The G-20, comprising the world’s major economies, has increasingly found itself at the center of diplomatic efforts in a shifting global order. As traditional power dynamics evolve and new challenges emerge, this forum plays a critical role in addressing pressing global issues. The G-20 provides a platform for these nations to deliberate on matters ranging from economic policies and trade relations to climate change and global health crises. In an era where multilateralism is under strain, the G-20 offers a unique opportunity for cooperation and diplomacy, serving as a bridge between the established powers and emerging economies. With the global landscape in flux, the effectiveness of G-20 diplomacy is more crucial than ever, as it strives to balance the interests of diverse nations and foster collaboration in the pursuit of a more just and equitable world order.
Tag: GS Paper-2: Global groupings; Important International Institutions; Groupings & Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
India’s successes in G20; China’s perception, need for caution; Emerging world disorder.
Euphoria about the G-20 outcome under India’s presidency needs to be tempered given the many dark clouds on the global horizon despite India’s amazing success in producing a consensus Declaration.
Decoding the editorial: India’s successes in G20
- Consensus on the Russia-Ukraine war.
- Consensus on the Ukraine conflict became possible with the West agreeing to ‘climb down’ from its demand not to point fingers at Russia for the Ukraine conflict, and giving up on the insistence to proclaim Russia as guilty.
- The difference between two Declarations is that while Bali was accusatory in tone, New Delhi sought a resolution to the conflict.
- Russia and China have since hailed the New Delhi Declaration in sharp contrast to their criticism of the Bali Declaration.
- The New Delhi Declaration has something for everyone.
- The establishment of an India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor Plan.
India, as the host, could rightfully take a large measure of credit for this result. However, India, for its own sake, has to be wary, given the fluid situation across the globe with China’s perception and the return of two blocks.
China’s perception, need for caution
- G20 is not a platform for resolving geo-political and security issues.
- China might have welcomed the Delhi Declaration, but there is inherent foreboding in its affirmation that the G-20 was intended to be a ‘forum for economic cooperation’.
- India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor Plan should not become a geo-political tool.
- While welcoming the establishment of an India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor Plan, China has sent an implicit warning that it should ‘not become a geo-political tool’.
- India remains an obvious target for China and is in its ‘cross-hairs’.
- While many in the West view China’s situation of ‘debt deflation and demographic decline’ as an opportunity, they remain oblivious to the reality of China’s known capacity to resort to various means to overcome its problems.
- The West’s acknowledgment of India’s growing economic strength, and India’s membership of the Quad, call for abundant caution on India’s part, since China is unlikely to take kindly to either.
Emerging world disorder
- The ‘rules-based world order’ has become a ‘catch-all phrase’ of merely one segment.
- There is a return of two antagonistic blocs, and shrinking space for the non-aligned.
- The U.S. is strengthening and expanding the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
- It has been encouraged by the stalemate in the Ukraine conflict and the eclipse of Russia’s hope of a quick walkover in Ukraine.
- A new NATO is set to become even more dependent on the U.S. for military supplies and capabilities.
- Outside Europe, a number of non-NATO allies are being inveigled to join a U.S.-led alliance to counter ‘authoritarianism’ (represented by Russia and China).
- Russia and China, in turn, are deepening their ‘strategic alignment’.
- Countries such as North Korea are cementing their relations with this bloc.
- China is exploiting its frontage in the Pacific Ocean to openly challenge U.S. naval power here.
- Russia and Türkiye have deepened their relationship based on shared interests.
- Russia is once again seeking to expand its footprint in Africa, and Russia’s recent agreement to supply food grains to African States at subsidised prices, or even for free, is aimed towards this end.
- Fading non-alignment
- It is proving increasingly difficult for countries to remain non-aligned in the truest sense of the word.
- Even existing formations such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are tending to find the situation untenable.
- Given the multiplicity of relationships and the ‘lattice work’ of security agreements that have emerged, the space for non-alignment has dramatically shrunk.
With the strengthening of rival camps holding divergent visions of the international order, the world confronts a dismal future.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q: What is the G-20, and why is it important in the context of the shifting world order?
Answer: The G-20, short for the Group of Twenty, is an international forum comprising 19 of the world’s major economies and the European Union. It is important in the shifting world order because it serves as a platform for these nations to discuss and coordinate on global economic and political issues. Given the evolving global dynamics, the G-20 provides a vital space for dialogue, cooperation, and addressing the challenges of a changing world.
Q: How has the role of the G-20 evolved over the years?
Answer: The G-20 was originally formed in 1999 in response to the Asian financial crisis. Its role has evolved to encompass a wider range of global challenges beyond just economic issues. It now addresses matters such as climate change, global health, and international security. The shifting world order has necessitated this expanded role to address the interconnected nature of today’s global challenges.
Q: In what ways does the G-20 promote cooperation in a world marked by increasing tensions and nationalism?
Answer: The G-20 promotes cooperation through diplomacy, dialogue, and consensus-building. It offers a platform where leaders can engage in discussions and negotiate solutions to common problems. While tensions exist in the world, the G-20 serves as a forum for finding common ground and fostering cooperation, even in times of geopolitical rivalry.
Q: How does the G-20 balance the interests of established powers and emerging economies?
Answer: Balancing the interests of established powers and emerging economies is a key challenge for the G-20. It achieves this by using a consensus-based decision-making process where all members have an equal say. This approach allows for the inclusion of diverse perspectives and ensures that the concerns and interests of both established and emerging powers are considered in G-20 policies.
Q: What impact does the G-20 have on the pursuit of a more just and equitable world order?
Answer: The G-20 has the potential to significantly impact the pursuit of a more just and equitable world order by facilitating cooperation on global challenges. By addressing economic inequalities, environmental issues, and other pressing matters, it contributes to creating a fairer world. However, its effectiveness in achieving this goal depends on the commitment of its member states and the outcomes of its diplomatic efforts.
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