- The Moplah Rebellion occurred in 1921 in the Malabar region, where the majority of landlords were Hindus and the Muslim Moplahs were the tenant farmers.
- The Moplahs had several grievances, including insecurity of tenure, high rents, renewal fees, and other oppressive demands imposed by the landlords.
- The Moplah movement became intertwined with the ongoing Khilafat agitation, which sought to protest against the British government’s actions regarding the Caliphate in Turkey.
- Prominent leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Shaukat Ali, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad addressed Moplah meetings, showing their support for their cause.
- The Moplahs perceived that some Hindus were collaborating with the British authorities, leading to the movement taking on communal overtones.
- The communalization of the movement created a division between the Moplahs and the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement.
- By December 1921, the movement was called off.
- The Moplah Rebellion, also known as the Moplah Riots of 1921, was a series of communal riots in the Malabar region of Kerala, India. The rebellion was led by Mappila Muslims, who were mostly tenant farmers, against the British colonial authorities and upper-caste Hindu landlords.
The rebellion was sparked by a number of factors, including:
- The introduction of new land laws by the British government in the early 19th century gave greater power to the landlords and led to increased rents for the tenants.
- The Khilafat Movement was a pan-Islamic movement that sought to restore the caliphate in Turkey. The Moplahs were sympathetic to the Khilafat Movement and saw it as an opportunity to challenge British rule.
- The economic hardship faced by the Mappila Muslims, who were often exploited by the landlords.
- The rebellion began on 20 August 1921 in Tirurangadi, Malabar. The rebels attacked police stations, government buildings, and Hindu homes and temples. They also killed a number of British officials and Hindu landlords.
- The British authorities responded to the rebellion by imposing martial law and sending in troops. The rebellion was eventually suppressed in November 1921, but not before it had caused widespread death and destruction.
- The Moplah Rebellion is a significant event in Indian history. It was one of the first major challenges to British rule in southern India, and it highlighted the deep-seated communal tensions that existed in the Malabar region. The rebellion also had a significant impact on the Khilafat Movement, as it led to the alienation of many Muslims from the Indian National Congress.
- The Moplah Rebellion is a complex and controversial event. There is no single agreed-upon interpretation of the rebellion, and it has been the subject of much debate and historical revisionism. However, there is no doubt that the rebellion was a significant event in Indian history, and it continues to be studied and debated today.
1. What was the Moplah Rebellion of 1921, and why is it significant for UPSC exams?
Ans. The Moplah Rebellion of 1921 was an agrarian and religious uprising in the Malabar region of Kerala, India. It is significant for UPSC exams as it is an important event in India’s history and is often a topic of questions related to the freedom movement and social movements during the colonial period.
2. In which year did the Moplah Rebellion of 1921 occur?
Ans. The Moplah Rebellion of 1921 occurred in the year 1921, during the British colonial rule in India.
3. What were the main causes and features of the Moplah Rebellion of 1921?
Ans. The Moplah Rebellion of 1921 was primarily triggered by agrarian issues, religious tensions, and economic grievances. The rebellion saw Mappila (Moplah) Muslims in the Malabar region rising against landlords and British colonial authorities. It had elements of both a peasant uprising and a religious conflict, leading to violence and significant casualties.
4. Where did the Moplah Rebellion of 1921 break out?
Ans. The Moplah Rebellion of 1921 broke out in the Malabar region of Kerala, which was a significant center for the rebellion. It was characterized by clashes between Moplah Muslims and British colonial forces.
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