during recycling.
  • Currently, only 9% of plastic waste is recycled globally and the Plastic production is predicted to triple by 2060, exacerbating the plastic pollution problem.
  • As per report, the global plastic pollution could be reduced by 80% by 2040 through deep policy and market shifts and a transition to a circular economy.
  • Plastic production, disposal, and incineration facilities are frequently located in low-income communities, which suffer from higher rates of health issues associated with exposure to toxic chemicals.



Keywords: GS-3: Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Direct-Seeding Rice (DSR) Make Paddy Sowing More Sustainable

In News: Authorities in Punjab and Haryana have been advocating for the adoption of DSR to address the depleting groundwater table and promote sustainable food systems.

About Importance of DSR technique:

  • Direct Seeding of Rice (DSR) is a sowing technique which involves mechanical drilling of paddy seeds directly into the field, eliminating the need for raising young plants in nurseries and transplanting them.
  • Conventionally grown rice requires around 5,000 litres of water to produce one kilogram of rice, whereas DSR can save up to 20% of water.
  • The DSR technique reduces labor costs by eliminating the need for nursery preparation, transplanting, and subsequent field maintenance.
  • Farmers using DSR can benefit from up to 25% reduction in energy costs, as the process eliminates the need for constant flooding and manual labor.
  • DSR promotes sustainable agriculture by conserving water resources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving soil health.
  • The technology can be used for various rice varieties, including basmati rice, under suitable soil conditions.
  • At present, Punjab's government provides financial assistance of Rs 1,500 per acre to farmers adopting DSR, while Haryana's government offers a cash incentive of Rs 4,000 per acre.


Keywords: GS-3: Agriculture
Daily Current Affairs

Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP)

Why in news? Recently, An Interpretation Centre has been developed in the Sainj valley of the Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) at Sainj Ropa.


  • The Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) is a national park in India, located in Kullu region in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • It spreads across a total area of 1171 sq km.
  • It was constituted in 1984 and was formally notified as a national park in 1999.
  • In June 2014, the Great Himalayan National Park was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, under the criterion of "outstanding significance for biodiversity conservation".
  • Topography: The park is a stunning mix of lush coniferous forests, meadows, glaciers and mountain peaks.
  • Rivers: Includes the origins of westerly flowing Jiwa Nal, Sainj and Tirthan Rivers and Parvati River which are all headwater tributaries to River Beas and subsequently, the Indus River.
  • Flora and Fauna: Oak, blue pine, deodar, Snow Leopard, musk Deer, Blue Sheep etc.
  • The boundaries of GHNP are also contiguous with the Pin Valley National Park in the Trans-Himalaya range, the Rupi Bhabha Wildlife Sanctuary in the Sutlej watershed and the Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary in Parvati valley.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Environment
Daily Current Affairs

China Sends First Civilian into Space

Why in news? Recently, China's space program achieved a significant milestone by successfully launching the Shenzhou 16 spacecraft, carrying 3 astronauts using a Long March 2F rocket.


  • Shenzhou-16 spacecraft was launched from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in China.
  • This important mission marked the fifth manned mission to the Chinese space outpost since 2021, underscoring China’s commitment to advancing its space program.
  • The Shenzhou-16 spacecraft carried a crew of three astronauts who would replace the previous crew of Shenzhou-15.
  • This crew rotation ensures a continuous presence on the space station and allows for vital maintenance, research, and exploration activities to be conducted.
  • This marks the country's first-ever mission involving a civilian astronaut.
  • The civilian astronaut, Gui Haichao, a payload expert from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, will be responsible for space science experimental payloads.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Science & Technology, Space technology
Daily Current Affairs

Babul (Acacia nilotica)

Why in news? As per research, Babul seed oil could be used as an environment-friendly alternative to chemicals to control farm pests.


  • Babul is a perennial, evergreen tree.
  • It is indigenous to Indian Sub-continent as well as in Tropical Africa, Burma, Sri Lanka, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and in West and East Sudan.
  • Though native to Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, It is found in almost all tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
  • In India, natural babul forests are generally found in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Karnataka.
  • Babul pods have antibacterial activity and are effective against gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, a food-borne pathogen that causes gastro-intestinal illnesses, and Staphylococcus aureus, which can infect soft tissue in the body.
  • Babul also has Nitrogen-fixing property.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Environment, Conservation
Daily Current Affairs

Round Tripping

Why in news? In the backdrop of growing menace of round-tripping of funds, several start-ups, including prominent unicorns, have received tax notices.  


  • Round tripping refers to money that leaves the country though various channels and makes its way back into the country often as foreign investment.
    • This mostly involves black money and is allegedly often used for stock price manipulation.
  • Round tripping concept has not been defined or laid down in any laws in India.
  • A primary reason for prohibition of round tripping in India was to restrict the money routed out to tax havens for tax avoidance and evasion purposes.
  • Ways: Round Tripping money could be invested in offshore funds that in turn invest in Indian assets. Participatory Notes(P-Notes) is one of the routes that have been used in the past.

Participatory notes(P-notes):

  • These are issued by registered foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) to overseas investors who wish to be a part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves with the market regulator (Securities and Exchange Board of India).


Keywords: General Studies –3 Economy
Daily Current Affairs

Divya Kala Shakti Program

Why in news? Recently, the ‘Divya Kala Shakti’ Program was inaugurated at the Rudraksha Convention & Cultural Centre in Varanasi.


  • Divya Kala Shakti is a Cultural Program by Children &Youth with Disabilities.
  • It is organized by the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment through CRC-Lucknow, an organization under the department.
  • Divya Kala Shakti aims at developing confidence among the persons with disabilities and appreciated the efforts of their hard work of parents and teachers.
  • This time, the sixth DIVYA KALA SHAKTI program was organized in the city of Varanasi, where approximately 100 artists from six states, namely West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, performed in the program.
  • Five regional “Divya Kala Shakti” programs have already been held in various places, including the Western Region, North Eastern and Southern Region in Mumbai, Arunachal, Chennai, New Delhi, and Gauhat


Keywords: General Studies –1 Art and Culture
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Manganese Ore (India) Limited has reported record production of 4.02 lakh tonnes of manganese ore.


  • Manganese is a ferroalloy metal.
  • It is a hard, heavy, and silvery metal.
  • It is exploited as ores as well as nodules on the deep seafloor.
  • Manganese is a naturally occurring mineral.
  • It is always available in combination with iron, laterite, and other minerals.
  • Manganese ores: Manganite, Psilomelane, Pyrolusite, Braunite.
  • Deposits: It occurs mainly as metamorphosed bedded sedimentary deposits associated with Gondite Series of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Odisha.
  • Use: Manganese dioxide is used for manufacturing dry cell batteries


Keywords: General Studies –1 Geography, Mineral & Energy Resources
Daily Editorial Analysis

Rural economy diversification

Exam View: Insufficient economic diversification; Status of rural male workers; Status of rural women workers.

Context: Data suggests that rural employment diversification could be reversing due to lack of opportunities beyond farming.

Background: Insufficient economic diversification

  • Despite decades of relatively high growth of GDP, most of the workforce remains trapped in low-value employment in agriculture and other primary activities, along with low-paying services.
  • This pattern is unlike the successful late industrializers like Japan, South Korea and more recently China.
  • There has also been a worrying drop in female work participation rate.

Decoding the editorial:

Status of rural male workers

  • The employment rates for rural males are very low by global standards and have remained broadly stagnant over four decades.
  • There have been sectoral changes in employment for rural male workers.
  • Service sector boost
    • More than half of the declining share of agriculture is explained by the rise of construction as a major employer, which accounted for 16.6 per cent of rural male employment by 2021-22.
    • Throughout this period, the share of manufacturing barely budged, remaining at 7-8 percent, indicating the failure of rural industrialisation to take off to any meaningful extent.
    • Among services, trade hotels and restaurants more than doubled their share of male employment, and transport services also increased. But a significant proportion of these also remain relatively low-paying activities.

Status of rural women workers

  • For rural females, from the very low rate of only 34 percent, the employment rate fell thereafter, collapsing to as low as 17.5 percent in 2017-18.
    • The share of women employed in agriculture as a proportion of the total rural female population declined continuously over the decades, reaching only 12.8 percent in 2017-18.
    • There was a slight recovery in the most recent period, 2021-22, although the rate was still less than 27 percent.

  • Statistics do not capture all work
    • The work participation rates do not capture all work, but only recognised employment, including self-employment.
    • This excludes work performed in unpaid form, mainly by women, in the process of activities that ensure household consumption and survival.
    • Such activities include work within households and essential activities like fetching water and fuelwood, kitchen gardening, poultry raising etc.
    • If such unpaid work is recognised, though not remunerated, more than 85 percent of women in India would be actively engaged in economic activity.
    • A significant proportion of recognised women workers (around one-third in rural areas) are described as “unpaid helpers in family enterprises”, especially farms.
  • Construction boost for women
    • For rural females, even this limited diversification of construction sector employment was much less evident.
    • The share of agriculture declined, from 87.5 percent in 1983 to 73.2 percent in 2017-18.
      • It has however shown a revival to 75.9 percent in 2021-22.
    • Manufacturing employment provided work for 6.4 percent of rural women in 1983, and this increased to 9.8 percent in 2011-12.
    • Construction increased significantly though it still accounted for only 5.3 percent of rural female employment.
    • Other services, mainly community and personal services, also showed substantial increases (from 2.8 percent in 1983 to 8.9 percent in 2017-18) but then declined again for the most recent period, to 6.8 percent.
  • Shrinking opportunities
    • The recent “revival” in the share of agriculture in women’s employment reflects the decline of other activities in terms of viable employment opportunities.
  • Indeed, the increase in the share of women in agriculture is almost exactly equivalent to the declining shares of manufacturing, trade hotels and restaurants, and other services.

  • Since the latter are better representations of the desired economic diversification, it is likely that some women were essentially forced back into being recorded as employed in agriculture because of lack of other options.


Keywords: GS Paper – 3: Indian Economy, Agriculture.
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