Types of Regionalism
- Supra-State Regionalism: Supra-state regionalism refers to the cooperation and integration between different regions of a country to achieve common goals. It involves the creation of regional institutions and agreements between regions. For example, the North Eastern Council in India is a regional organization formed to promote economic and social development in the Northeastern region of India.
- Inter-State Regionalism: Inter-state regionalism refers to the cooperation and collaboration between different states of a country to address common issues. It involves the formation of regional councils and agreements between states. For example, the Southern States Development Forum in India is an organization formed by the Southern Indian states to address issues of economic development and governance.
- Intra-State Regionalism: Intra-state regionalism refers to the promotion of the interests of a particular region or community within a state. It involves demands for greater autonomy and representation for a particular region or community within a state. For example, in India, the demand for Telangana state was an example of intra-state regionalism, where people of the Telangana region demanded a separate state for themselves.
Instances of Regionalism
- The demand for a separate flag for a state, as seen in the case of Karnataka. This is a manifestation of regionalism in India where a state demands a separate flag to assert its cultural and linguistic identity.
- The “Son of soil” doctrine. This is a principle that asserts the rights of the native people of a region or state over those of outsiders or immigrants. It is often used to demand greater representation and autonomy for locals in governance and decision-making.
- Local reservations in employment, as seen in states like Karnataka, Goa, and Andhra Pradesh. This is a policy of reserving a certain percentage of government jobs and educational opportunities for local residents of a state. It is often used to protect the interests of the local population and promote their socio-economic development.
- Inter-state river water conflicts and non-cooperation, as seen in the case of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. This is a manifestation of regionalism where two or more states engage in conflicts over the sharing of water resources from a common river. Non-cooperation and protests are often used to assert the rights of a state over the use of the shared resources.
- The rejection of the new education policy over the 3 language formula, as seen in Tamil Nadu.This is a manifestation of regionalism where a state rejects a national policy on education, citing concerns about the imposition of a particular language or culture. In this case, Tamil Nadu protested against the proposed inclusion of Hindi as a third language in schools.
- Para-diplomacy, as seen in the cases of Andhra Pradesh (S.E Asia) and Tamil Nadu (USA).This is a term used to describe the efforts of sub-national entities, such as states or provinces, to engage in international diplomacy and trade relations. In this case, states like Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have sought to establish trade and cultural ties with other countries outside India.
- Violence against migrant workers, as seen in the case of Maharashtra’s MNS party targeting North Indians and banning Bhojpuri films.This is a manifestation of regionalism where local political parties or groups target outsiders or immigrants, often with violent means, to protect the interests of the native population. In this case, the MNS party in Maharashtra targeted North Indians and banned Bhojpuri films to assert the cultural identity of the state.
- The Khalistan movement, which aims to create a Sikh homeland from the state of Punjab. This is a separatist movement that seeks to create a separate homeland for the Sikh community, based on their religious and cultural identity. The movement gained prominence in the 1980s and 1990s and has been largely suppressed by the Indian government.
- Linguistic reorganization of states, as seen in the case of Andhra Pradesh in 1953 and other instances. This refers to the process of creating new states or redrawing state boundaries based on linguistic identity. This policy was first implemented in India in 1953 when Andhra Pradesh was carved out of the Madras Presidency to form a Telugu-speaking state.
- The demand for autonomy, as seen in the case of Delhi. This is a demand for greater political and administrative autonomy for a region or state, often citing concerns about the central government’s interference in local governance and decision-making.
Forms of Regionalism
|Form of Regionalism||Definition||Examples|
|Secessionism||Militant and fundamentalist groups advocating separation from India based on ethnicity or other factors||NSCN (IM), Islamic fundamentalist groups in J&K, ULFA in Assam, Khalistan movement|
|Separatism||Demand for separate statehood within Indian Union||Formation of Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana. Demands for Bodoland in Assam, Gorkhaland in West Bengal, Bundelkhand in MP and UP|
|Demand for Full Statehood||Demand by union territories for full statehood||Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Sikkim|
|Demand for Autonomy||Demand for greater state autonomy due to central political interferences||DMK in Tamil Nadu, Akali Dal in Punjab, Telugu Desam party in Andhra Pradesh, Assam Gana Parishad in Assam, National conference in J&K, and Forward Bloc in West Bengal|
|Demand for Regional Autonomy within a State||Demand for recognition of regional identities within a state||Ladakhis in J&K demanding regional status|
Q1: What are the different types of regionalism in India?
A: Regionalism in India can be categorized into cultural regionalism, linguistic regionalism, political regionalism, economic regionalism, and environmental regionalism, among others.
Q2: Can you provide examples of states in India with strong linguistic regionalism?
A: Examples include Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and West Bengal, where linguistic identity plays a significant role in regional politics.
Q3: What are the different forms of regional integration?
A: Forms of regional integration include economic integration (e.g., free trade areas and customs unions), political integration (e.g., supranational organizations like the European Union), and security integration (e.g., military alliances).
Q4: Can you explain the concept of regional integration in more detail?
A: Regional integration involves countries in a specific geographic region coming together to cooperate and achieve common goals, such as economic growth, political stability, and security.
Q5: What are some examples of regionalism in India?
A: Examples of regionalism in India include demands for state autonomy in Jammu and Kashmir, movements for a separate Gorkhaland in West Bengal, and the Dravidian movement in South India.
Q6: How does regionalism impact Indian politics?
A: Regionalism can influence Indian politics by shaping the agendas of regional parties, impacting coalition politics at the national level, and influencing policy decisions.
Q7: What are the different forms of regional economic integration?
A: Forms of regional economic integration include preferential trade agreements, free trade areas, customs unions, common markets, and economic and monetary unions.
Q8: Can you explain the benefits of regional economic integration?
A: Regional economic integration can lead to increased trade, economic growth, job creation, and greater competitiveness in the global market.
Q9: What are some examples of regional economic groupings?
A: Examples include the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
Q10: How do regional economic groupings promote economic cooperation?
A: Regional economic groupings create frameworks for member countries to reduce trade barriers, coordinate economic policies, and facilitate the movement of goods, services, and capital within the region.
Q11: Can you provide examples of Asian regionalism initiatives?
A: Examples include the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
Q12: What are the goals of Asian regionalism initiatives?
A: The goals typically include promoting economic cooperation, enhancing security, and addressing common regional challenges.
Q13: What is critical regionalism in architecture?
A: Critical regionalism in architecture is an approach that seeks to combine modern architecture with elements of local or regional culture, materials, and context to create unique and meaningful architectural designs.
Q14: Can you provide examples of architects known for practicing critical regionalism?
A: Architects like Jørn Utzon, Balkrishna Doshi, and Glenn Murcutt are known for incorporating critical regionalism principles into their designs.
In case you still have your doubts, contact us on 9811333901.
For UPSC Prelims Resources, Click here
For Daily Updates and Study Material:
Join our Telegram Channel – Edukemy for IAS
- 1. Learn through Videos – here
- 2. Be Exam Ready by Practicing Daily MCQs – here
- 3. Daily Newsletter – Get all your Current Affairs Covered – here
- 4. Mains Answer Writing Practice – here