UPSC Mains General Studies Paper – 1 Mains 2023
The Introduction of Railways facilitated by the industrial revolution has had large Socio-Economic effects in different countries of the world.
The socio-economic effects of the introduction of railways in different countries of the world:
- led to The formation of suburbs as white-collar workers moved out of inner cities thus increasing mobility and accessibility.
- The formation of capitalist and Labor class also led to income inequality in society.
- Trans-Siberian railway led to the residential development of the far-east of Russia( Vladivostok) due to the supply of grains from the western steppes(St. Petersburg).
- Led to the social and political integration of British Colombia with the rest of Canada.
- Led to the social integration of large parts of the subcontinent .e.g.. instrumental in mass-mobilization during the freedom struggle.
- The Kakori train robbery is still remembered as a watershed moment in the Indian freedom struggle.
- Social integration of tribes through inter-tribe trade and exchange of ideas.
- Syphoning of raw materials to the ports via railroad leading to exploitation of local tribes in the process.
- Trans-Australian railway connected the western and eastern colonies via railroad between Sydney and Perth leading to political stability.
- But also displacement of aboriginals due to colonial expansion.
- Increased urbanization and industrialization: by large rural to urban migration and facilitation of transport on a large scale.
- Opened up east-coast trade with countries through the pacific via Vladivostok port
- Canadian-pacific railway facilitated the connectivity of Quebec Montreal industrial region with that of softwood forest region and wheat region of prairies.
- The railways became the economic artery of Canada due to linking the industrial region with the lake region of north-America.
- led to the exploitation of local merchants due to monopoly of British merchants via export of bulk raw material and import of finished goods in large quantities.
- Trade of local produce after independence and liberalization led to employment opportunities.
- Tourism between Capetown and Dar-es-salaam provided livelihood to local Maasai, hadza tribes.
Therefore, the socio-economic effects are varying for different countries. Nevertheless, the introduction of railways facilitated trade and economic growth, social integration, agricultural development and employment opportunities.
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