Thursday, 25th May 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


India: A Quad-led bio-manufacturing hub

2   Daily Current Affairs


Power to Promulgate and Repromulgate an Ordinance


Resolving the Tribal health challenge - India@100


Making City Climate Ready


Decentralized Green Energy Technology


Forum Shopping


National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA)


World Food India 2023


People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR)


Leatherback Turtles


Link death and birth register


Climate Reparations

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Editorial of the day

India: A Quad-led bio-manufacturing hub

Exam View: QUAD’s Critical and Emerging Technology Working Group; Bio-manufacturing; India’s National Biotechnology Development Strategy; Concerns and Solutions.

Context: India is an ideal choice for a Quad-led bio-manufacturing hub because of its existing infrastructure, pharmaceutical manufacturing expertise, and workforce.


In March 2021, the Quad set up a Critical and Emerging Technology Working Group related to developments in critical and emerging technologies, that included biotechnology to

  • facilitate cooperation,
  • monitor trends, and
  • scout for opportunities.

Decoding the editorial


  • It uses living systems, particularly microorganisms and cell cultures, to produce molecules and materials on a commercial scale.
  • It has the potential to transform the global industrial system, with up to 60% of physical inputs to the global economy expected to be producible using this technology.
  • Many countries, including the United States and China have designed specific policies to shape their bio-economies.

India’s National Biotechnology Development Strategy:

  • It envisions the country as a “Global Bio-manufacturing Hub” by 2025.
  • The strategy sets a target of $100 billion for the hub.
  • However, India’s ambitions require external support, particularly through its Quad partners, to enable its initial development.
  • Complementary strengths:
    • The U.S. has significant funding capability.
    • Japan, Australia and the U.S. also possess advanced biotechnology innovation ecosystems and intellectual property.
    • India has
      • A skilled manpower,
      • The potential to provide affordable scale,
      • Economic potential,
      • Existing infrastructure, and
      • Pharmaceutical manufacturing expertise
    • According to the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, India is among the top performers in the field of bio-manufacturing in both the quality of research output and in the share among research publications.
    • India also has significant potential in low-cost bio-manufacturing, particularly in the production of enzymes, reagents, research materials, and equipment. According to at least one analysis, the cost of manufacturing in India is around 33% lower when compared to that in the U.S.

Concerns and Solutions

  • Strengthening physical infrastructure
    • Concern:
      • India plans to increase fermentation capacity tenfold to 10 million litres in the next three to five years.
      • China has also expressed its intention to capture this market, similar to how it dominated small-molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).
      • Concerns about China’s dominance in APIs pushed India to launch a production-linked incentive scheme that allocated $2 billion to the pharmaceutical sector to make biopharmaceuticals, APIs, key starting materials, and related products.
      • A dependence on China in the bio-manufacturing sector will be detrimental to both India and the Quad.
    • Resolution: The proposed bio-manufacturing hub in India can help
      • Facilitate technology transfer,
      • Connect investors, and
      • Establish a bio-manufacturing fund that is administered through the Quad, to support India’s efforts to reduce dependency on China.
    • Boosting workforce, lowering barriers
      • Concern: To scale up the bio-manufacturing sector, India needs to uplift its workforce quality.
      • Resolution:
        • Permanent training facilities can be established in universities around the Quad hub, with experts from other Quad countries providing the training.
        • Recent policy changes in India allow the establishment of foreign universities and can encourage scholar exchange programmes.
        • Training should also focus on commercialising research and development, a common challenge for non-U.S. countries in the Quad.
        • The bio-manufacturing hub can house all current bilateral government efforts and establish a research collaboration office for this purpose.
        • The hub can also harmonise language, regulations, and data-sharing regarding bio-manufacturing to secure supply chains for Quad nations and facilitate international collaboration.

The proposed hub in India can capitalise on the economic potential of the bio-manufacturing industry and address existing and potential vulnerabilities in the global system. India can become a leading player in the field of bio-manufacturing and help the Quad to compete in this key area.




Keywords: GS Paper-3: Biotechnology.
Daily Current Affairs

Power to Promulgate and Repromulgate an Ordinance

In News: Recently, the central government promulgated an Ordinance that undid the unanimous verdict of a five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court, which gave the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) government of Delhi control over the transfer and posting of officials in the National Capital Territory (NCT).


  • In the Indian Constitution, the power to promulgate and repromulgate an ordinance is vested in the President of India. This power is derived from Article 123 of the Constitution, which grants the President the authority to issue ordinances when Parliament is not in session.
  • Article 213 deals with the broadly analogous powers of the Governor to promulgate an Ordinance when the state legislature is not in session.
  • An ordinance is essentially an executive order issued by the President on the advice of the Council of Ministers (Article 74). It has the same force and effect as an act of Parliament but is temporary in nature.
  • The President can issue an ordinance when both houses of Parliament are not in session and there is an urgent need to legislate on a particular matter.

Provisions related to the power to promulgation of an ordinance are as follows:

  • The President can promulgate an ordinance only if he or she is satisfied that the circumstances require immediate action and it is not possible to wait for the Parliament to convene.
  • The ordinance must be laid before both houses of Parliament when they reassemble. It must be approved by both houses within a specified time period, typically six weeks from the date of reassembly.
  • If the ordinance is not approved by both houses within the stipulated time or if Parliament passes a resolution disapproving the ordinance, it ceases to operate.

Repromulgation of Ordinance

  • The President has the power to repromulgate an ordinance if it could not be approved by Parliament within the specified time or if it is not approved by both houses. However, the repromulgation of ordinances has been criticized as it bypasses the legislative process.

Keywords: GS-2 Polity and Constitution
Daily Current Affairs

Resolving the Tribal health challenge - India@100

Context: India has made remarkable strides in various social, economic and political paradigms since independence. Looking forward, there is a need to create a resilient, accessible and affordable healthcare system which caters to the most vulnerable societies like tribal communities in India which constitute 8.9 % of the population.

India’s Growth story since Independence:

  • Since Independence, India has made remarkable progress. It has emerged as the world’s fifth-largest economy and a leader in the digital realm.
  • India, at various points, has demonstrated the ethos of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam — One World, One Family. One example is India’s contribution towards the global vaccination drive during the pandemic.
  • Launch of PM Jan Arogya Yajna and Ayushman Mission, world’s largest insurance scheme catering to more than 50 crore people.
  • National Health Mission (NHM) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme which envisages achievement of universal access to equitable, affordable & quality health care services.
  • Under “Vaccine Maitri”, India provided over 60 million vaccine doses to neighbouring countries and other parts of the world.

Healthcare Challenges faced by Tribal Communities in India:

  • Accessibility to the healthcare system: Lack of equitable, affordable and quality healthcare for tribal masses.
  • Poor health infrastructure: In around half of the states where tribals reside, healthcare institutions are under equipped and understaffed with poor doctor to patient ratio.
  • High Mortality rates: As per a report by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, the mortality rate in tribal areas is 44% higher than the national average, and infant mortality is 63% higher.
  • Disease burden: Health problems prevalent in tribal areas include endemic infectious diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrhoeal diseases, apart from malnutrition and anaemia.
  • Women health: Several studies on maternal health show poorer nutritional status, higher levels of morbidity and mortality, and lower utilisation of antenatal and postnatal services among tribals.

Measures to build an inclusive healthcare system for tribal communities:

  • Empowering tribal communities: Tribal communities need to be empowered strategically, keeping in mind their traditions and other intangible heritage touch points.
  • Affordable and accessible healthcare: Promoting suitable investments along with revamped public policy and governance measures, healthcare facilities could be made affordable and accessible to all.
  • Unique approach: Since the tribals have a more communitarian social setup, an underdeveloped economy dependent on forest resources and unique geographic conditions, their health outcomes necessitate a unique approach.
  • Investments in medical colleges and training centres in remote areas which can equip local healthcare providers with the necessary skills and knowledge to offer quality healthcare services.
    • It can bridge the gap in healthcare infrastructure and provide employment opportunities to locals.
    • Belonging to the same region, local healthcare providers can understand the cultural sensitivities of tribal communities.
  • Public Partnerships can help in redefining healthcare facilities and accessibility. For instance, Mera Baccha Abhiyan, of Datia, Madhya Pradesh aims to fight malnutrition through public participation. The outcomes of this scheme have been impressive with a fall in malnutrition, increase in immunisation and breastfeeding practices.


Keywords: GS2- Issues related to development and management of health
Daily Current Affairs

Making City Climate Ready

In News: Making Cities Climate-Ready Crucial to Solving Climate Crisis: World Bank

About Making Cities Climate-Ready:

  • The World Bank has recently emphasized the need for cities to become climate-ready through integrated green urban planning strategies which are crucial for addressing climate challenges.
  • It has stressed that investments in green space and sustainable infrastructure are essential components of climate readiness.
  • Cities in high-income countries are significant emitters, while poorer cities face severe climate-related hazards.
  • Rapid urbanization has led to a significant increase in the urban population with Cities contributing to approximately 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Per capita, emissions are highest in high and upper-middle-income countries, particularly in North America while Sub-Saharan African cities have the lowest per capita emissions on average.
  • Medium and large cities in middle-income countries have high carbon emissions and pollution levels with limited green space.
  • Lower-income countries' cities account for 14% of global urban CO2 emissions but face the most severe climate-related hazards.
  • World Bank has stressed that inclusiveness is vital for enhancing cities' resilience, particularly in low and lower-middle-income countries.
  • Urban water resources and infrastructure will face additional strain as the urban population is projected to grow by 2.5 billion by 2050.
  • The governments need to protect and restore ecosystems, such as forests which are crucial for urban resilience and water security.
  • It has also given recommendations including information dissemination, incentives, insurance coverage, integration, and investments.
  • Overall, implementing these recommendations can help reduce emissions, enhance resilience, and mitigate the impacts of climate change on vulnerable populations.


Keywords: GS-3: Important Bodies
Daily Current Affairs

Decentralized Green Energy Technology

In News: Study on Decentralised Clean Energy Tech Impact on Livelihoods in India's Agri and Textile Sectors

About Decentralised Clean Energy Tech:

  • Decentralized green energy technology refers to renewable energy solutions that are implemented at a local level.
  • These technologies aim to provide clean and sustainable energy sources, reducing reliance on centralized fossil fuel-based power systems.
  • Examples of decentralized green energy technologies include solar panels, wind turbines, biomass digesters, and micro-hydro systems.
  • These technologies offer several advantages, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions, promoting energy independence, and enhancing energy security.
  • They can be deployed in various settings, including residential buildings, commercial establishments, and rural communities.
  • These technologies often allow for energy generation and consumption to occur at the same location, reducing transmission and distribution losses.
  • They have the potential to stimulate local economies through job creation, technology development, and energy cost savings.
  • Decentralized green energy technologies play a crucial role in achieving sustainability goals, such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and national climate targets.
  • Thus, integration of decentralized green energy technologies with energy storage systems, such as batteries can go a long way in enabling better management of intermittent renewable energy sources.

DRE in India

  • The market potential for DRE in rural and peri-urban communities in India is estimated at Rs 4 lakh crore.
  • India currently has 12 mature DRE technologies, including higher capacity irrigation pumps, silk reeling machines, and cold storages.
  • These technologies collectively have the potential to impact 37 million livelihoods, with 547,380 installations and an estimated impact on 566,827 people.
  • Among states, Uttar Pradesh leads in estimated future adoption of solar-powered technologies, followed by West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka.


Keywords: GS-3: Energy
Daily Current Affairs

Forum Shopping

In News:  Chief Justice of India (CJI) reprimands the practice of ‘forum shopping’ by lawyers

About Forum Shopping:

  • Forum shopping refers to the practice of litigants or lawyers deliberately choosing a specific judge or court for their case in the hope of obtaining a more favourable outcome.
  • It involves strategically selecting a court or judge based on factors like expertise, perceived biases, or the likelihood of a desired judgment.
  • Forum shopping is considered a disreputable practice that undermines the integrity of the judicial system.
  • It can lead to unequal treatment, overburdening of certain courts, and interference with the fair administration of justice.
  • Judges may impose costs or penalties on litigants engaged in forum shopping to discourage such behavior and promote fairness.
  • Bench hunting is a related practice where litigants seek to have their case heard by a specific judge or court known for favourable rulings.
  • The use of a functional test by courts helps determine if a litigant is engaged in forum shopping by assessing the functional similarity between different courts' proceedings.
  • In fact, some jurisdictions use the "forum non-conveniens" principle to prevent forum shopping, allowing courts to decline jurisdiction and transfer cases to more appropriate forums.
  • Time and again, the Supreme Court and other courts have consistently condemned forum shopping and emphasized that it has no legal sanction or paramountcy.


Keywords: GS-2: Judiciary
Daily Current Affairs

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA)

Why in news? The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs is organizing a two-day National Workshop on the National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) in New Delhi.


  • National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) is one of the 44 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) under the “Digital India Programme” of Government of India.
  • NeVA is a workflow system deployed on the NIC Cloud, MeghRaj, designed to facilitate smooth proceedings of the Parliament or State Assembly House and efficient handling of legislative business in a paperless manner.
  • It aims to eliminate the need for physical notices or data collection requests and brings all legislatures onto a single platform, creating a centralized data repository.
  • It is a device-neutral and member-centric application that provides members with comprehensive information, such as contact details, rules of procedure, a list of business, notices, bills, questions and answers, committee reports, and more, directly on their handheld devices or tablets.
  • Nagaland and Himachal Pradesh have become paperless assemblies using the NeVA application.

Keywords: General Studies –2 Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

World Food India 2023

Why in news? In celebration of the International Year of Millets in 2023, India's Ministry of Food Processing Industries will be organizing the second edition of 'World Food India 2023.


  • World Food India 2023 is a gateway to the Indian food economy, facilitating partnerships between Indian and foreign investors.
  • The event aims to showcase India’s food culture and attract global investments in the food processing sector.
  • It will bring together manufacturers, producers, investors, policymakers, and organizations from across the global food ecosystem.
  • It is a promising platform to showcase, connect and collaborate in retail, processing, technology transfer, manufacturing, and cold chain logistics, along the global food value chain.
  • Focus areas: Leveraging millets as a superfood; positioning India as a global hub for food processing; unlocking growth potentials in strategic segments; establishing an efficient ecosystem and promoting sustainable development.
  • The United Nations has declared 2023 as the International Year of Millets (IYM 2023) with the aim of increasing the production and consumption of millets worldwide.


Keywords: General Studies – 3 Food Security
Daily Current Affairs

People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR)

Why in news? Recently, The National Campaign for Updation and Verification of People’s Biodiversity Register (PBR) was launched in Goa, by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.


  • The People’s Biodiversity Register serves as a comprehensive record of locally available Bio-resources including the landscape and demography of a particular area or village.
  • It is prepared by Biodiversity Management Committees (under Biodiversity Act 2002) in consultation with local communities.
    • Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) are local bodies created under the Biological Diversity Act 2002, with the mandate to ensure the conservation, sustainable utilization and equitable sharing of benefits from biodiversity.
  • PBR is aimed to document and preserve India’s rich biological diversity.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Environment, Conservation
Daily Current Affairs

Leatherback Turtles

Why in news? Recently, the government has granted approvals for an international container port on the Great Nicobar Island, which poses a threat to the survival of leatherback turtles, the largest turtles on Earth.


  • Leatherback turtle is the largest of the seven species of sea turtles.
    • Other species are: Olive Ridley turtle, Green turtle, Hawksbill turtle, Loggerhead turtle, Kemp’s Ridley, Flatback Turtle,
  • It has a leather-like shell and is found in all oceans except the Arctic and the Antarctic.
  • In the Indian Ocean, it nests only in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • It is the only living species in its genus and family.
  • Leatherback turtles can grow up to two meters long and weigh as much as 700 kilograms.
  • The Leatherback is unique among reptiles as it can generate heat to maintain high body temperatures.
  • The species has existed since the age of the dinosaurs, but its numbers are in decline.
  • It is protected under India’s Wildlife Protection Act.
  • Female Leatherbacks nest in significant numbers in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and then swim towards Australia’s western coast and the eastern coast of Africa.
  • IUCN: Vulnerable

Keywords: General Studies –3 Environment, Conservation
Keywords: General Studies – 2 Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Climate Reparations

Why in news? Recently, A new study has found that the world’s top 21 fossil fuel companies owed over US $ 5 trillion in climate reparations, to be disbursed over a 26-year period from 2025 to 2050.


  • Climate reparations refer to a call for money to be paid by the developed countries to the developing countries as a means of addressing the historical contributions that the Developed countries have made (and continue to make) toward climate change.
  • Climate reparations aim to rectify climate injustice by requiring those most responsible for climate change to provide support to those who have been wronged.
  • The companies with the highest reparations: ExxonMobil, Saudi Aramco, and Shell—the companies most often accused of delaying action on climate change.
  • Principles of Climate Reparations:
    • Polluter pays principle (Polluters should be held liable for the costs of remedial action);
    • More responsibility of rich countries (for past historical emissions);
    • Reparations-based approach to climate refugees;
    • Rich countries should provide financial and technological support to developing nations.


Keywords: General Studies – 3 Environmental Pollution & Degradation
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