European Influence on Indian Architecture
- Early Portuguese architecture in India is seen in churches, cathedrals and schools.
- These churches were built in the Iberian style, and western India saw the maximum influence of Portuguese colonization.
- Famous Portuguese monuments in India include the Basilica do Bom Jesus, the Cathedral de Santa Catarina, the Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, and more.
- Other structures that remain from the Portuguese colonial rule are the Bandel Church in West Bengal, Madh Fort, Castella de Aguada and St. John’s Baptist Church in Mumbai.
- French architecture in India reflects Parisian architectural styles and can be seen in various places in India.
- The French style incorporated local raw materials and considered climatic conditions.
- Some of the noted buildings and monuments bearing French style include the statue of Joan of Arc at Dumas street, Le Café, the Mairie building, the French consulate building, and more.
- French grid patterns, clear sectors, and perpendicular streets comprise the plan of the French towns.
- Monuments of this style can be seen in Puducherry, Bengal, Karaikal, Mahe, etc.
- The Palladian style was introduced by British officers in the 18th century.
- In the 19th century, there grew a movement to combine the best elements from India and Western architecture.
- Examples of this form of architecture include the museum at Jaipur and the Moor Market in Chennai.
- The Victoria Terminus station in Mumbai is an example of Victorian Gothic revival architecture in India, borrowing several elements of Mughal style.
- The Gateway of India was designed by G Wittet, borrowing several elements of Mughal style.
- The Indo-Saracenic movement emerged at the end of the Victorian era in India.
- The movement drew elements from the indigenous and Indo-Islamic architecture and combined it with the Gothic revival and Neo-classical styles favored in Victorian England.
- Salient features of this form of architectural style include bulbous domes, overhanging eaves (Chhajja), vaulted roofs, Chhatris, minarets, and pavilions.
- Some examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture are the Egmore Railway Station and Chennai Museum with bulbous domes, Rashtrapati Bhavan and Chhatrapathi Shivaji Terminus with overhanging eaves, St.Matthias’ Church with vaulted roofs, Tomb of Humayun with chhatris, and the Senate House in Chennai with minarets.
- The architecture of this era transcends any specific style and is primarily informed by scientific and modern building techniques that are universally accepted.
- Le Corbusier’s development of Chandigarh is a prime example of this experimentation, where the city’s well-organized grid system was designed to address the challenges posed by urbanization, such as traffic congestion.
- Laurie Baker’s contribution to Kerala’s mass housing project is also noteworthy. He utilized locally available materials to construct affordable housing while incorporating traditional practices to ensure environmental conservation.
- Another prominent architect of this time is Charles Correa from Goa, who is known for designing the Sabarmati ashram, Kanchanjunga apartment tower, and planning of Navi Mumbai. He prioritized the use of available resources, energy, and climate as key determinants in shaping the spatial arrangement.
FAQ 1: What is modern architecture in the context of the UPSC examination?
Answer: Modern architecture in the UPSC context refers to the architectural styles and movements that emerged in the 20th and 21st centuries. It encompasses various design philosophies, materials, and innovations that have shaped the built environment, including the works of renowned architects like Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, and others.
FAQ 2: What are some key features of modern architecture for UPSC aspirants to understand?
Answer: Important features of modern architecture include the use of new materials like steel and concrete, functionalism, minimalism, open floor plans, and the integration of technology in design. It often rejects historical ornamentation and embraces simplicity, clean lines, and the use of natural light.
FAQ 3: Which architectural movements are significant in the study of modern architecture for UPSC exams?
Answer: Several architectural movements are crucial to understanding modern architecture, such as the Bauhaus, International Style, Brutalism, Postmodernism, and Deconstructivism. Aspirants should have a basic knowledge of these movements and their key proponents.
FAQ 4: How does modern architecture relate to urban planning and sustainable development, topics often covered in the UPSC syllabus?
Answer: Modern architecture plays a vital role in urban planning and sustainable development. It involves designing eco-friendly buildings, incorporating green spaces, and optimizing energy efficiency. It’s closely linked to contemporary urban planning and contributes to creating sustainable and livable cities.
FAQ 5: Can you recommend some important modern architectural landmarks that UPSC aspirants should be aware of?
Answer: UPSC aspirants should be familiar with iconic modern architectural landmarks, such as the Sydney Opera House (Australia), Fallingwater (USA), the Pompidou Centre (France), and the Burj Khalifa (UAE). Understanding these landmarks can help in comprehending the global impact of modern architecture.
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