Are you gearing up for the UPSC Civil Services Mains examination and considering Public Administration as your optional subject? If so, you’re in the right place! Public Administration is a popular choice among aspirants, and mastering this subject can significantly boost your chances of success. In this blog series, we’ll be delving into the Previous Year Questions for the Public Administration optional paper, specifically focusing on the topic of “Administrative Behaviour.” Covering the years from 2013 to 2023, our goal is to provide you with valuable insights into the types of questions that have been asked over the years, helping you prepare effectively and strategically for this competitive examination.
The “Administrative Behaviour” segment of the Public Administration syllabus is crucial in understanding the functioning of government agencies and the role of bureaucrats. It deals with the various theories and models that underpin the behavior of public administrators and their interactions with political and societal elements. By analyzing previous year’s questions in this domain, you’ll gain a deeper understanding of the examination pattern and the key concepts emphasized by the UPSC. So, whether you’re a seasoned aspirant or just beginning your UPSC journey, this blog series will be your go-to resource for mastering Administrative Behaviour in the Public Administration optional subject, making your path to success a smoother one.
Administrative Behaviour Public Administration – Previous Year Questions (UPSC CSE Mains Psychology Optional)
Process and techniques of decision-making
1. “‘Performance information use’ is a form of organizational behaviour that is influenced by individual, job, organizational and environmental factors.” Critically analyze. (2020)
2. “If there is ever to be a science of Public Administration it must derive from an understanding of man’s begaviour.” Explain. (2019)
3. Examine the respective roles of facts and values in the decision-making process. Is it possible to make value-free decisions in government system? How can government decisions be made more rational? (2008)
4. “’Consensus’ and ‘Unanimity’ are used as styles in decision-making.” Comment. (1998)
5. “While the entrepreneur makes strategic decisions, the manager makes tactical ones.” Elucidate. (1993)
6. ‘A management which takes its environment as given…… is pursuing a dangerous course.’ Comment on the environment of decision-making. (1990)
7. Elucidate the socio-psychological bases of individual and group behaviour in a complex organization. (1988)
1. Strategic communication ought to be an agile management process. Discuss the conceptualization of strategic communication for the government actions. (2022)
2. “Communication represents the “Nerves of Government” (Kari Deutsch). How can the communication system in the government be made more effective, responsive and motivational? (2018)
3. “Information constitutes the life-blood of the functioning of an organisation. “Explain the utility and significance of communication in decision-making. (2015)
4. ‘The nature and role of communication in administration indicates that “Communication is authority”; Comment. (2001)
5. “Information constitutes the life-blood of the functioning of organization.” In the light of this statement, explain the utility and importance of communication in decision-making. (2000)
6. “Communication holds the organisation together.” Comment. (1998)
7. Authority has been defined in part as a “character of a communication in a formal organisation.” Comment. (1995)
8. Bring out the importance of communication in administrative organisations. What are the drawbacks in upward communication? (1994)
9. ‘Without communication, there can be no organisation’. Discuss the importance of communication in Public Administration. (1990)
10. Critically examine the functions of administrative leadership. What role does communication play in improving the quality of administrative decisions in goal setting and goal getting by public servants. (1987)
1. “Morale can drive an organization forward or can lead to employees’ discontent, poor job performance and absenteeism.” Examine. (2016)
2. What is the nature of psychological contract pursued by organizational management through authority and the employees through exertion of upward influence? (2013)
3. What is meant by morale? There is a belief that “moral and productivity go hand in hand and higher the morale, higher the productivity.” Do you agree? Substantiate. (2007)
4. What is morale? State its significance and suggest methods to foster and sustain morale in an organization. (2003)
Motivation Theories-content, process and contemporary
1. Examine the approach of public service motivation as an inducement to bring the desired level of efficiency in public service delivery. (2021)
2. “The content and process theories of motivation have the ssame focus but are different in approaches.” Do you agree? Give reasons. (2020)
3. “Chester Barnard’s model of ‘Contribution-Satisfaction Equilibrium’ is still considered a logical model of organisational motivation.” Do you agree? Give arguments. (2018)
4. “Abraham Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ and Frederick Herzberg’s ‘Two-Factor theory’ have commonalities in the analysis of human motivation.” Comment. (2017)
5. Read the following instances carefully and suggest what specific perspectives on organizational psychology of motivation would help the concerned organization to reconcile the needs of the following four persons with the needs of the organization:
(i) Mr. A comes to his office with clocklike punctuality, does his work with impeccable honesty and integrity; takes order from above gladly; responds well to overtures by peers; but neither mixes with anyone himself nor seeks anyone’s company. What is more, he seems quite happy in his isolation.
(ii) Mr. B is an efficient charge-hand at the welding shop. He is very outgoing and makes friends fast, but falls out with them very fast too. He is, however, easily pacified where anyone asks him to calm down in the name of the organization.
(iii) Dr. C is completely happy and absorbed when he is teaching in the classes, and does not at all mind when his workload gets heavier and covers new areas. But he gets angry when the finance section raises objections about his medical bills; and is furious that the higher administration is yet to give him full tenure.
(iv) Mr. D is a metallurgist in the forge shop of the steel plant, and has received honours for his innovativeness in modifying conventional alloys. He also paints well and values his painting skills far more than his metallurgy and is extremely unhappy that the company house journal did not finally carry his water sketch on its front cover. (2013)
6. ‘Man’s motives … in different subparts of the same organization may be different’ (Edger Schein). Discuss. (2012)
7. “Motivation theory is not synonymous with behaviour theory. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behaviour while behaviour is almost always biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well.” Comment. (2004)
8. Compare Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation and Herzberg’s motivation – hygiene theory. Do you think that they are universally applicable? If not, why not? (2002)
9. “Frederick Herzberg’s Two-factor theory is more or less an extension of Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation.” Explain. (1997)
10. “The interest or power group base provides a member of an organisation with negotiable goods that can be cashed in for recognition, status and rewards.” Examine. (1995)
11. “A managerial leader should effectively communicate to motivate his team.” How do Maslow and Herzberg see this inter linkage between motivation and communication? (1993)
12. Compare the relative merits of Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs and Herzberg’s conception of Motivation and Hygiene Theory. (1991)
13. Outline the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that motivate the public employees to achieve personal and organizational goals. (1989)
14. “Adam nature of man seeks the avoidance of dissatisfaction and is basically concerned with the job environment: Abraham nature of man seeks satisfaction in job content.” (Frederick Herzberg). Comment. (1988)
15. ‘Contributions of Maslow and Herzberg have deepened our understanding about the State of morale and motivation of the public servants.’ Comment. (1987)
Theories of Leadership – Traditional and Modern
1. ‘Leadership is seen as dealing with change, whereas administration is viewed as coping with complexity.’ In this context, discuss the contextuality of leadership and administration for the success of organisations. (2022)
2. Transformational leadership requires high degree of coordination, communication and cooperation. Explain. (2022)
3. Nothing in public administration is more important, interesting or mysterious than leadership. Analyze the statement in the context of strategic leadership. (2021)
4. “A leader is a people’s developer” (Napoleon). Which aspects of subordinates’ development can be positively influenced by a leader? Discuss. (2018)
5. “Leaders do the right things; managers do them rightly” – (Warren Bennis). Is this distinction by him valid? Explain. (2017)
6. “Blake and Mouton defined leadership styles based on two dimensions-concern for people and concern for production. In the light of the statement, discuss the Managerial Grid Model. Explain with reason which one of the styles is the best.” (2016)
7. Do you agree with the view that the charismatic approach of the mid-1970s is a “new version” of the Classical Trait Theory of Leadership? Give reasons. (2015)
8. Leadership id the ‘influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization’ (Katz and Kahn). Analyze. (2012)
9. “Leaders do the right things; managers do them rightly.” (Bennis) Comment. (2008)
10. “Thus, the endurance of organisation depends upon the quality of leadership.” Comment. (1994)
11. ‘A leader must always adapt his behaviour to take account of the persons whom he leads.’ Comment. (1990)
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
FAQ: Why is the study of Administrative Behaviour important for UPSC aspirants?
Answer: Administrative Behaviour is a critical component of the Public Administration optional paper for UPSC Mains. It helps aspirants understand how government bureaucracy operates, the decision-making processes involved, and the role of civil servants in implementing policies. This knowledge is essential for aspirants to excel in the examination as it provides a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of public institutions.
FAQ: How can studying previous year questions in Administrative Behaviour benefit UPSC aspirants?
Answer: Analyzing previous year questions in Administrative Behaviour offers insight into the examination’s pattern and the types of topics frequently emphasized by UPSC. It helps aspirants identify important areas of study, refine their preparation, and tailor their approach to the specific requirements of the exam.
FAQ: What are the key topics covered in Administrative Behaviour for UPSC Mains?
Answer: Administrative Behaviour encompasses various themes, including theories of administration, decision-making processes, organizational behavior, and the relationship between civil servants and political authorities. Topics such as public accountability, ethics, and leadership in the civil services are also vital components of this subject.
FAQ: How can I effectively prepare for Administrative Behaviour in Public Administration optional paper?
Answer: To prepare effectively, start by reviewing the syllabus thoroughly and then study key textbooks and reference materials. Solving previous year questions is crucial to understanding the exam’s demands. Additionally, staying updated with current events and government policies can help you relate theoretical knowledge to real-world scenarios.
FAQ: Are there any specific tips for time management while preparing for Administrative Behaviour in UPSC Mains?
Answer: Time management is crucial. Create a study schedule that allocates sufficient time to each sub-topic within Administrative Behaviour. Focus on your strengths and allocate more time to weaker areas. Regular revision is key to retaining information, so plan your study sessions accordingly. Mock tests and timed practice can also help you manage your time during the actual examination effectively.
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