On January 26, 1950, the Constitution came into force. Following that, the planning in India began on March 15, 1950, with the establishment of the Planning Commission, and the plan era began on April 1, 1951, with the launch of the First Five-Year Plan (1951-56).
Fixing a target to achieve the desired goal. The target could be a specified time period within which the problem must be solved. If the problem is to be addressed over the long run, then it must be made clear how much of the problem be solved in the first period (say a year or six months) and so on. Secondly, the target could be a certain quantity to be achieved. Say in the case of production, the government can fix some target in terms of quantity.
Mobilizing resources is another important task. This means that the planners must know the sources of arranging the required resources.
For example, in case of financing the plan, the planners must make the budget and spell out the different sources of findings. When the government makes a plan, one of its major sources of getting funds is tax revenue. For a business person, one of the sources of finance is a loan from a bank. When various sources of funds are available then the planner must also decide how much funds to be collected from each of these sources. Use of the human resource is another important task to execute the plan proposal. The planner must estimate the type of manpower and the number of persons required to carry out the task. A proper estimate of this requirement should be given at the outset. Similarly, a proper estimate of physical resources should also be provided. Physical resources include office buildings, vehicles, furniture, stationeries, etc.
The Objective of Planning in India
The original objectives of economic planning in India were as follows, which aimed to:
Promote Economic Development:
The primary focus of planning in India is to achieve economic development, as measured by the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Per Capita Income.
Enhance Employment Levels:
Economic planning aims to optimize the country’s available human resources by increasing employment opportunities and effectively utilizing the workforce.
India aims to achieve self-sufficiency in essential commodities while also expanding its exports through economic planning. The country experienced a significant development phase during the third five-year plan from 1961-66.
Ensure Economic Stability:
In addition to economic growth, economic planning in India also aims to maintain stable market conditions. This involves keeping inflation at manageable levels and preventing deflation. Extreme fluctuations in the Wholesale Price Index can lead to structural issues in the economy, which planning seeks to avoid.
Reduce Regional Disparities:
Economic planning in India seeks to address regional imbalances in development. Some states like Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu are relatively advanced economically, while others like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, and Nagaland lag behind. Some states, such as Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, experience uneven development with prosperous economic hubs in cities and less developed rural areas. Planning in India aims to analyze these disparities and propose strategies to mitigate them.
Foster Comprehensive and Sustainable Development:
A key objective of economic planning is to promote development across all economic sectors, including agriculture, industry, and services.
Reduce Economic Inequality:
Indian economic planning since independence has focused on measures to reduce inequality through progressive taxation, job creation, and job reservation.
Promote Social Justice:
Social justice is a central objective of planning in India, which aligns with the other objectives. It aims to reduce the population living below the poverty line and provide them with access to employment opportunities and social services.
Improve Standard of Living:
Increasing the standard of living by raising per capita income and ensuring equitable income distribution is a primary aim of India’s economic planning efforts.
Historical Evolution Of Planning In India
First of all the idea of a planned economy was crystallized in the 1930s when our national leaders came under the influence of socialist philosophy. India’s Five-year plans were very much impressed by the rapid strides achieved by the USSR through five years plans.
In 1934, Sir M. Visvesvaraya published a book titled “Planned Economy in India”, in which he presented a constructive draft of the development of India in the next ten years. His core idea was to lay out a plan to shift labor from agriculture to industries and double up National income in ten years. This was the first concrete scholarly work toward planning. The economic perspective of India’s freedom movement was formulated during the thirties between the 1931 Karachi session of the Indian National Congress, and the 1936 Faizpur session of the India National Congress.
National Planning Committee
The first attempt to develop a national plan for India came up in 1938. In that year, Congress President Subhash Chandra Bose had set up a National Planning Committee with Jawaharlal Nehru as its president. However, the reports of the committee could not be prepared and only for the first time in 1948 -49 some papers came out.
In 1944 Eight Industrialists of Bombay viz. Mr. JRD Tata, GD Birla, Purshottamdas Thakurdas, Lala Shriram, Kasturbhai Lalbhai, AD Shroff, Ardeshir Dalal, & John Mathai working together prepared “A Brief Memorandum Outlining a Plan of Economic Development for India”. This is known as the “Bombay Plan”. This plan envisaged doubling the per capita income in 15 years and tripling the national income during this period. Nehru did not officially accept the plan, yet many of the ideas of the plan were inculcated in other plans which came later.
People’s plan was drafted by MN Roy. This plan was for ten years period and gave the greatest priority to Agriculture. Nationalization of all agriculture and production was the main feature of this plan. This plan was based on Marxist socialism and drafted by M N Roy on behalf of the Indian Federation of Lahore.
This plan was drafted by Sriman Nayaran, principal of Wardha Commercial College. It emphasized economic decentralization with primacy to rural development by developing the cottage industries.
Sarvodaya Plan (1950) was drafted by Jaiprakash Narayan. This plan itself was inspired by the Gandhian Plan and the Sarvodaya Idea of Vinoba Bhave. This plan emphasized agriculture and small & cottage industries. It also suggested the freedom from foreign technology and stressed upon land reforms and decentralized participatory planning.
Planning and Development Department
In August 1944, The British Indian government set up the “Planning and Development Department” under the charge of Ardeshir Dalal. But this department was abolished in 1946.
Planning Advisory Board
In October 1946, a planning advisory board was set up by Interim Government to review the plans and future projects and make recommendations upon them.
Immediately after independence in 1947, the Economic Programme Committee (EPC) was formed by the All India Congress Committee with Nehru as its chairman. This committee was to make a plan to balance private and public partnerships and urban and rural economies. In 1948, this committee recommended forming a planning commission. In March 1950, in pursuance of declared objectives of the Government to promote a rapid rise in the standard of living of the people by efficient exploitation of the resources of the country, increasing production, and offering opportunities to all for employment in the service of the community, the Planning Commission was set up by a Resolution of the Government of India as an advisory and specialized institution. Planning Commission was an extra-constitutional body, charged with the responsibility of making assessments of all resources of the country, augmenting deficient resources, formulating plans for the most effective and balanced utilization of resources, and determining priorities. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Chairman of the Planning Commission.
National Development Council
The government of India could take the initiative to set up the planning commission only by virtue of a provision in the constitution that made Economic & Social planning an item in the Concurrent list. The Resolution to set up a planning commission was actually based upon the assumption that the roots of center-state cooperation should be deeper. Later, in 1952, the setting up of the National Development Council was in fact a consequence of this provision.
Genesis Of Planning Commission And Its Objectives
India has adopted a path of development, which is known as Socialist Path and Mixed Economy, On the one hand, India has encouraged private business and industry and on the other, it has almost full control, at least in principle, over all the major entrepreneurial and business activities. The Planning Commission was set up by a Resolution of the Government of India in March 1950 in pursuance of declared objectives of the Government to promote a rapid rise in the standard of living of the people by efficient exploitation of the resources of the country, increasing production and offering opportunities to all for employment in the service of the community. The Planning Commission was charged with the responsibility of making an assessment of all resources of the country, augmenting deficient resources, formulating plans for the most effective 7 and balanced utilization of resources, and determining priorities. It was entrusted with the work of economic and social development as envisaged in the preamble, the fundamental rights as well as Directive Principles of State Policy of the Constitution.
Functions Of the Planning Commission
The Planning Commission was a government agency in India that was responsible for formulating and implementing five-year plans for economic and social development. However, it was replaced by the NITI Aayog in 2015.
The functions of the Planning Commission included:
Formulating Five-Year Plans:
The primary function of the Planning Commission was to formulate Five-Year Plans for the economic and social development of the country. These plans aimed to identify the priorities and allocate resources to various sectors of the economy.
Allocation of Resources:
The Planning Commission was responsible for allocating resources to various sectors of the economy based on the priorities identified in the Five-Year Plans. It also reviewed the progress of the plan and made changes if required.
Monitoring and Evaluation:
The Planning Commission monitored and evaluated the progress of the Five-Year Plans and provided feedback to the government. It also reviewed the performance of various sectors and recommended corrective measures if required.
The Planning Commission facilitated coordination between the central and state governments for the implementation of the Five-Year Plans. It also encouraged collaboration between different states for the development of the country.
The Planning Commission was responsible for formulating policies related to economic and social development. It identified the areas that required policy intervention and recommended policy measures to the government.
Research and Analysis:
The Planning Commission undertook research and analysis to identify the challenges and opportunities in different sectors of the economy. It also conducted studies on various issues related to economic and social development.
The Planning Commission facilitated international cooperation and collaboration for the development of the country. It worked with international organizations and foreign governments to access resources and expertise for the implementation of the Five-Year Plans.
Framework Of Planning Under The Commission
The Prime Minister was the Chairman of the Planning Commission, which used to work under the overall guidance of the National Development Council. The Deputy Chairman and the full-time members of the Commission, as a composite body, provided advice and guidance to the subject Divisions for the formulation of Five Year Plans, Annual Plans, State Plans, Monitoring Plan Programmes, Projects, and Schemes.
Members of the Planning Commission
- Chairman – Prime Minister; presided over the meetings of the Commission
- Deputy Chairman – de facto executive head (full-time functional head);
- Was responsible for the formulation and submission of the draft Five-Year Plan to the Central cabinet.
- Was appointed by the Central cabinet for a fixed tenure and enjoyed the rank of cabinet minister.
- Could attend cabinet meetings without the right to vote.
- Part-time members – Some central ministers
- Ex-officio members – Finance Minister and Planning Minister
The National Development Council (1952)
It is the apex body for decision-making and deliberations on development matters in India, presided over by the Prime Minister. It was set up on 6 August 1952 to strengthen and mobilize the effort and resources of the nation in support of the Plan, to promote common economic policies in all vital spheres, and to ensure the balanced and rapid development of all parts of the country. The Council comprises the Prime Minister, the Union Cabinet Ministers, Chief Ministers of all States or their substitutes, representatives of the Union Territories, and the members of the Planning Commission. It is an extra-constitutional and non-statutory body.
Growth Of Indian Economy Under The Various-Five Year Plans Of The Planning Commission
India’s Planning Commission was established in 1950 to formulate and implement five-year plans for the economic development of the country. Here is a brief overview of the growth of the Indian economy under the various five-year plans of the Planning Commission:
First Five-Year Plan (1951-1956):
It was based on the Harrod Domar Model and emphasised increasing savings. The focus of the first plan was on agricultural development, with a target of increasing food production and improving irrigation facilities. The plan aimed to increase the country’s GDP by 2.1% annually, but the actual growth rate was 3.6%.
Second Five-Year Plan (1956-1961):
The second plan emphasized industrialization and infrastructure development, with a focus on public-sector industries. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 4.5%, but the actual growth rate was 4.27%. It was drafted and planned under the leadership of P.C Mahalanobis.
Third Five-Year Plan (1961-1966):
The third plan emphasized self-sufficiency and import substitution in industry and continued to focus on agriculture and infrastructure development. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 5.6%, but the actual growth rate was 2.4%. Panchayat elections were introduced to bring democracy to the grassroots level.
Due to the failure of the previous plan, the government announced three annual plans called Plan Holidays from 1966 to 1969. The main reason behind the plan holidays was the Indo-Pakistani war and the Sino-India war, leading to the failure of the third Five Year Plan.
During this plan, annual plans were made and equal priority was given to agriculture its allied sectors, and the industry sector. In a bid to increase the exports in the country, the government declared devaluation of the rupee
Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969-1974):
The fourth plan focused on reducing poverty and inequality and emphasized the development of rural areas and small-scale industries. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 5.7%, but the actual growth rate was 3.3%. Based on the Gadgil Formula, a great deal of emphasis was laid on growth with stability and progress toward self-reliance. The government nationalized 14 major Indian Banks and the Green Revolution boosted agriculture.
Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-1979):
The fifth plan emphasized employment generation and focused on agriculture, rural development, and small-scale industries. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 4.4%, but the actual growth rate was 4.8%. The Indian National Highway System was introduced. The Minimum Needs Programme introduced in the first year of this plan, aimed to provide basic minimum needs. MNP was prepared by D.P. Dhar.
After the termination of the fifth Five Year Plan, the Rolling Plan came into effect from 1978 to 1990. In 1980, Congress rejected the Rolling Plan, and a new sixth Five Year Plan was introduced. Three plans were introduced under the Rolling plan: (1) For the budget of the present year (2) this plan was for a fixed number of years– 3,4 or 5 (3) Perspective plan for long terms– 10, 15, or 20 years. The plan has several advantages as the targets could be mended and projects, allocations, etc. were variable to the country’s economy. This means that if the targets can be amended each year, it would be difficult to achieve the targets and will result in destabilization in the Indian economy.
Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980-1985):
The sixth plan emphasized modernization and technological upgradation and focused on increasing agricultural and industrial productivity. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 5.2%, but the actual growth rate was 5.7%.To prevent overpopulation, family planning was introduced. On the recommendation of the Shivaraman Committee, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development was established.
Seventh Five-Year Plan (1985-1990):
The seventh plan emphasized human development and focused on education, health, and employment generation. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 5%, but the actual growth rate was 6%. It laid stress on improving Industrial productivity levels through the use of technology.
Eighth Five Year Plan could not take place due to the volatile political situation at the center.
Two annual programs were formed for the year 1990-91& 1991-92. This was largely because of the economic instability. India faced a crisis of foreign exchange reserves during this time. Liberalisation, Privatisation, and Globalisation (LPG) were introduced in India to grapple with the problem of the economy.
Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992-1997):
The eighth plan focused on liberalization, privatization, and globalization, and aimed to integrate India with the global economy. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 5.6%, but the actual growth rate was 6.8%. India became a member of the World Trade Organisation on 1 January 1995.
Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002):
The ninth plan emphasized social development and poverty reduction, and focused on education, health, and rural infrastructure. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 6.5%, but the actual growth rate was 5.4%.It offered support for social spheres to achieve complete elimination of poverty and witnessed the joint efforts of public and private sectors in guaranteeing economic development.The focus was also to balance the relationship between rapid growth and the quality of life for the people.
Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007):
The tenth plan emphasized inclusive growth and focused on infrastructure development, agriculture, and human development. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 8%, but the actual growth rate was 7.7%. It also emphasized reducing the gender gaps in the field of education and wage rates by 2007.
Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007-2012):
The eleventh plan emphasized inclusive growth and sustainability and focused on education, health, infrastructure, and rural development. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 9%, but the actual growth rate was 7.9%.C.Rangarajan prepared the Eleventh Five Year Plan. The focus was also laid on providing clean drinking water for all by 2009.
Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012-2017):
The twelfth plan emphasized inclusive and sustainable growth and focused on infrastructure development, skill development, and social security. The plan aimed to achieve a GDP growth rate of 8%, but the actual growth rate was 7.5%. It’s worth noting that the Planning Commission was dissolved in 2014 and replaced with the NITI AAYOG.
Analysis Of The Working Of the Planning Commission
Advantages of the Planning Commission
- Planning Commission laid emphasis on infrastructure developments and capacity building. As a result, huge investments were made in education, energy, industry, railways, and irrigation.
- India became self-sufficient in agriculture and made great progress in capital sector goods and consumer sector goods.
- Planning Commission introduced many remarkable concepts like nationalization, green revolution, etc, and transformed itself to align with new concepts like liberalization, privatization, and inclusion.
- The planning commission made great emphasis on social justice, governance, employment generation, poverty alleviation, health, and skill development.
- The transformation of India from a poor to an emerging economic power is credited to the orderly and phased manner in which planning was implemented.
Challenges of the Planning Commission
- No structural mechanism for regular engagement with states.
- Ineffective forum for the resolution of center-state and inter-ministerial issues.
- Inadequate capacity expertise and domain knowledge; weak networks with think tanks and lack of access to expertise outside government.
- Failed to implement land reforms.
- Toothless bodies lack the power to hold unions/states/UTs accountable for not achieving targets.
- Designed plans with a ‘one size fits all’ approach, leading to many plans failing to show tangible results.
- Weak implementation, monitoring, and evaluation processes.
Genesis Of NITI AAYOG And Its Objectives
Planning Commission was replaced by a new institution – NITI AAYYOG on January 1, 2015, with emphasis on a ‘Bottom –Up’ approach to envisage the vision of Maximum Governance, Minimum Government, echoing the spirit of ‘Cooperative Federalism’.
Reasons for the Creation of NITI Aayog
The 65-year-old Planning Commission had become a redundant organization. It was relevant in a command economy structure, but not any longer. India is a diversified country and its states are in various phases of economic development along with their own strengths and weaknesses. In this context, a ‘one size fits all’ approach to economic planning is obsolete. It cannot make India competitive in today’s global economy.
Objectives of NITI Aayog:
- To foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on a continuous basis, recognizing that strong States make a strong nation.
- To develop mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level and aggregate these progressively at higher levels of government.
- To ensure, in areas that are specifically referred to it, that the interests of national security are incorporated in economic strategy and policy.
- To pay special attention to the sections of our society that may be at risk of not benefitting adequately from economic progress.
- To provide advice and encourage partnerships between key stakeholders and national and international like-minded Think Tanks, as well as educational and policy research institutions.
- To create a knowledge, innovation, and entrepreneurial support system through a collaborative community of national and international experts, practitioners, and other partners.
- To offer a platform for the resolution of inter-sectoral and inter-departmental issues in order to accelerate the implementation of the development agenda.
To maintain a state-of-the-art Resource Centre, be a repository of research on good governance and best practices in sustainable and equitable development as well as help their dissemination to stakeholders.
Framework Of Planning Under The NITI AAYOG
- Chairperson: Prime Minister of India
- Governing Council: Comprising the Chief Ministers of all States and Lt. Governors of Union Territories.
- Regional Councils: Will be formed to address specific issues and contingencies impacting more than one state or region.
- Strategy and Planning in the NITI Aayog will be anchored from State-level. Regional Councils will be convened by the Prime Minister for identified priority domains, put under the joint leadership of related sub-groups of States (grouped around commonalities which could be geographic, economic, social, or otherwise) and Central Ministries.
- Have specified tenures, with the mandate to evolve a strategy and oversee implementation.
- Be jointly headed by one of the groups Chief Ministers (on a rotational basis or otherwise) and a corresponding Central Minister.
- Include the sectoral Central Ministers and Secretaries concerned, as well as State Ministers and Secretaries. It will be linked to corresponding domain experts and academic institutions.
- Have a dedicated support cell in the NITI Aayog Secretariat.
- States would thus be empowered to drive the national agenda. As a consequence, deliberation would be more grass-roots informed, and recommendations would have more ownership, given their joint formulation.
- Special Invitees: experts, specialists, and practitioners with relevant domain knowledge as special invitees nominated by the Prime Minister.
Full-time Organisational Framework:
- Will comprise of, in addition to the Prime Minister as the Chairperson:
- Vice-Chairperson: to be appointed by the Prime Minister.
- Members: full-time: specialists with international exposure.
- Part-time Members: maximum of 2, from leading universities, research organizations, and other relevant institutions in an ex-officio capacity. Part-time members will be on a rotational basis.
- Ex-Officio Members: maximum of 4 members of the Union Council of Ministers to be nominated by the Prime Minister.
- Chief Executive Officer: to be appointed by the Prime Minister for a fixed tenure, in the rank of Secretary to the Government of India.
- Secretariat: as deemed necessary.
- NITI Aayog Specialized Wings
- Research Wing – that will develop in-house sectoral expertise as a dedicated think tank of top domain experts, specialists, and scholars.
- Consultancy Wing – that will provide a marketplace of whetted panels of expertise and funding for Central and State Governments to tap into; matching their requirements with solution providers, public and private, national and international. By playing matchmaker instead of providing the entire service itself, NITI Aayog will be able to focus its resources on priority matters, providing guidance and an overall quality check to the rest.
- Team India Wing – comprising representatives from every State and Ministry, will serve as a permanent platform for national collaboration.
Performance Of The NITI AYOG Since Its Inception: Digital Payments Movement
- The Government has prepared an action plan on advocacy, awareness and co-ordination of their hand holding efforts among general public, micro-enterprises and other stakeholders for which NITI Aayog had organised presentations or interactions for training and capacity building of various Ministries/Departments of Government of India, representatives of State/UTs, Trade and Industry Bodies as well as all other concerned stakeholders.
- The state/UTs will be incentivised with Rs. 50 crore as Central assistance for the promotion of digital transactions which is to be used in districts for undertaking Information, Education and Communication activities to bring 5 crore Jan Dhan accounts to a digital platform.
- To promote the use of digital payments through BHIM App, the Government has started the Cashback and referral bonus schemes which were launched by the Prime Minister on 14th April 2017.
- The incentive schemes such as Lucky Grahak Yojana and the Digi Dhan Vyapar Yojana were also launched by NITI Aayog to promote digital payments across all sections of society in which over 16 lakh consumers and merchants have won Rs. 256 crore under these two schemes.
Atal Innovation Mission
- In a view to strengthening the country’s innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem, the Government has set up Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) under NITI Aayog that spur innovation in schools, colleges, and entrepreneurs in general. Following major schemes were rolled out in 2016-17 under Atal Innovation Scheme (AIM):
- Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs): The Atal Innovation Scheme (AIM) is working to establish 500 ATLs in schools across India, where students can design and make small prototypes based on the rapid prototyping technologies to solve challenges they see around them.
- Atal Incubation Centres (AICs): The AICs will help start-ups to expand quicker and enable innovation-entrepreneurship, in core sectors of the economy such as manufacturing, energy, transport, education, agriculture, water and sanitation, etc for which Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) will provide financial support of Rs.10 crore and capacity building for setting up of such AICs.
- In a view to the Prime Minister’s focus on outcomes, NITI Aayog has developed indices measuring State’s performance in Health, Education and Water Management.
- The indices will measure incremental annual performances in critical social sectors like health, education and water with a view to nudge the states into challenging with each other for better outcomes.
- The indices will also help states to share the best practices and innovation in order to achieve gain from each other which is an example of competitive and cooperative federalism.
Task Force on Agriculture Development
- Agricultural development was set up on 16th March 2015 under the Chairmanship of Dr Arvind Panagariya, Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog.
- The Task Force has prepared an occasional paper entitled “Raising Agricultural Productivity and Making Farming Remunerative for Farmers” which is based on their work focusing on 5 critical areas of Indian Agriculture are:
- Raising Productivity
- Remunerative Prices to Farmers
- Land Leasing, Land Records & Land Titles
- Second Green Revolution-Focus on the Eastern States
- Responding to Farmers’ Distress
Issues Plaguing The AYOG And Measures To Resolve These Issues
Niti Aayog is a policy think tank of the Government of India that aims to promote economic growth and sustainable development in the country. As with any government organization, Niti Aayog has faced its fair share of issues and challenges. Here are some of the common issues faced by Niti Aayog and some possible resolutions:
Lack of Accountability:
One of the common issues faced by Niti Aayog is the lack of accountability. As an advisory body, Niti Aayog has no executive powers, which makes it difficult to enforce its recommendations. To resolve this issue, Niti Aayog can work with the government to establish a mechanism to ensure that its recommendations are implemented.
Another issue faced by Niti Aayog is limited participation from various stakeholders. To resolve this, Niti Aayog can establish partnerships with various organizations, including civil society groups, academia, and the private sector to ensure wider participation in its policymaking process.
Niti Aayog’s budget is relatively small compared to other government agencies, which limits its capacity to undertake projects and initiatives. To resolve this, the government can allocate more resources to Niti Aayog, which will enable it to carry out its work more effectively.
Limited Regional Representation:
Niti Aayog is criticized for being Delhi-centric and not taking into account the regional perspectives of various states. To address this, Niti Aayog can establish regional offices and engage with local stakeholders to better understand the specific challenges faced by different regions.
Lack of Coordination:
Another issue faced by Niti Aayog is the lack of coordination among various government agencies. To resolve this, Niti Aayog can act as a coordinating agency and bring together different government departments to work on common goals.
Niti Aayog is a crucial institution in India’s policymaking process, and it needs to address the above issues to function more effectively. The government needs to provide Niti Aayog with adequate resources and establish mechanisms to ensure that its recommendations are implemented. Additionally, Niti Aayog needs to engage with a wide range of stakeholders, including regional bodies, civil society, and private sector organizations, to ensure that its policies are inclusive and effective.
In case you still have your doubts, contact us on 9811333901.
For UPSC Prelims Resources, Click here
For Daily Updates and Study Material:
Join our Telegram Channel – Edukemy for IAS
- 1. Learn through Videos – here
- 2. Be Exam Ready by Practicing Daily MCQs – here
- 3. Daily Newsletter – Get all your Current Affairs Covered – here
- 4. Mains Answer Writing Practice – here
Visit our YouTube Channel – here