In terms of political participation, women in India have made significant progress over the years. The Indian Constitution provides for equal rights for men and women, and women have been given the right to vote since independence. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of women in politics, with women holding key positions in the government, including the position of President, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, and Chief Ministers of various states.
However, women still face significant challenges in terms of their social and economic participation. The literacy rate among women in India is lower than that of men, and there is a significant gender gap in access to education, healthcare, and employment opportunities. Women are also disproportionately affected by poverty, with many working in low-paying jobs and living in poor conditions.
In terms of workforce participation, women in India have one of the lowest rates of labor force participation in the world, with only around 22% of women participating in the labor force. Women are often relegated to unpaid work such as household chores and caregiving, and face discrimination in the workplace.
Violence against women is also a major issue in India, with incidents of rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence making headlines on a regular basis. While laws exist to protect women from such violence, implementation and enforcement remain a challenge.
Some relevant Facts and Figures
- Political Participation: According to the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2021, India ranks 140th out of 156 countries in terms of political empowerment of women. Women hold only 22.5% of seats in the lower house of Parliament (Lok Sabha) and 23.7% of seats in the upper house (Rajya Sabha).
- Education: The literacy rate for women in India is 70.3%, compared to 84.7% for men (Census 2011). According to the Annual Status of Education Report 2020, only 48.2% of girls in rural India in the age group of 6-14 years can read a Grade 2 level text, compared to 63.5% of boys.
- Workforce Participation: According to the World Bank, the labor force participation rate for women in India was 22.3% in 2020, compared to 78.6% for men. The female labor force participation rate has been declining over the years, from 31.2% in 2011-12 to 22.3% in 2019-20.
- Violence Against Women: According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), crimes against women in India increased by 7.3% from 2019 to 2020, with a total of 3,71,503 cases reported in 2020. The majority of these cases were related to cruelty by husbands and relatives, rape, and assault on women with intent to outrage their modesty.
- Gender Pay Gap: According to a report by the International Labour Organization (ILO), women in India earn 19% less than men in the organized sector, and 34% less in the unorganized sector.
- Women in Leadership: According to a report by Grant Thornton, the percentage of women in senior management positions in India was 28% in 2020, up from 25% in 2019. However, women still face significant barriers in accessing leadership positions, including bias and discrimination.
Position of women from past to present
|Period||Position of Women|
|Early Vedic Age||– Women enjoyed a high status and were respected in society. – They were educated and allowed to study the Vedas. – They had the right to choose their own husbands in a practice called “Swayamvara”. – Women could also own and inherit property.|
|Later Vedic Period||– The position of women started to decline. – The practice of child marriage began. – Women were restricted to household duties and were not allowed to study the Vedas. – The practice of “Sati” (widow immolation) began. – Women were expected to be obedient to their husbands and male family members.|
|Medieval Period||– Women’s position further deteriorated during the medieval period. – The practice of purdah (seclusion) was introduced for women. – Women were not allowed to work or participate in public life. – They were treated as inferior to men and had limited rights. – Women from certain communities were also subject to practices like female infanticide and dowry.|
|During British Raj||– British colonialism brought some positive changes for women in India. – Laws were introduced to ban practices like sati and child marriage. – Women were allowed to receive education and participate in public life. – Women’s rights activists like Pandita Ramabai and Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain emerged during this period. – However, women still faced discrimination and inequality in many areas, and their position was largely determined by their social and economic status.|
|Post-Independence||– The Constitution of India enshrined equal rights for men and women, and women were given the right to vote. – The government introduced policies to promote women’s education and employment, such as the National Policy for the Empowerment of Women in 2001. – Women have made significant strides in various fields, including politics, science, and the arts. – However, women still face discrimination and inequality in many areas, including education, employment, and access to healthcare. – Violence against women remains a major issue in India.|
Present-day situation of women
- Representation in Parliament:
- According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union’s (IPU) 2021 report, India ranked 148th out of 193 countries in terms of women’s representation in Parliament, with only 22.3% of seats held by women. However, this is an improvement from the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, where the percentage of women elected to Parliament reached an all-time high of 14.3%.
- Representation in State Assemblies:
- According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) and National Election Watch’s (NEW) 2020 report, the percentage of women MLAs (Members of Legislative Assembly) in state assemblies is only 9%, with only three states (West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Odisha) having more than 10% women MLAs.
- Representation in Local Government:
- As mentioned earlier, the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution mandated 33% reservation for women in local government bodies or Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs). According to the Ministry of Panchayati Raj’s 2018-19 report, women’s representation in PRIs has been increasing steadily, with women holding 47.4% of seats in Gram Panchayats, 44.2% of seats in Panchayat Samitis, and 34.5% of seats in Zila Parishads.
- Women’s Political Participation:
- According to the Global Gender Gap Report 2021 by the World Economic Forum (WEF), India ranked 140th out of 156 countries in terms of women’s political empowerment. The report takes into account women’s representation in Parliament, ministerial positions, and access to higher education.
Economic status and Labor Force Participation
- Economic Status:
- According to the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Gender Gap Report 2021, India ranks 140th out of 156 countries in terms of women’s economic participation and opportunity. The report takes into account various indicators such as wage equality, workforce participation, and access to finance and assets. The report highlights that women in India continue to face significant challenges in accessing economic opportunities, with a large gender pay gap and a low percentage of women in leadership roles.
- Labor Force Participation:
- According to the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) 2021 report, the labor force participation rate (LFPR) of women in India has been declining in recent years, from 34.8% in 1990 to 20.4% in 2020. This is significantly lower than the LFPR of men in India, which stood at 76.3% in 2020. The report also highlights that women in India face significant barriers to entering and staying in the workforce, including discrimination, lack of access to education and training, and unpaid care work.
- Reasons behind low LFP of Women
- Increased income of men – When men in the family start earning higher income, women tend to reduce their work in the formal economy to focus more on household activities.
- Caste factor – In some communities, particularly some upper castes, there may be a social stigma attached to women working outside the home, increasing family and societal pressure to quit their jobs if men in the household are earning enough to support the family financially.
- Safety issues and harassment at the workplace – Women are more vulnerable to exploitation and harassment at work, especially in developing countries like India, and are unable to effectively fight against it.
- Nature of economic growth – The nature of economic growth in the country has resulted in fewer job opportunities in sectors that could easily employ women, particularly those in rural areas.
- Sexual harassment at the workplace – Approximately 31% of firms in India are non-compliant with the Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Workplace Act, which mandates the formation of “Internal Compliance Committees” (ICCs) and Local Complaint Committee (LCC).
- Deep-rooted social norms and gendered occupations – Women often have limited options in their employment and work decisions due to deep-rooted social norms, lack of agency, and gendering of occupations.
- Policy failure and implementation gap – A significant reason for low labor force participation is the failure of policies and the policy-implementation gap.
- Rising household incomes – The increasing incomes of Indian households have enabled Indian women to withdraw from the labor market and focus on their role in “status production”.
- Double burden or dual responsibility – Women face the double burden of managing both family and workplace responsibilities, which often results in them being unable to participate fully in the labor force.
- Gender Pay Gap:
- According to a report by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) in 2021, the gender pay gap in India remains significant, with women earning 19% less than men on average. The report highlights that the pay gap is widest for women in the top 1% of earners, where women earn only 56% of what men earn.
- Access to Finance:
- According to a report by the World Bank in 2020, women in India face significant barriers to accessing finance and credit, with only 26% of women aged 15 years or older having an account at a formal financial institution. The report highlights that improving women’s access to finance is critical for empowering them economically and enabling them to participate fully in the workforce.
Gender Gap Report 2021
|Overall Global Gender Gap Index||140||0.624|
|Economic Participation and Opportunity||148||0.359|
|Health and Survival||142||0.926|
Some additional key highlights from the report for India:
- India has closed 62.5% of its overall gender gap, and ranks 140th out of 156 countries.
- India ranks particularly low in the Economic Participation and Opportunity category, with a score of 0.359 and a rank of 148th.
- In the Educational Attainment category, India scores relatively well, with a rank of 113th and a score of 0.995.
- In the Health and Survival category, India ranks 142nd with a score of 0.926.
- In the Political Empowerment category, India ranks 51st with a score of 0.221.
Education and Women
Women’s education in India has been an area of focus and concern for many years. Historically, women have been disadvantaged in terms of education due to a variety of social, cultural, and economic factors. However, over the years, there have been several initiatives and policies aimed at promoting education for women in India.
Here are some key points regarding women and education in India:
- Literacy rates: The literacy rate for women in India has been steadily increasing, from 8.9% in 1951 to 77.7% in 2011. However, there is still a gender gap in literacy rates, with female literacy being lower than male literacy.
- Primary education: Despite efforts to promote universal primary education, many girls in India still do not have access to basic education. This is due to several factors, including poverty, lack of schools, cultural biases, and early marriage and pregnancy.
- Secondary education: The gender gap in education widens as girls reach secondary school, with a much lower enrollment rate for girls than boys. This is due to various factors, including lack of facilities, distance to schools, poverty, and social norms.
- Higher education: There has been a significant increase in the enrollment of women in higher education in India over the last few decades. Women now constitute about 45% of the total enrollment in higher education institutions in the country.
- Government initiatives: The Indian government has implemented several initiatives to promote education for girls, including the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA). Additionally, the Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) scheme was launched in 2015 to promote education for girls and prevent gender-based discrimination.
- Challenges: Despite progress, women still face several challenges in accessing education in India. These include poverty, lack of facilities, early marriage and pregnancy, cultural biases, and gender-based violence.
Overall, while there has been progress in promoting women’s education in India, there is still a long way to go to ensure that every girl in the country has access to quality education.
Feminization of Agriculture
The term “feminization of agriculture” refers to the increasing number of women who are engaged in agricultural activities, either as unpaid family workers or as paid workers. This phenomenon has been observed in many developing countries, including India.
Here are some key points regarding the feminization of agriculture in India:
- Increasing role of women: Women in rural India have always played an important role in agriculture, but their contribution has often been overlooked or undervalued. However, in recent years, there has been a visible shift towards the increasing role of women in agricultural activities.
- Reasons for feminization: There are several reasons for the feminization of agriculture in India. One major factor is the migration of men from rural areas to urban areas in search of better job opportunities. This has left women to take on more responsibilities in agriculture. Additionally, changing agricultural practices and the adoption of new technologies have created more opportunities for women to participate in agriculture.
- Challenges faced by women: Despite the increasing role of women in agriculture, they face several challenges, including lack of access to credit, land ownership, and agricultural extension services. Women are also more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, which can have a significant impact on agriculture.
- Empowering women in agriculture: Empowering women in agriculture is important for the sustainable development of rural areas in India. This can be done by providing them with access to credit, training, and extension services. Additionally, policies that promote gender equality and address the specific needs of women in agriculture can help to overcome the challenges they face.
- The State of Food and Agriculture 2010-11: Women in Agriculture – Closing the Gender Gap for Development: This report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) examines the role of women in agriculture and the challenges they face. It highlights the need for gender-sensitive policies and investments in agriculture to close the gender gap and promote sustainable development.
- Women in Agriculture: Closing the Gender Gap for Development: This report by the World Bank provides a comprehensive overview of the role of women in agriculture and the challenges they face, including access to resources, knowledge, and markets. It identifies policies and interventions that can help to close the gender gap and promote gender equality in agriculture.
- Gender and Agriculture in India: This report by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) provides insights into the gendered aspects of agricultural production in India, including the feminization of agriculture. It highlights the need for policies and interventions that address the specific needs and challenges of women in agriculture.
- Women in Indian Agriculture: This report by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) provides data on the participation of women in agricultural activities in India. It highlights the increasing role of women in agriculture and the challenges they face, including lack of access to resources and services.
- Gender, Agriculture, and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Guide: This report by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) provides insights into the gendered aspects of climate change and agriculture. It highlights the vulnerability of women farmers to the impacts of climate change and the need for gender-sensitive policies and interventions to address these challenges.
Cyberspace and Women
Cyberspace has become an important part of our daily lives, and it has also had a significant impact on the lives of women in India. This includes the following:
- Digital gender divide: Despite the rapid growth of digital technologies in India, there is still a significant gender gap in internet access and digital literacy. According to a report by the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), only 33% of internet users in India are women.
- Online harassment: Women in India are vulnerable to online harassment and cyberbullying, including threats, stalking, and revenge porn. A survey by the National Commission for Women (NCW) found that nearly 54% of women in India have experienced some form of online abuse.
- Social media: Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have become important tools for women in India to connect with others and raise awareness about social issues. However, women are also vulnerable to online harassment on these platforms.
- Online education: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a shift towards online education in India, but it has also highlighted the digital divide and the challenges faced by women in accessing online education. According to a survey by UNESCO, only 29% of Indian households have access to a computer, and only 24% have access to the internet.
- Cybersecurity: The increasing use of digital technologies has also raised concerns about cybersecurity and online privacy. Women in India are particularly vulnerable to cybercrime, including identity theft and financial fraud.
To address these issues, the Indian government has launched several initiatives to promote digital literacy and cybersecurity for women, including the Digital India program and the Cyber Swachhta Kendra. Additionally, civil society organizations and women’s rights groups are working to raise awareness about online harassment and promote safe and secure use of cyberspace.
Health and Women
The status of women’s health in India has improved over the years, but there are still many challenges that need to be addressed. Here are some key points:
- Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR): The MMR in India has declined from 556 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 113 per 100,000 live births in 2016, which is a significant improvement. However, India still accounts for a significant proportion of maternal deaths globally, and there are significant disparities in MMR across different states and socioeconomic groups.
- Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): The IMR in India has also declined significantly over the years, from 74 per 1,000 live births in 1994 to 28 per 1,000 live births in 2019. However, there are still significant disparities in IMR across different states and socioeconomic groups.
- Life expectancy: The life expectancy for women in India is 69 years, which is lower than the global average of 75 years. However, it has increased significantly from 50 years in the 1970s.
- Malnutrition: Malnutrition is a significant problem among women and children in India. Around 38% of children under the age of five are stunted, which means they are too short for their age due to chronic malnutrition. In addition, around 50% of women of reproductive age are anemic.
- Non-communicable diseases (NCDs): NCDs such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer are becoming an increasing problem among women in India. Lifestyle factors such as poor diet, lack of exercise, and tobacco use are major risk factors for NCDs.
- Reproductive health: Reproductive health issues such as menstrual hygiene, family planning, and access to safe abortion are significant challenges for women in India. Around 23% of women still do not use any form of contraception, and access to safe abortion services is limited in many parts of the country.
- Mental health: Mental health is a significant issue for women in India, with depression and anxiety being the most common mental health problems. However, there is still a significant stigma attached to mental illness, and many women do not seek help due to social and cultural barriers.
Reproductive Rights of Women
Reproductive rights refer to the basic rights of individuals to reproductive health, autonomy, and decision-making. In India, reproductive rights of women have been a subject of much discussion and debate.
The Constitution of India guarantees certain fundamental rights to women, including the right to reproductive health and autonomy. However, in practice, many women in India do not have access to comprehensive reproductive health services or face barriers in exercising their reproductive rights.
Some of the key issues related to reproductive rights of women in India are:
- Access to contraceptives: Despite the availability of contraceptives, many women in India do not have access to them due to lack of awareness, inadequate supply, or cultural and social barriers.
- Abortion: While abortion is legal in India, there are restrictions on who can perform them and under what circumstances. Many women face difficulties in accessing safe and legal abortion services.
- Maternal health: India has a high maternal mortality rate, which is linked to inadequate access to reproductive health services, poor quality of care, and social and economic disparities.
- Child marriage: Child marriage is still prevalent in some parts of India, which can lead to early and unsafe pregnancies, as well as other reproductive health complications.
- Violence against women: Women in India face various forms of violence, including sexual violence, which can have serious consequences for their reproductive health and autonomy.
To address these issues, various initiatives have been taken by the government, civil society organizations, and the international community. These include awareness campaigns, provision of reproductive health services, and policy and legal reforms.
Socio-cultural status of Women in India
In the Indian context, patriarchal norms and practices continue to have a significant impact on the status of women. Despite progress in recent years, women in India continue to face numerous challenges and obstacles as a result of patriarchal structures and attitudes. Some of the key aspects of the status of women in patriarchal India are:
- Limited access to education: While there have been efforts to improve access to education for girls and women in India, there continue to be significant disparities in enrollment and completion rates between boys and girls, particularly in rural areas.
- Restricted mobility: Women in India may face restrictions on their mobility, particularly in conservative or traditional communities, where they may not be allowed to travel outside the home or community without male permission or accompaniment.
- Gender-based violence: India has a high prevalence of gender-based violence, including sexual harassment, domestic violence, and honor killings. While there have been efforts to address these issues through legal and policy measures, women in India continue to face significant risks of violence.
- Lack of economic opportunities: Women in India may face significant barriers to entering the workforce or starting their own businesses, including social and cultural expectations that prioritize their roles as wives and mothers over their professional aspirations.
- Limited political representation: Women continue to be underrepresented in politics and other decision-making roles in India, which can limit their ability to advocate for their rights and interests.
- Restricted access to healthcare: Women in India may face barriers to accessing healthcare services, particularly in rural areas, which can have negative consequences for their physical and mental health.
- Limited control over reproductive choices: Women in India continue to face significant barriers to accessing contraception and making decisions about their reproductive health, including pressure to have children and restrictive abortion laws.
Issues related to Women in India
- Gender stereotypes: Glass ceiling: Women face the problem of the glass ceiling that prevents them from advancing in their careers despite their qualifications and experience. This is due to deep-seated gender stereotypes that still exist in Indian society. Women are often assumed to be less competent or committed than men, and they are expected to prioritize their family responsibilities over their work. As a result, they are passed over for promotions, and their salaries and benefits lag behind those of their male counterparts.
- Domestic violence: Domestic violence is a major problem faced by women in India. According to the National Crime Records Bureau, a crime against women is committed every three minutes in India, and domestic violence is the most common of these crimes. Women are subjected to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by their husbands and in-laws, and they often suffer in silence due to the social stigma attached to reporting such abuse.
The Supreme Court has recently held that a woman can claim maintenance from her brother-in-law under the Domestic Violence Act, even if he had lived with her as part of a joint family in a shared household at any time in the past.
Domestic Violence Act, 2005
- The definition of domestic violence under the Act includes physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse.
- The Act covers a broad range of relationships, including married women, mothers, daughters, sisters, and women in live-in relationships.
- The law not only protects married women but also provides protection to women in live-in relationships, as well as family members such as mothers and grandmothers.
- Women can seek protection, financial compensation, and maintenance from their abuser under this law, in case they are living apart.
- The Act provides the right to secure housing, which allows a woman to reside in the matrimonial or shared household even if she does not have any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a court-issued residence order.
- The breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent is a cognizable and non-bailable offense punishable with imprisonment.
- Protection officers and NGOs are appointed under the Act to provide assistance to women for medical examination, legal aid, and safe shelter.
- The PWDVA upholds the principles of the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which India ratified in 1993.
Marital rape refers to non-consensual sexual intercourse between spouses, where one of the spouses is forced to have sex against their will. In India, marital rape is not explicitly recognized as a criminal offense under the law. The Indian Penal Code (IPC) has an exception to Section 375, which criminalizes rape, stating that sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, who is above 18 years of age, is not rape.
The lack of legal recognition of marital rape in India has contributed to the normalization and underreporting of this crime. Many women are hesitant to report incidents of marital rape due to social stigma, fear of retaliation, and lack of legal protection. The patriarchal social norms and gender stereotypes prevalent in Indian society also contribute to the problem.
Several activists and organizations have been advocating for the criminalization of marital rape in India, and the issue has gained more attention in recent years. In 2017, the Delhi High Court observed that the exception to Section 375 was discriminatory and violated the Constitution’s provisions on equality and non-discrimination. However, the Indian government has not yet taken any concrete steps to criminalize marital rape.
- Pink collar jobs: Women are often relegated to low-paying, low-status “pink collar” jobs such as domestic work, childcare, and sales. These jobs are seen as “women’s work” and are undervalued in the labor market. Women in these jobs often lack job security, benefits, and opportunities for advancement.
- Nutrition and health is compromised: Women in India also face problems related to malnutrition and poor health. Due to deep-seated gender biases, women are often given less food and healthcare than men in their families. This leads to high rates of maternal mortality, infant mortality, and other health problems among women.
- Education: Despite progress in recent years, many women in India still face barriers to education. They are often expected to drop out of school early to get married or to help with household duties. They may also face harassment or discrimination at school or on the way to school, which makes it difficult for them to continue their education.
- Decision-making power: absent: Women in India often lack decision-making power in their families and communities. They may be excluded from important family decisions and may not have control over their own lives. This lack of agency can lead to social and economic marginalization.
- Absence in political sphere and low representation: Women are also underrepresented in politics and government in India. They hold only a small percentage of seats in the national parliament and state legislatures. This means that women’s voices are not adequately represented in the policy-making process.
- Digital literacy: Women in India also face challenges related to digital literacy. They may not have access to the internet or the skills to use it effectively. This limits their ability to access information, communicate with others, and participate in the digital economy.
- Disguised unemployment: Women in India also face the problem of disguised unemployment, where they are employed in low-productivity jobs that do not contribute much to the economy. This is often the case in agriculture, where women do much of the work but are not recognized as farmers or agricultural workers.
- Cyberbullying: Women in India also face the problem of cyberbullying and online harassment. They may be targeted with abusive messages, threats, and other forms of harassment on social media and other digital platforms. This can have a serious impact on their mental health and well-being.
- Female foeticide is a grave issue in India, where the practice of sex-selective abortions has led to a significant decline in the female-to-male ratio at birth. Here are some relevant report findings on female foeticide in India:
- According to the 2011 Census of India, the child sex ratio (0-6 years) was 919 girls for every 1000 boys, which was the lowest since independence in 1947.
- The National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted in 2015-16 revealed that the child sex ratio had further declined to 900 girls for every 1000 boys.
- A report by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) stated that about 63 million women were ‘missing’ in India due to sex-selective abortions and other forms of discrimination.
- The Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act was introduced in India in 1994 to prevent the misuse of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for sex determination and sex-selective abortions. However, the implementation of the Act has been inadequate, and many clinics continue to conduct illegal sex-selective abortions.
- The 2018 Economic Survey of India stated that the country had lost 21 million girls due to sex-selective abortions in the last two decades.
- Female foeticide is more prevalent in some parts of India than others. The worst-affected states include Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat, where the child sex ratio is significantly lower than the national average.
- The practice of dowry is often cited as one of the main reasons behind female foeticide, as families may see daughters as a financial burden.
- According to a study published in the Lancet medical journal, the prevalence of female foeticide has led to a shortage of brides in India, which has contributed to an increase in bride trafficking and forced marriages.
- These findings highlight the severity of the problem of female foeticide in India and the urgent need for more effective implementation of laws and policies to prevent sex-selective abortions and promote gender equality.
NCRB on Women
The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analyzing crime data across the country. NCRB publishes annual reports on crime statistics in India, including data on crimes against women. Here are some of the key findings related to women from the latest available NCRB report (2019):
- Crimes against women have increased: The total number of crimes against women increased from 3.78 lakh in 2018 to 4.05 lakh in 2019, a rise of 7.3%.
- Rape cases have increased: The number of reported cases of rape increased by 7.3% from 33,356 in 2018 to 35,819 in 2019. Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan reported the highest number of cases.
- Domestic violence cases have increased: The number of cases reported under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act increased by 11.5% from 1.19 lakh in 2018 to 1.33 lakh in 2019. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal reported the highest number of cases.
- Cruelty by husband or his relatives is the most reported crime against women: This accounted for 30.9% of all crimes against women in 2019.
- Most cases were reported under IPC: 76.3% of crimes against women were registered under the Indian Penal Code (IPC), while the remaining were registered under special and local laws.
- More cases were reported by women themselves: In 88.3% of the cases, the victim herself reported the crime, while in 6.2% of cases, the crime was reported by a relative or a friend of the victim.
- Low conviction rate: The conviction rate for crimes against women was 27.8% in 2019, which is a decrease from 32.2% in 2018.
- Crime rate is higher in urban areas: The crime rate against women in urban areas was 77.2% per lakh women, which is higher than the national average of 62.4% per lakh women.
- Most offenders were known to the victim: In 94.2% of cases, the offender was known to the victim, and in 5.8% of cases, the offender was a stranger.
1. What is the role of women in society?
- The role of women in society refers to their contributions, responsibilities, and impact on various aspects of social, economic, and cultural life.
2. How has the role of women in society evolved over time?
- Women’s roles have evolved significantly over the centuries, transitioning from primarily domestic roles to active participation in various fields such as education, politics, and the workforce.
3. What were the roles of women during the French Revolution?
- Women in the French Revolution played crucial roles in advocating for political and social change. They participated in protests, petitioned for women’s rights, and were actively involved in political clubs.
4. Who were some prominent women entrepreneurs and what was their impact?
- Prominent women entrepreneurs like Oprah Winfrey and Coco Chanel have had a significant impact on their respective industries, breaking barriers and paving the way for future generations of female entrepreneurs.
5. What challenges do women entrepreneurs face today?
- Women entrepreneurs often face challenges such as access to funding, gender bias, work-life balance, and limited networking opportunities. These challenges can hinder their business growth.
6. What roles did women play in the Indian freedom struggle?
- Women in the Indian freedom struggle were active participants in various ways. They organized protests, participated in civil disobedience movements, and contributed to the non-violent struggle for independence.
7. Who were some notable women leaders in India’s freedom movement?
- Prominent women leaders in India’s freedom movement include Sarojini Naidu, Indira Gandhi, and Aruna Asaf Ali, among others, who made significant contributions to the cause.
8. How has the role of women in society impacted gender equality?
- The evolving role of women in society has contributed to increased awareness of gender equality. Women’s empowerment and advocacy for equal rights have led to significant progress in achieving gender equality.
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