Welcome to the latest edition of UPSC Geography Current Affairs, dated 10th September 2023. In this rapidly changing world, understanding the dynamic interplay between geography and current events is essential for anyone preparing for the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations. Geography plays a pivotal role in shaping our world, influencing political decisions, economic activities, and social dynamics. This edition delves into the most relevant and up-to-date geographical aspects of current affairs, shedding light on the critical issues that candidates must be well-versed in for their UPSC preparations. Join us as we explore the geographical dimensions of today’s most pressing global and national issues, offering valuable insights and analysis to assist you in your quest for success in the UPSC examinations.
DEMOGRAPHIC GROWTH AND DECLINE IN CITIES
Why in the news ? :
The vital question faced by countries and cities today is how to prevent population decline in cities.
- Demographic growth refers to an increase in the population of a specified geographic area over a specific period of time. Demographic growth can result from a number of factors including higher birth rates than death rates, immigration, or an influx of people for other reasons such as economic opportunities. This growth can lead to urbanization, increased economic activity, and shifts in social dynamics.
DEMOGRAPHIC DECLINE :
- Conversely, demographic decline indicates a decrease in the population of a particular region or country over a set period. This can be attributed to factors such as higher death rates than birth rates, mass emigration, policies influencing population control, or external events like natural disasters or pandemics. A sustained demographic decline can have profound socio-economic implications, including an aging population, potential economic downturns, and challenges in maintaining social services.
GLOBALIZATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS
- Rural-Urban Migration: One of the most substantial forces behind urbanization. People move in search of better economic opportunities, educational facilities, and improved living standards.
- Aging Population in Developed Nations: Many European countries, Japan, and even China are experiencing aging populations. This aging trend presents significant challenges for urban planning and social welfare schemes.
- Declining Fertility Rates: Globally, fertility rates have been declining, especially in developed European nations, leading to natural population decreases. Urban lifestyles, educational opportunities for women, and economic considerations contribute to this trend.
- Increase in Single-Person Households: Urban areas, especially in the West and North Asia, are seeing a rise in single-person households due to changing social norms and economic factors.
Noteworthy Cases of Demographic Growth and Decline in Various Cities:
- Cities with Demographic growth
- Surat, India: A textile and diamond polishing hub, it’s among the fastest-growing cities. Factors include economic opportunities, rural distress in surrounding regions, and infrastructure development.
- Bamako, Mali: Representing African urbanization, Bamako’s growth can be attributed to internal migration, high fertility rates, and its role as a regional trade and service hub.
- Cities with Demographic decline
- Detroit, USA: Once an industrial powerhouse, Detroit faced economic stagnation due to industrial restructuring and deindustrialization. This resulted in a significant population decrease, coupled with social and economic challenges.
- Rostov-on-Don, Russia: Reflecting the post-Soviet urban decline in many Russian cities, it faces challenges from economic transitions, declining birth rates, and aging demographics.
| CASE STUDY : DEMOGRAPHIC TREND IN EUROPE|
Demographic trends in Europe are currently being shaped by an aging population, falling fertility rates and diverse migration flows. Fertility rates are lowest in Eastern and Southern Europe with Eastern Europe also experiencing the lowest net migration and an exodus of its working population. All regions in Europe are experiencing aging of their population with some countries having the added burden of high rates of unemployment among the working age population. Changes in age structure and ethnic composition will put further strain on health care and welfare systems and require careful planning.
UNDERLYING FORCES SHAPING DEMOGRAPHICS
- Economic Factors: Cities with robust job markets attract populations. For instance, Bangalore in India has seen rapid growth due to its IT boom.
- Social Factors : Regions with renowned educational institutions attract younger populations. Cities like Boston, with its plethora of universities, exemplify this.
- Safety and Security: High crime rates can deter potential residents. Caracas in Venezuela, with one of the highest crime rates globally, has seen many of its residents emigrate.
- Migration Policies: Countries with welcoming migration policies see demographic growth. Canada’s friendly immigration stance has led to its cities like Toronto and Vancouver being among the fastest-growing in North America.
- Conflict and Unrest: War and political instability can lead to significant population displacements. Syria’s ongoing conflict has led millions to flee their homes.
- Natural Disasters: Areas prone to disasters may see reduced population growth or even decline. After the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, parts of Fukushima, Japan, saw depopulation.
- Climate Change: Rising sea levels and changing weather patterns can make regions uninhabitable. The Maldives, facing submersion due to rising sea levels, might see future population displacements.
- Cultural Hubs: Cities rich in culture and heritage often attract people. Paris, with its vibrant art and music scene, is a magnet for artists and enthusiasts.
- Lifestyle and Amenities: Urban areas offering a higher quality of life, green spaces, and recreational facilities can be more attractive. Cities like Vienna, often ranked high in global liveability indexes, continue to attract residents due to these factors.
|CAUSES : Attraction to better job opportunities, healthcare, and education.||CAUSES : Search for affordable housing, quality of life, and safer neighborhoods.||CAUSES : Limited opportunities, lack of infrastructure, and aspirations for a better lifestyle in cities.|
|DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS : By 2050, 68% of the world’s population is projected to be urban, up from 55% in 2018. Tokyo, the world’s most populous city, has over 37 million inhabitants.||DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS : In the U.S., suburban areas accounted for 91% of the population growth in metropolitan areas from 2000 to 2015. Cities like Atlanta and Denver have seen suburban sprawl in recent decades.||DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS : The global rural population is now close to 3.4 billion but is expected to decrease to 3.1 billion by 2050. Rural areas in China have witnessed a decline due to urban migration and the government’s urbanization drive.|
|Causes : Economic transitions lead to urban-centric jobs.Social dynamics: Lower fertility rates due to career aspirations, and higher education levels.Example: Canada’s immigration policy focuses on skilled workers, influencing urban growth in cities like Toronto and Vancouver.||Causes : Economic needs push rural populations to seek urban opportunities.Social dynamics : Perception of better urban living, influenced by globalization.Example: Nairobi, Kenya has Kibera, one of Africa’s largest slums, as a result of rapid urban migration without adequate infrastructure.|
|Demographic Trends : Many European cities like Berlin and Stockholm have growth rates below 1% annually.Ageing: In Japan, 28% of the population is over 65, impacting urban demographics.||Demographic trends : Cities like Delhi and Lagos are witnessing rapid growth, with Delhi expected to become the most populous city by 2030.Youth: In Africa, over 60% of the population is under the age of 25.|
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS OF CITIES
- Urbanization & Overcrowding : Urban Master Plans should be implemented that account for projected growth over several decades.Singapore’s Urban Redevelopment Authority plans the city’s land use over 40-50 year cycles.Singapore has maintained 40% green cover despite urbanization pressures.
- Aging Populations in Developed Cities: Increase investments in geriatric care, retirement facilities, and encourage higher birth rates through incentives. Japan’s “Angel Plan” was initiated to provide support for families, aiming to increase the birth rate.
- Youth Bulge in Developing Cities: Focus on quality education, skills training, and job creation for the youth to avoid potential social unrest. India’s Skill development programme focuses on youth training and employment.
- Rural-to-Urban Migration: Develop rural areas, promote agro-based industries, and improve rural infrastructure to stem massive migration.China’s “Go West” policy, aiming to develop western regions and reduce regional disparities.
INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO MANAGE DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS
- Urban Vertical Farming: Counter the loss of agricultural land to urbanization by introducing vertical farms in urban areas. Sky Greens in Singapore is the world’s first commercial vertical farm.
- Digital Nomad Visas: Attract young professionals and address declining or aging populations in certain cities.Estonia’s digital nomad visa program invites professionals to live and work in Estonia for up to 12 months. Estonia’s program has attracted professionals from over 100 countries.
- Smart Villages: Use technology to provide modern amenities in rural areas, thereby making them more appealing and countering the urban pull. Maharashtra, India, is developing 1,000 smart villages with modern infrastructure and internet connectivity.
- Participatory Urban Planning: Engage citizens in the city planning process using technology to gather feedback and ensure inclusivity. Porto Alegre in Brazil has been using participatory budgeting since the late 1980s.
The above policy implications and innovative approaches, coupled with real-world examples, facts, and data, can guide decision-makers in navigating the complex terrain of demographic shifts. Implementing these policies with foresight and agility is essential for sustainable urban and rural development.
WHERE TO USE ?
PAPER 1( GEOGRAPHY OPTIONAL ) : Demographic Trends, Urbanisation
PAPER 2( GEOGRAPHY OPTIONAL ) : Population attributes
NEWS IN BRIEF
PACIFIC OCEAN WEATHER PATTERNS ARE CHANGING
Why in the news ? :
In 2023, cool phases of Pacific Ocean’s climate pattern La Nina ended its three-year run and warm phase El Nino announced its arrival.
- According to study published in Nature Journal, the world could see more multi-year El Nino and La Nina events due to human activities.
- El Nino and La Nina are the warm phase and cool phases of a recurring climate pattern across the tropical Pacific Ocean called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In 2023, La Nina ended its three-year run and El Nino announced its arrival.
- The climate patterns typically last nine to 12 months. In ENSO, the atmosphere and ocean influence each other.
- Walker Circulation, the atmospheric component of ENSO driving weather patterns across the world, has changed its behavior since the industrial era.
- The overall strength of the Walker circulation has not changed but showing changes in year-to-year behaviour.The data regarding the change is collected from ice cores, trees, lakes, corals and caves, as they contain information about climate.
- The time it takes for the Walker circulation to go from El Nino to La Nino has slightly slowed, indicating that multi-year climate patterns are likely to increase, the researchers observed
- Studies revealed , In the future we could see more of these multi-year La Nina or El Nino events as the atmospheric flow above the Pacific Ocean switches more slowly between the two phases ( El Niño and La Niña ) . These changes would increase the risks of drought, fire, rain and floods.
- With high carbon dioxide levels, there is a chance for the Walker circulation to weaken. Climate models show that the Walker circulation could decrease by the turn of the century.
- Walker circulation also weakens in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions.“Following a volcanic eruption, we see a very consistent weakening of the Pacific Walker circulation.This causes El Nino-like conditions following eruptions. Weaker Walker circulation indicates El Nino and stronger circulation signals La Nina.
- El Nino events followed three volcanic eruptions in the twentieth century. These include Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo in 1991.
- “Understanding how the Pacific Walker circulation is affected by climate change will enable communities across the Pacific and beyond to better prepare for the challenges they may face in the coming decades.
Where to use ?
Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Global climatic changes , El Niño
Source: Down to Earth
NEWS IN BRIEF
HEATWAVES LEADING TO OZONE POLLUTION : WMO REPORT
Why in the news ?
Climate change continues to increase heat waves intensity; extreme heat ‘compounded’ measurably impacts air quality.
- Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of heatwaves, which, in turn, increase the risk and severity of wildfires. This, along with dust, is causing a spike in air pollutants including ozone.
- Heatwaves in both, the United States and Europe triggered wildfires, which along with desert dust, led to dangerous air quality in 2022.
- Smoke from wildfires contains a witch’s brew of chemicals that affects not only air quality and health, but also damages plants, ecosystems and crops — and leads to more carbon emissions and so more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
- Short-lived reactive gases such as nitrogen oxides and biogenic volatile organic compounds lead to the production of ozone and particulate matter (PM).
- WMO report gave the example of the European summer of 2022, which it said was the hottest on record for the continent. The long-running heatwave led to increased concentrations of both PM and ground-level ozone.
- During the second half of August 2022, there was an unusually high intrusion of desert dust over the Mediterranean and Europe. “The coincidence of high temperature and high aerosol amounts, and therefore PM content, affected human health and well-being.
- The increase in ozone levels impacted agriculture globally, with ozone-induced crop losses averaging 4.4 per cent–12.4 per cent for staples. Losses for wheat and soybean were as high as 15 per cent-30 per cent in key agricultural areas of India and China.
- Climate change and air quality cannot be treated separately. They go hand-in-hand and must be tackled together to break this vicious cycle.
Where to use ?
Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Atmospheric circulation , Urban climate
Source: Down to Earth
CASE STUDY : REVOLUTIONISING WATER SUSTAINABILITY BY ISRAEL
- Among all nations, Israel shines as a pioneering model, demonstrating how desalination, combined with efficient water management and technology, can effectively address water scarcity concerns.
- Globally, only 1 per cent of the world’s drinking water undergoes desalination. In Israel around 25 per cent of its drinking water sourced from desalination plants.
- Once heavily reliant on freshwater from the Sea of Galilee, the nation has diversified its sources through desalination, even forging agreements to supply desalinated water to neighboring Jordan.
- Yet, the major obstacle for desalination remains is its energy-intensive nature. The process demands substantial energy inputs, accounting for a significant 10 per cent to Israel’s electricity consumption.
Where to use?
Paper II ( Geography optional) : Resources , Concept of Sustainable development.
Source : Down to Earth
Key terms :
- Terai Arc Landscape : It is a stretch between the river Yamuna in the west and river Bhagmati in the east, comprising Shivalik hills, adjoining Bhabhar areas and Terai flood plains. It spread across Uttarakhand, UP and Bihar and low lying hills of Nepal.Recently , the poop of tigers has helped a team of scientist at the Wildlife Institute of India understand the prey selection patterns of the striped feline in Indian part of the Terai Arc landscape.
- Pacific Decadal Oscillation ( PDO ) : It is a long term climate pattern affecting the temperatures of Pacific Ocean. PDO is a naturally occurring phenomenon shifting between warm and cool phases, with each lasting around 20-30 years. Recently it has been published in journal Nature communications suggested that a combination of global warming and cyclical phenomenon called Pacific Decadal Oscillation could make equatorial origin tropical cyclone s’more frequent in the coming years.
- Keystone species : It is a plant or animal species that plays a unique and crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions. Without them , the ecosystem would be completely different. For example. In African Savanna’s, elephants are a keystone species. It controls the tree population which makes the grasses thrive and sustain grazing.
- Ocean heat content : It is the amount of energy absorbed by and stored in the oceans , measured in joules. An increase in the greenhouse gas emissions traps more energy from the sun in the atmosphere. OHC is an important indicator of climate change. It was observed that world’s oceans recorded an extreme heating in 2022 on account of anthropological activities like GHG emissions.
- Termination level transition : It refers to a significant and abrupt shift in Earth’s climate from one state to another. These transitions are marked by rapid and substantial changes in various climatic factors, like weather patterns and overall environmental sustainability. It is assumed that as methane gains momentum in growth , Earth is undergoing a “ termination level transition “ similar to past climate shifts.
Places in news :
- Kulasekarapattinam : It is a town in Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu. It was an ancient port , contemporaneous to the existence of Kollam, Cheran , and Pandyan port.Recently it has been decided that new spaceport to be set up at this place for the launch of SSLVs developed by ISRO. ( Approx. Thoothukudi )
- Maguri Beel : It is a wetland and lake located near to Dibru Saikhowa National Park and Motapung village of Tinsukia district of Assam. Recently NGT has ordered the Assam government to provide interim compensation to victims in this place due to Baghjan oil and gas leak. ( Approx. Tinsukia )
- Nagarnar: It is located in Jagdalpur tehsil of Bastar district in Chhattisgarh. Recently, a steel plant in Nagarnar has started the production of Hot rolled coil. Iron ore supply to the plant comes form Bailadila mines. It is the only steel plant to be set up by a mining company in India. ( Approx. Bastar )
- Bhagmati river : It originates from Shivpuri range of hills in Nepal. After crossing the Shivalik hills, the river flows into the North Bihar . It’s free flow has suffered due to excessive disposal of effluents . It is a part of Terai Arc landscape.
- Rowta Reserve Forest : It is located in Mazbat circle of Udalguri district in the state of Assam. It falls under the Dhansiri Forest Division . Recently 25000 saplings were planted to secure and elephant habitat and mitigate human elephant conflict. ( Approx. Udalguri )
Belem Declaration , sometimes in news is related to :
Provide an ethical framework for the global community.
Regulate international trade in wild animals and plants
Support the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14 on oceans
Recognises Indigenous knowledge as a condition for biodiversity conservation .
Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) is an international organization “aimed at the promotion of sustainable development of the Amazon Basin”.
The Belem Declaration released during the Amazon Summit recognises Indigenous knowledge as a condition for biodiversity conservation and calls for ensuring full and effective participation of Indigenous Peoples in decision-making and public policy formulation processes.
With reference to Indian elephants, consider the following statements:
All male Indian elephants have tusks
During times of drought, elephants even use their tusks to dig holes to find water underground.
An elephant footprint can also enable a micro-ecosystem.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) One statement only
(b) Two statements only
(c) Three statements
(d) None of the statements
Statement 1 is incorrect: Only some male Asian elephants have tusks,
Statement 2 is correct: Elephant tusks serve many purposes. These extended teeth can be used to protect the elephant’s trunk, lift and move objects, gather food, and strip bark from trees. They can also be used for defense. During times of drought, elephants even use their tusks to dig holes to find water underground.
Statement 3 is correct : An elephant footprint can also enable a micro-ecosystem that, when filled with water, can provide a home for tadpoles and other organisms.
Consider the following statements :
They are characterized as semi natural grasslands , occur under favourable conditions.
They are largely composed of native species with limited human intervention.
These are enveloped with seasonal alpine flowers
Which among the following is correct in connection with the above mentioned statements :
A meadow is an open habitat or field, vegetated by grasses, herbs, and other non-woody plants. Trees or shrubs may sparsely populate meadows, as long as these areas maintain an open character.
Meadows can occur naturally under favourable conditions, but are often artificially created from cleared shrub or woodland for the production of hay, fodder, or livestock.
Meadow habitats, as a group, are characterized as “semi-natural grasslands”, meaning that they are largely composed of species native to the region, with only limited human intervention.
Meadows attract a multitude of wildlife, and support flora and fauna that could not thrive in other habitats. They are ecologically important as they provide areas for animal courtship displays, nesting, food gathering, pollinating insects, and sometimes sheltering, if the vegetation is high enough. Intensified agricultural practices (too frequent mowing, use of mineral fertilizers, manure and insecticides), may lead to declines in the abundance of organisms and species diversity.
Which of the following Protected Areas are located in Cauvery basin?
Nagarhole National Park
Papikonda National Park
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
1 and 2 only
3 and 4 only
1, 3 and 4 only
1, 2, 3 and 4
Except Papikonda national Park , which is located in Godavari basin, all are located in Kaveri basin. Hence 2 is incorrect .
Nagarhole National park : It is located in Kodagu district of Karnataka and a part of Nilgiri Biosphere reserve.
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve located at the confluence region of Western and Eastern Ghats is also part of Nilgiri Biosphere reserve.
Wayanad wild life sanctuary located in Wayanad Kerala and comes under the Project Elephant is also part of Nilgiri Biosphere reserve.
Hence 1, 3 and 4 are correct
Recently Cauvery water dispute has once again taken center stage, as Tamil Nadu appeals to the Supreme Court of India for intervention in ensuring the release of 24,000 cubic feet per second (cusecs) from its reservoir’s water by Karnataka.
Consider the following pairs
Wetland / lake. : State
Maguri Beel. : Meghalaya
Rudra sagar lake. : Madhya Pradesh
Nanda Lake. : Uttar Pradesh
Which of the above mentioned are correctly matched ?
Maguri Motapung Bill, Maguri Bill and Maguri Beel) is a wetland and lake located near to Dibru-Saikhowa National Park and Motapung Village of Tinsukia district in Assam.
Recently , The National Green Tribunal (NGT) ordered the Assam government to provide interim compensation to victims of Baghjan oil and gas leak.This site belongs to OIL India Ltd near Dibru Saikhowa National Park.
Rudra sagar lake is in Madhya Pradesh. Recently it was ordered that the revival of Rudrasagar Lake is part of the ambitious Mahakal corridor project.
Nanda lake has recently become Goa’s first internationally recognised Ramsar site
With reference to Wildlife Crime Control Bureau, consider the following statements:
It is a statutory body established under the Wildlife protection Act, 1972
The body is also an adviser to Custom authorities in inspection of consignments of flora & fauna.
State environment minister is the vice chairperson while Union Environment Minister is the Chairperson .
Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1 and 2 only
Statement 1 is correct: It is a statutory multi-disciplinary body (WPA 1972) established to combat organized wildlife crime in the country.
The Bureau has its headquarters in New Delhi.
Statement 2 is correct: It advise the Government of India on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international ramifications, relevant policy and laws.
It also assists and advises the Customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora & fauna as per the provisions of Wild Life Protection Act, CITES and EXIM Policy governing such an item.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Union Ministry of Environment and Forest is the only nodal agency to deal with it.
Recently, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) reversed its decision to establish integrated regional offices by merging key environmental bodies under its umbrella.
Consider the following statements regarding Minimata convention :
The Convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure.
India is yet to ratify this convention and mercury is manufactured and traded in India.
Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
Statement 1 is incorrect: TheMinamata Convention on Mercury is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of mercury and its compounds.Recently, Indonesia has introduced a global declaration that calls on parties to theMinamata Convention on Mercury to tackle illegal trade of mercury.The declaration was read in Nusa Dua, Bali, where Indonesia is hosting the COP4 to the Minamata Convention on Mercury.
It was agreed at the fifth session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee in Geneva, Switzerland 2013.
Controlling the anthropogenic releases of mercury throughout its lifecycle is one of the key obligations under the Convention.
The Convention also addresses interim storage of mercury and its disposal once it becomes waste, sites contaminated by mercury as well as health issues.
Statement 2 is incorrect: Countries that have ratified the Convention are bound by international law to put these controls in place.India has ratified the Convention.
Recently , The sixth anniversary of the Minamata Convention on Mercury is a reminder of global efforts to combat the toxic effects of mercury
In context of Hurricane Hilary, which among the following statements is incorrect ?
It is the first tropical storm to hit Southern California since 1939.
It is a major Category 4 hurricane
Warm waters over Eastern Pacific waters in lower latitudes is the cause behind it.
Its approach towards Mexico is unusual.
Hurricane Hilary is a major Category 4 hurricane that formed in the eastern Pacific Ocean on 16th August 2023.
Hurricanes are categorized on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, which rates them on a scale of 1 to 5 based on wind speed.
Hurricanes that reach category three or higher are classified as major hurricanes.
It is the first tropical storm to hit Southern California since 1939.
Hurricane Hilary is heading towards California because of a combination of factors, such as a high-pressure system over the western U.S., a low-pressure system over the eastern Pacific, and an El Niño event that warms the ocean water near the equator.
These factors create a favorable environment for tropical cyclones to form and move northward along the coast of Mexico and Central America.
However, most of these storms weaken or turn westward before reaching California, because of the cold water, cold currents, and unfavorable winds along the U.S. West Coast.
Hilary is an exception because it has maintained its strength and followed a more northerly track than usual.
Which among the following are the sources of methane ?
Select the correct code:
1 and 2
2 and 3
1 and 3
All of the above
Termites: These insects produce methane as they digest cellulose.
Ocean Clathrates: Methane hydrates under the ocean floor can release methane.
Volcanoes and Geological Seeps: Methane can escape from geological formations, though this is relatively rare.
Human Digestive System: Humans produce small amounts of methane through digestion, although not enough to have a significant environmental impact.
Abandoned Mines: Old, disused mines can emit methane over time.
Recently it has been reported that the surge in methane levels in Earth’s atmosphere has raised concerns about the planet’s ongoing climate transition.
Which among the following can be the measures to ensure “ Species Resilience “ to prevent future mass extinctions :
Biomimicry and Sustainable Design
Select the correct code:
1, 2 and 3
1 and 3
2 and 4
2, 3 and 4
What Should be the Priorities to Prevent Future Mass Extinctions?
Holistic Ecosystem Restoration and Preservation:
Innovative Ecosystem Mapping: Develop advanced mapping technologies to assess ecosystem health and identify critical areas for restoration.
Bio-corridor Creation: Establish ecological corridors to connect fragmented habitats, enabling species to migrate and thrive across diverse environments.
Preemptive Conservation: Prioritize conservation of keystone species to maintain the ecological balance crucial for long-term ecosystem resilience.
Synthetic Biology for Species Resilience:
Genetic Augmentation: Employ synthetic biology techniques to enhance genetic diversity within vulnerable species, bolstering their adaptability to changing conditions.
Assisted Evolution: Proactively guide species adaptation through controlled interventions, accelerating their response to environmental shifts.
Ethical Considerations: Forge a global ethical framework to guide the responsible use of synthetic biology in conservation efforts.
Green Innovation for Sustainable Resource Utilization:
Circular Economies: Promote circular economies to minimize resource depletion and waste, thereby reducing stress on ecosystems.
Biomimicry and Sustainable Design: Harness nature-inspired designs to develop eco-friendly products, reducing environmental impacts across industries.
Green Infrastructure: Invest in sustainable infrastructure that reduces habitat destruction, such as wildlife-friendly roadways and energy installations.
Data-Driven Conservation Management
Predictive Analytics: Utilize machine learning and AI to model ecosystem dynamics, enabling timely interventions to prevent disruptions.
Real-time Monitoring: Implement remote sensors and satellite technology for real-time monitoring of ecosystems and early detection of stressors.There is a need to establish interconnected data-sharing networks to facilitate collaborative conservation efforts across borders.
As the prevalence of deadly wildfires has surged, driven by the combined forces of human-caused climate change and disruptive land management practices, a new study delves into California’s history during the Pleistocene epoch, a time marked by profound climatic shifts and Earth’s largest extinction event in over 60 million years.
Which among the following industries are difficult to be decarbonised by using Green Hydrogen ?
Heavy Duty Shipping
Select the correct code :
Heavy-Duty Shipping: Large oceangoing vessels have energy needs that are difficult to meet with hydrogen due to issues like storage and fuel density.
Cement Production: The decarbonization of cement manufacturing is challenging since CO2 is released as a by-product of limestone transformation, which hydrogen cannot address.
Chemical Industry: Certain chemical processes require carbon as a feedstock, not just as a fuel, making them difficult to decarbonize solely with hydrogen.
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) recently defined a clear Green Hydrogen Standard, which establishes emission thresholds for hydrogen production categorized as ‘green’
Consider the following:
Antimony and copper
Erbium and Rhodium
Potash and Barite
Which of the above mentioned pairs are considered as Critical minerals in India ?
Only pair 1 is correct
India has identified 30 critical mineralsthat are deemed essential for the country’s “self-reliance” and is making moves to address potential supply chain vulnerabilities. The list encompasses a diverse range of minerals, including antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cobalt, copper, gallium, germanium, graphite, hafnium, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, nickel, phosphorous, potash, titanium, tungsten, and rare earth elements. Rare earth metals are a group of 17 elements – lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, yttrium.
Question : 13
With reference to Green Credit Programme , consider the following statements:
The ‘Green Credit’ means a singular unit of an incentive provided for a specified activity, delivering a positive impact on the environment.
It was first announced in the 2023 -24 Union Budget with a view to leverage a competitive market-based approach and incentivize voluntary environmental actions of various stakeholders.
Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
Both statements are correct .
It was first announced in the 2023-24 Union Budget with a view to leverage a competitive market-based approach and incentivize voluntary environmental actions of various stakeholders.
What is the Green Credit Programme?
About:The ‘Green Credit’ means a singular unit of an incentive provided for a specified activity, delivering a positive impact on the environment.
The Green Credit Programme as a mechanism that complements the domestic Carbon Market.
While the domestic carbon market focuses solely on CO2 Emission reductions, the Green Credit System aims to meet other environmental obligations as well , incentivizing sustainable actions by companies, individuals, and local bodies.
The green credits will be tradable and those earning it will be able to put these credits up for sale on a proposed domestic market platform.
Question : 14
Consider the following statements regarding Debrigarh wildlife sanctuary :
It is located in the Kandhamal district of Odisha.
It also forms the catchment area of the Jonk River.
The sanctuary is bordered on the east and north by the huge Hirakud reservoir.
Which of the above mentioned statements are correct ?
Only one statement is correct
Only two statements are correct
Only the third statement is correct .
All three statements are correct.
Statement 1 is incorrect : The Debrigarh wildlife sanctuary is located in the Bargarh district in the Indian state of Odisha, covering a total area of 346.91 km2
Statement 2 is incorrect: Jonk river forms the catchment of Sunabeda Wildlife sanctuary in Odisha.
Statement 3 is correct:The Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary is an important location for the conservation of various local wildlife and their habitat. It is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. Over 40 species of mammals, 200 species of birds, 40 species of reptiles, 12 species of amphibians, 42 species of fishes, 39 species of odonates, 85 species of butterflies and 38 species of spiders have been found living in the sanctuary.
The sanctuary is bound on the east and north by the huge Hirakud reservoir.
Question : 15
Why is there a great concern about the ‘ micro beads ‘ that are released into the environment?
They are considered harmful to marine ecosystems.
They are considered to cause skin cancer in children.
They are small enough to be absorbed by crop plants in irrigated fields.
They are often found to be used as food adulterants
Microbeads are smaller forms of plastic, no greater in size than 5 mm.
Microbeads are added as an exfoliating agent to cosmetics and personal care products, such as soap, facial scrub and toothpastes.
Microplastic sources also include breakdown of discarded bags and plastic packaging, particles from vehicle tyres, synthetic fibres from textiles, etc.
Microbeadsescape the filtration and treatment processes for waste water and end up in sites of nature.
This is resulting in significant global impacts on wildlife from marine environment pollution.
World’s coastal countries currently do not have the concerned recycling policies nor the technical capabilities, and so large quantities of plastic are not recycled and enter landfill.
The durable properties of plastics make them persistent and slow to degrade in the environment entering the food chains.
It holds the potential for both bioaccumulation and biomagnification.
In case you still have your doubts, contact us on 9811333901.
For UPSC Prelims Resources, Click here
For Daily Updates and Study Material:
Join our Telegram Channel – Edukemy for IAS
- 1. Learn through Videos – here
- 2. Be Exam Ready by Practicing Daily MCQs – here
- 3. Daily Newsletter – Get all your Current Affairs Covered – here
- 4. Mains Answer Writing Practice – here