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Geography Optional by Shabbir Sir - Integrated Course

Not only is Geography Optional one of the most chosen options among UPSC Aspirants, it is also more loved because of its classes being offered by Shabbir Sir!

The unique, module-wise, marathon-focused, and mission-oriented Geography Optional Classes by Shabbir Sir focuses on pedagogical elements like initiation classes, moving to foundational principles, and then ultimately to the Enriched/Advanced part of learning!!

Watch the attached video to understand why choosing Shabbir Sir's Geography Optional - is the best way to utilize your time for Optional Preparations!!




PDF Notes


Live Classes


Sectional Tests


Full-length Tests

Not only is Geography Optional one of the most chosen options among UPSC Aspirants, it is also more loved because of its classes being offered by Shabbir Sir!

The unique, module-wise, marathon-focused, and mission-oriented Geography Optional Classes by Shabbir Sir focuses on pedagogical elements like initiation classes, moving to foundational principles, and then ultimately to the Enriched/Advanced part of learning!!

Watch the attached video to understand why choosing Shabbir Sir's Geography Optional - is the best way to utilize your time for Optional Preparations!!



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New batch starts from 8th Mar, 2024
Select mode of course & batch to enroll

Online Live Classes


  • 150+ Live Interactive classes with Class Notes
  • Learning Art of Synopsis Writing
  • Module Based Approach
  • Completion through Module Wise Workbooks
  • Comprehensive Test Series with 9 Tests
    • 5 Sectional Tests (Evaluation of all)
    • 4 Full Length Tests (Only evaluation of 2)
    • 10 Practice Tests (No Evaluation)
  • 200+ L1 & L2 Level Questions with Model Answers (PDF)
  • 14 Geography Optional Booklets (PDF)
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Geography Optional Online - (Integrated March Batch - 2025)

₹69,600 ₹72,600
Batch starts: 08 Mar’24
No cost EMI available. Schedule a free counselling session to get the EMI plans
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Geography Optional – Syllabus given by UPSC

Syllabus of Geography Paper – I (PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY)

Physical Geography

  1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology, and environment.
  2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronts; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
  3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents, and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral, and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
  4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation, and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wildlife; Major gene pool centers.
  5. Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management, and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography

  1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioral, human, and welfare approaches; Languages, religions, and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
  2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: a typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects, and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.
  3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of the over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
  4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalization; Growth centers and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
  5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

Syllabus of Geography Paper – II

Geography of India

  1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.
  2. Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aquaculture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agroecological regions.
  4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminum, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage, and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.
  5. Transport, Communication, and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway, and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
  6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas, and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution, and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intraregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  7. Settlements: Types, patterns, and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
  8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
  9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganization; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification, and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

Key Highlights

Live Interactive Sessions with Recorded Videos
Live Interactive Sessions with Recorded Videos
Complete Syllabus Coverage with Advanced Concepts
Complete Syllabus Coverage with Advanced Concepts
PYQs & Case Study Coverage
PYQs & Case Study Coverage
150+ Class Summaries
150+ Class Summaries

What our learners are saying?

About the Faculty

Shabbir Bashir
Shabbir Bashir

Shabbir A Bashir is one of the co-founders of Edukemy and industry’s most lauded professor in UPSC preparation. He has been in the industry...

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Free Resources

Preksha Agarwal - Rank 30

Topper Copy 1

Preksha Agarwal - Rank 30

Topper Copy 2

Geography Optional PYQ Sample

Geography Optional PYQ 2023 - Solved Sample

Synopsis Sample

Synopsis Made by a Student at Edukemy!


Demo Class Videos

Demo Video - Geography Optional by Shabbir Sir - Integrated Course
Demo Video - Geography Optional by Shabbir Sir - Integrated Course
Demo Video - Geography Optional by Shabbir Sir - Integrated Course
Demo Video - Geography Optional by Shabbir Sir - Integrated Course

Frequently Asked Questions

UPSC CSE Geography Optional by Shabbir Sir is meant ideally for the Students who are preparing with Geography Optional. It would help students understand static and dynamic concepts with in-depth understanding with our best faculties on board.

  • Course Duration: 9 Months
  • Course Commencement Date - 29-1-2024
  • Complete coverage of the syllabus with high quality content & best faculty
  • Class Summary after each class
  • Effective Test Series covering 300+ Questions with Model Answers
  • 9 Tests with Test Discussions of all the test and evaluation of 7.
  • Effective teaching-learning process with spot doubt clearance with faculty

  • The program would help an aspirant clear the most important concepts asked in the UPSC CSE Geography Optional
  • Development of analytical skills through spontaneous interaction in live classes & mentoring the students on test feedback
  • Cover all the important exam static topics.
  • Follows the changing trend of the syllabus, hence comes with a well-crafted pedagogy for the same.
  • Course topics would be treated according to their relevance and importance

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Related Courses

Geography Optional - An Overview

Opting for Geography optional for UPSC is a popular choice among civil services aspirants. Geography Optional as a subject allows candidates to showcase their skills in answer writing with regards to General Studies as well. Geography Optional covers diverse topics such as geomorphology, climatology, and regional planning, making it a valuable choice for those who have a passion for the subject. Geography optional coaching is essential for candidates seeking resources and strategies for exam preparation. So, for those interested in the complexities of our planet and aiming to excel in competitive exams, Geography optional is a smart and fulfilling selection.

Best Geography Optional Coaching

While the General Studies portion of UPSC Exam Preparation can be tackled by Self-Study, Optional Selection wants a bit of expertise, which can be achieved by a combination of Coaching and Self-Study. With Edukemy's Geography Optional Coaching by Shabbir Sir, we stand out in terms of pedagogy, delivery of content, and answer writing. Our unique approach includes Synopsis Creation, L1 & L2 level Questions Memorization, Consolidation of Geography Optional Notes through Workbooks and Synopis, apart from the Geography Optional Course taken by Shabbir Sir and Geography Optional Test Series. Hence, we can proudly claim that we provide the Best Geography Optional Coaching in India.

Best Geography Optional Coaching in Delhi

At Edukemy, our Geography Optional Coaching, led by Shabbir Sir, sets us apart in terms of our teaching methods, content delivery, and focus on answer writing. Our approach involves creating synopses, memorizing questions at both L1 and L2 levels, consolidating Geography Optional Notes through workbooks and synopses, in addition to Shabbir Sir's expert Geography Optional Course and Geography Optional Test Series. We're not just known for the Best Geography Optional Coaching in India, but we also offer the Best Geography Optional Coaching in Delhi, with our offline center located in Old Rajinder Nagar, making it accessible for aspirants in the capital city.

Location Pinned

Geography Optional Syllabus UPSC

Geography optional syllabus for the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) Civil Services Examination is a comprehensive and challenging optional subject, the syllabus of which is selected and designed to assess a candidate's in-depth knowledge. Covering both physical and human geography, the syllabus encompasses a wide range of topics, including geomorphology, climatology, oceanography, biogeography, population studies, and settlement geography, among others. Candidates are expected to have a thorough understanding of geographical theories, models, and contemporary issues in the field. The syllabus also emphasizes the application of geographic concepts and techniques to real-world problems. This optional subject offers candidates an opportunity to demonstrate their analytical skills and critical thinking abilities in the context of diverse geographical phenomena and issues, making it a popular choice among UPSC aspirants with a background or interest in geography.

You can read more about the Geography Optional in the detailed Topic-Wise Listing for Geography Optional provided in our blogs.

Geography Optional for UPSC

Geography optional subject in UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) Civil Services Examination is a popular choice among aspirants due to its comprehensive and multidisciplinary nature. It offers a diverse range of topics, encompassing both physical and human geography, which allows candidates to explore the world's complexities and interdependencies. The syllabus includes geomorphology, climatology, oceanography, environmental geography, population studies, regional planning, and more. This subject demands a profound understanding of geographical theories, spatial analysis, and contemporary issues in the field. Candidates must be proficient in map reading, cartography, and the use of geographic information systems (GIS). Geography as an optional subject equips aspirants with a holistic perspective of global issues, enabling them to apply geographical concepts to real-world problems and policy analysis, making it a valuable choice for those who wish to make a meaningful impact in civil services.

Geography Optional Book for UPSC

At Edukemy, we believe that learning through books is the best way ahead. In fact, Shabbir Sir himself takes books to the class and exactly dictates or marks places from which he is referring, while teaching the students. These are some of the books generally referred:

1. Geography Optional Hard Copy Notes

2. Geomorphology - Savindra Singh

3. Climatology - Savindra Singh

4. Oceanography - Savindra Singh

5. Env Geography - Savindra Singh

6. Human Geography - Majid Hussain (5th edition)

To get a more diverse coverage on the topic, you may refer to our blog.

Geography Optional Previous Year Question Papers PDF

Geography optional previous year question papers in PDF format are invaluable resources for UPSC Civil Services Examination aspirants who have chosen geography as their optional subject. These question papers provide candidates with an opportunity to familiarize themselves with the exam's pattern, the types of questions asked, and the depth of knowledge expected. By reviewing and solving previous year papers, candidates can gauge their preparedness and identify areas that require more attention. Additionally, they can develop effective time management strategies and enhance their problem-solving skills. These question papers help candidates get a sense of the evolving trends and focus areas in the geography optional syllabus, making them a crucial part of any aspirant's exam preparation strategy. We have the Geography Optional Previous Year Question Papers PDF in the Resources Section.

Geography Optional PYQ Topic Wise PDF

The availability of Geography Optional Previous Year Question (PYQ) papers in a topic-wise PDF format is a significant advantage for UPSC Civil Services Examination aspirants who have chosen geography as their optional subject. These topic-wise PDFs break down the vast geography syllabus into manageable sections, making it easier for candidates to focus on specific areas of the subject. By studying PYQs by topic, candidates can identify recurring themes, essential concepts, and frequently tested areas in the examination. This targeted approach allows for a more efficient and strategic preparation, enabling candidates to prioritize their study based on the importance of each topic. Furthermore, practicing PYQs topic-wise helps candidates refine their knowledge and application of geographic principles, ultimately boosting their confidence and performance in the actual exam. These topic-wise PDFs are readily available on our resources section, providing candidates with a convenient and structured resource to enhance their geography optional preparation.

Geography Optional Test Series 2023/24/25

Geography Optional Test Series for 2023/24/25 is an invaluable resource for UPSC Civil Services Examination aspirants who have chosen geography as their optional subject. At Edukemy, we follow a unique pedagogy of classes, memorization of L1 & L2 Questions through Practice Tests, solving Sectional Tests covering Topic-Wise Questions with Comprehensive Model Answers, and then we move on to the Full-Length Tests for Geography Optional. These test series are designed to mimic the actual examination conditions, providing candidates with an opportunity to assess their knowledge, time management, and problem-solving skills.

Practicing these tests under exam-like conditions is essential for building confidence and achieving a competitive edge in the final examination. Many coaching institutes and online platforms offer these test series, making them easily accessible to Geography Optional candidates aiming to excel in the 2023/24/25 UPSC exams.

Geography Optional Toppers

In the UPSC Civil Services Exam, getting the best scores in the Geography Optional paper shows how dedicated, smart, and knowledgeable a student is about the subject. In 2017, Pratham Kaushik did an amazing job by getting 327 out of 500 marks, and he got the 5th place in All India Rank. At Edukemy and under the guidance of Shabbir Sir, we have a lot of toppers who has secured top ranks in the UPSC Exam. Some of them include:

1. Preksha Agrawal - Rank 30

2. Nittin Singh - Rank 32

3. Shubham - Rank 41

Read more about these toppers through our YouTube Videos.

Geography Optional Highest Marks

In the UPSC 2017 Exam, Pratham Kaushik secured the highest score in Geography Optional. He achieved an impressive 327 out of 500 marks. Each UPSC optional exam comprises two papers, each worth 250 marks, summing up to a total of 500 marks for both papers. To attain the highest marks ever in the UPSC optional, candidates must possess a deep understanding of both the examination format and the subject matter. Read in detail on how Pratham Kaushik utilized Shabbir Sir's Notes to excel the exam and achieve this remarkable feat.

Geography Optional UPSC Question Paper

Starting your preparing for Geography Optional? We recommend that you go through the Geography Optional UPSC Question Paper to get an idea on what type of questions come in the UPSC Geography Optional Mains Exam.

Go through the Geography Optional UPSC Question Paper List.

Geography Optional Answer Writing

Geography Optional Answer Writing is a crucial skill for aspirants preparing for the Union Public Service Commission's (UPSC) Civil Services Examination. In this context, answer writing involves the ability to articulate comprehensive, well-structured, and analytical responses to a variety of geographical questions. Aspirants must not only exhibit a strong command of factual knowledge but also demonstrate the capacity to apply geographical concepts, theories, and principles to real-world situations.

Effective answer writing includes clear organization, precise use of diagrams and maps where relevant, and the incorporation of case studies to substantiate arguments. Additionally, it's vital to address the question asked, maintain conciseness, and present a balanced view when tackling topics related to environmental, human, or physical geography. Successful Geography Optional answer writing goes beyond rote memorization and demands the ability to critically analyze issues, effectively communicate ideas, and apply geographical insights to contemporary challenges, making it an indispensable skill for those aiming to excel in the UPSC examination.

Our Geography Optional Enrichment Program helps the students with Geography Optional in the exact way on writing effective answers that fetch good marks in all questions, as asked in UPSC Geography Optional Mains Exam.

Geography Optional Coaching Online

At Edukemy, along with providing the Best Offline Coaching for Geography Optional in Delhi, we also provide with Geography Optional Coaching Online. We stream the offline classes in online mode for the benefit of the students. Infact, doubts are resolved in real time by Shabbir Sir through the Chat Integration on our Learning Management System. Shubham, Rank 41, who cleared the prestigious UPSC Exam with Geography Optional in his very first attempt, was a student of our Geography Optional Integrated Course in Online Mode.

Shabbir Sir's Geography Optional Course is one of the most sought-after Geography Optional Classes that students from all over the country look forward to. The testimony of this fact is the many students who join the Geography Optional Coaching Online from hinterland in India.

The benefit with the Geography Optional Online Course - October Batch by Shabbir sir is the 2 year validity for this particular batch, that can help students preparing for UPSC Exam 2025 in a more structured manner.

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