Governance is a critical subject for UPSC aspirants as it provides an understanding of the processes and institutions involved in decision-making and implementation of policies in India. The subject encompasses various aspects, such as the role of government, bureaucracy, and civil society in the governance process. In the previous year’s mains examination, several questions related to Governance were asked, highlighting the importance of this subject for the exam. Therefore, it is crucial for aspirants to have a comprehensive understanding of the topic to score well in the exam.
To excel in the Governance section of the UPSC Mains exam, aspirants must focus on building a strong foundation. A thorough understanding of the various aspects of Governance, including the role of government and its institutions, civil society and its role in promoting good governance, and the process of policy formulation and implementation, is essential. Additionally, aspirants must keep themselves updated with the latest developments in the field of Governance, such as new policies and initiatives, innovations in governance practices, and global best practices. Regular practice of answering previous year’s questions and mock tests can also help in developing the necessary writing skills required to ace the exam. With consistent efforts, dedication, and a passion for Governance, aspirants can undoubtedly excel in this section of the UPSC Mains exam.
- To what extent, in your opinion, as the decentralisation of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots?
- To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India?
- “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy in making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies.
- The jurisdiction of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) regarding lodging an FIR and conducting a probe within a particular state is being questioned by various States. However, the power of the States to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute. Explain with special reference to the federal character of India.
- Do Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples.
- Can civil society and Non-Government Organisations present an alternative model of public service delivery to benefit the common citizen? Discuss the challenges of this alternative method.
- “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context suggest reforms in Civil Service for strengthening democracy.
- “The emergence of Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of the government”. Discuss.
- What are the methods used by the farmer’s organizations to influence the policy-makers in India and how effective are these methods?
- Implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based projects/programmes usually suffers in terms of certain vital factors. Identify these factors and suggest measures for their effective implementation.
- On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the representation of people act, 1951? Also, mention the remedies available to such a person against his disqualification.
- ‘In the context of the neo-liberal paradigm of developmental planning, multi-level planning is expected to make operations cost-effective and remove many implementation blockages’- Discuss
- The need for cooperation among various service sectors has been an inherent component of development discourse. Partnership bridges the gap among the sectors. It also sets in motion a culture of ‘collaboration’ and ‘team spirit’. In the light of statements above examine India’s development process.
- Performance of welfare schemes that are implemented for vulnerable sections is not so effective due to the absence of their awareness and active involvement at all stages of the policy process. Discuss.
- “Policy contradictions among various competing sectors and stakeholders have resulted in inadequate protection and prevention of degradation to the environment.” Comment with relevant illustrations.
- E-governance is not only about utilization of the power of new technology, but also much about the critical importance of the ‘use value’ of information.
- How far do you agree with the view that the focus on lack of availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India?
- ‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss. (150 words)
- ‘To ensure effective implementation of policies addressing water, sanitation and hygiene needs, the identification of beneficiary segments is to be synchronized with the anticipated outcomes’ Examine the statement in the context of the WASH scheme. (150 words)
- Does the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 ensure an effective mechanism for empowerment and inclusion of the intended beneficiaries in the society? Discuss (150 words)
- Hunger and Poverty are the biggest challenges for good governance in India still today. Evaluate how far successive governments have progressed in dealing with these humongous problems. Suggest measures for improvement. (150 words)
- ‘Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India remain mere show pieces until and unless they are backed by political will’. Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation programmes in India. (250 words)
- “In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement.
- “Effectiveness of the government system at various levels and people’s participation in the governance system are interdependent” Discuss their relationship in the context of India.
- Has the Indian governmental system responded adequately to the demands of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization started in 1991? What can the government do to be responsive to this important change?
- Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation.
- Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard.
- Examine critically the recent changes in the rules governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976.
- The Self-Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation, has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programmes. Elucidate.
- In the light of the Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in corporate governance to ensure transparency, accountability.
- “For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous.” Discuss in the light of the experiences in the recent past.
- Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.
- The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators.
- National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards.
- Do government’s schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies?
- Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organization been the cause of slow in India? Critically examine.
- Two parallel run schemes of the Government, viz the Adhar card and NPR, one of voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits , discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve development benefits and equitable growth.
- Many State Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at the State level? Discuss.
- The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify.
- The concept of Mid-Day Meal (MDM) scheme is almost a century old in India with early beginnings in Madras Presidency in pre-independent India. The scheme has again been given impetus in most states in the last two decades. Critically examine its twin objectives, latest mandates, and success.
- The Central Government frequently complains of the poor performance of the State Governments in eradicating the suffering of the vulnerable sections of the society. Restructuring of Centrally sponsored schemes across the sectors for ameliorating the cause of vulnerable sections of the population aims at providing flexibility to the States in better implementation. Critically evaluate.
- Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms. Comment.
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