Establishment of British Supremacy
- The establishment of British supremacy in India was a gradual process that began with the arrival of the East India Company in 1600. The Company, which was granted a Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth I, established trade relations with the Mughal Empire and other Indian states. In the early years, the Company focused primarily on trade, importing textiles, spices, and other goods from India and exporting English wool and other manufactured products.
- Over time, the East India Company began to expand its influence in India by establishing factories and trading posts along the coast. The Company also began to establish alliances with local rulers, often by providing military support in exchange for economic and political concessions. The Company’s rise to power was facilitated by the decline of the Mughal Empire, which was weakened by internal conflicts and external invasions.
- The Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked a significant turning point in the Company’s history. Robert Clive, a Company official, led a force of Company soldiers and Indian allies against the army of the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, and emerged victorious. The Company’s victory gave it control over the rich province of Bengal and established its dominance over the other European trading powers in India.
- In the years that followed, the Company continued to expand its territories and influence in India, often through a combination of military force and diplomacy. The Company’s policy of “Divide and Rule,” which involved playing off one Indian state against another, was a key factor in its success. The Company also introduced Western-style education, legal systems, and technology, which helped to modernize India and create a class of English-educated Indian elites.
- The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, also known as the Indian Rebellion, marked a major challenge to British rule in India. The rebellion, which was sparked by a number of factors, including economic grievances and religious tensions, was eventually put down by the British with the help of Indian soldiers loyal to the Company. The rebellion led to the transfer of power from the East India Company to the British Crown and marked the beginning of direct British rule in India.
- Under British rule, India experienced significant economic and social changes, including the construction of railways, the growth of industries such as textiles and tea, and the introduction of Western-style education and legal systems. However, British rule was also marked by exploitation, oppression, and discrimination against Indians, particularly those belonging to lower castes and religions.
- India’s struggle for independence began in the early 20th century and was led by figures such as Mahatma Gandhi, who advocated nonviolent civil disobedience against British rule. India gained independence from British rule in 1947, but the legacy of British colonialism continued to shape the country in the years that followed.
- The Carnatic War victory laid the foundation for British supremacy in India, and the French aspiration of an Indian empire vanished forever. The British East India Company emerged as the undisputed ruler of India after the Wandiwash victory as they had no European competitor left in India. The British had the expertise of talented leaders such as Sir Eyre Coote, Major Stringer Lawrence, and Robert Clive, in addition to being a formidable naval power. Their naval dominance played a critical role in establishing their authority over India.
Beginning of Struggle for Political Supremacy in India
- In the early days of European colonialism in India, the Portuguese were the first to arrive and establish their trading posts in various parts of the country, including Goa, Daman, and Diu. However, they could not expand their political dominance beyond these coastal areas as they failed to win the support of the local people due to their hostile attitude towards Indians. Moreover, the Portuguese lacked the resources to finance long-drawn politico-military conflicts in India.
- The Dutch, on the other hand, were more focused on Indonesia, and their interest in India was limited. They were mainly involved in missionary activities and did not pay much attention to politico-military matters.
- The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in India during this period, and the Portuguese, Dutch, and later the French, had to contend with the Mughals to establish their political supremacy. The English and French East India Companies fought three Carnatic Wars to establish their dominance in India. Initially, the French had the upper hand, but gradually the English became more powerful in India and successfully countered the French challenge to establish English political dominance in India. The victory in the third Carnatic War laid the foundation for the British to establish their rule over India.
English Victory in the Anglo-French Struggle for Supremacy in India
- The struggle between the English and French for supremacy in India was not limited to India but was part of their worldwide rivalry. In the beginning, the French had the upper hand but gradually the English gained the advantage and emerged victorious. The success of the English and the defeat of the French were the outcome of several political and administrative factors. The difference in the working of the two companies played an important role in the success of the English against the French.
- The English East India Company was a private entity and its officers could take decisions on the spot as per the need of circumstances. On the other hand, the French East India Company was a government department, and its important decisions were taken in Paris, which made it disconnected from the circumstances prevailing on the ground in India. This proved to be a disadvantage for the French in the long run.
- The liberal and progressive monarchical regime in Britain in the mid-18th century, which had replaced the despotic monarchy based on the concept of divine rights of the king with a constitutional monarchy after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, also contributed to the success of the English. In contrast, France had a despotic monarchical regime and the French government was not accountable to anybody, which made it less interested in the progress of its people.
- The British government provided crucial support to the English company on many occasions, while the French government failed to provide any such support. Instead, the French government was interested in extracting as much as possible from its company. The French preoccupation with continental matters also contributed to their defeat against the English in the struggle for supremacy in India.
Improper Attention of the French Government
- The French government was preoccupied with wars in Europe and as a result, did not give enough attention to developments in India. In contrast, the English East India Company had capable leaders who worked together as a team and benefited from naval supremacy. The English conquest of Bengal gave them access to vast resources and ultimately contributed to their victory over the French.
- While the French had a competent leader in Duplex, he lacked team spirit and support from other commanders. The English, on the other hand, had leaders like Clive, Eyre Cot, and Hector Monroe who fought effectively as a team. The English were able to call upon their naval superiority to get support when needed, while also denying the same to the French.
- The English victory in Bengal was a key factor in their success against the French. Although leadership and military strength were important in short-term conflicts, the long-term outcome was determined by access to resources. Once the English had control over Bengal, they had access to significant resources that allowed them to maintain their dominance over the French.
- Pondicherry lacked resources, and Duplex’s focus on Madras allowed Clive to find the key to India in Bengal. The 18th century in India was marked by significant changes, with the decline of the Mughal Empire and the emergence of various regional powers such as Awadh, Bengal, Hyderabad, Marathas, and Mysore. These power struggles facilitated the growth of the British Indian Empire both directly and indirectly, as regional forces gained strength in the wake of the weakening central authority.
- There was also a significant power struggle among various regional forces in India during the 18th century. Mysore, Marathas, and Hyderabad were competing for dominance in the Deccan region. In addition, Nadir Shah, the ruler of Persia, invaded India in 1739 and defeated the Mughals in the Battle of Karnal. He then plundered Delhi, causing the Mughal Empire to lose its prestige. Ahmad Shah Abdali from Afghanistan invaded India seven times between 1748 and 1761. At one point, it seemed that the Marathas might succeed in replacing the Mughal Empire, but their defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat shattered their hopes.
- The conflict between England and France in India, known as the Anglo-French rivalry, had its roots in a longstanding rivalry between the two countries that began with the Austrian War of Succession and continued until the end of the Seven Years’ War. Although both the British and French initially came to India for trade purposes, they eventually became involved in Indian politics and sought to gain political influence in the region.
The Anglo-French Struggle for Supremacy
- Although the British and French initially arrived in India for trade, they eventually became involved in Indian politics and sought to wield political influence in the region.
- This competition mirrored the historical rivalry between England and France and began with the Austrian War of Succession and culminated with the Seven Years’ War.
- In India, this rivalry took the form of three Carnatic wars, which ultimately established the English, not the French, as the dominant power in India. South India’s political landscape was complex and uncertain in 1740, with the ageing Nizam Asaf Jah of Hyderabad fighting the Marathas in the western Deccan and the Coromandel Coast lacking a strong monarch to maintain power balance.
- Instead, there were various minor realms and remnants of the former Vijayanagara Empire. The loss of Hyderabad marked the end of Muslim expansionism, prompting the English to prepare their plans accordingly.
- Overall, the three Carnatic wars determined that the English were better suited to establish their control over India.
First Carnatic War (1740–48)
- The Coromandel coast in India was called Carnatic by Europeans.
- The First Carnatic War was a part of the larger Anglo-French War, which was triggered by the Austrian War of Succession.
- The Battle of St. Thome fought between the French and the forces of Anwar-ud-din, the Nawab of Carnatic, is a well-known event from this war.
- The English navy, under Commodore Curtis Bennett, captured some French ships to provoke France, even though France did not want to escalate the conflict in India.
- French Governor-General Dupleix sought assistance from the Nawab of Carnatic, who declared his province as neutral territory and prohibited any attack on French territories.
- In 1746, France took Madras with the help of a fleet from Mauritius led by Admiral La Bourdonnais, sparking a debate between Dupleix and La Bourdonnais over what to do with the town.
- The Nawab of Carnatic dispatched an army of 10,000 soldiers led by his son to besiege the French at Madras.
- At the Battle of St. Thome, a small French force led by Captain Paradise defeated a much larger Indian army led by Mahfuz Khan.
- The First Carnatic War ended in 1748 with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle, which ended the Austrian War of Succession.
- Madras was returned to the English under the treaty, while the French received territory in North America.
- The war demonstrated the power of a small disciplined force over a much larger Indian army and highlighted the significance of naval might in the Anglo-French conflict in the Deccan.
Second Carnatic War (1749–54)
- The Second Carnatic War was fought between the British and the French in India from 1749 to 1754.
- The death of Nizam-ul-Mulk, the ruler of the Deccan, in 1748, and the release of Chanda Sahib, the son-in-law of the Nawab of Carnatic, offered a chance for the French to meddle in local dynastic rivalries.
- Muzaffar Jang, the grandson of the Nawab of Hyderabad, challenged Nasir Jang, the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk, for the throne of Hyderabad, and the French supported him.
- Chanda Sahib and the French army defeated and killed Anwar Ud-din in the Battle of Ambur in 1749, and Salabat Jung was made the new Nizam of Hyderabad.
- Muhammad Ali was established as the Nawab of Carnatic, and the French were defeated in the Battle of Trichinopoly.
- The French Governor-General in India, Joseph-Francois Dupleix, was recalled by the French government in 1754 due to financial losses caused by his policies.
- Charles Robert Godeheu replaced Dupleix and pursued a strategy of conciliation with the British, signing the Treaty of Pondicherry with them in which they promised not to intervene in the disputes of native kings.
Third Carnatic War
- The war occurred during the Seven Years’ War (1756-63), which was fought between Britain and France in Europe.
- The French, led by Count Thomas Arthur de Lally, initially captured some English forts but suffered significant losses at Masulipatnam.
- The English, led by General Eyre Coote, won a crucial victory at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760, completely destroying the French army.
- The French held out at Pondicherry for eight months before surrendering in 1761.
- The war ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which restored Pondicherry and Chandannagar to France but limited them to commercial operations.
- The treaty marked the end of French political power in India, as they were forced to restrict themselves to small enclaves and commerce.
- The English emerged as the dominant European force in the Indian subcontinent after the war.
The factors that contributed to French failure in India during the Carnatic Wars are
- British naval superiority: The British had a stronger navy, which enabled them to bring in supplies and reinforcements from Europe and Bengal. The French did not have this advantage.
- Inferior army strength: The French had fewer troops and artillery compared to the British. They had only one strong station, Pondicherry, whereas the British had three significant posts in Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta.
- Loss of key battles: The French suffered significant losses in key battles, such as the Battle of Wandiwash in the Third Carnatic War, where they were completely defeated by the British under General Eyre Coote.
- Limited access to resources: The French were limited in their access to resources, such as supplies, funds, and skilled soldiers, which hindered their ability to sustain their campaigns.
- British control of Bengal: The British gained control of Bengal after their victory in the Battle of Plassey, which provided them with access to a wealthy territory and further strengthened their position in India.
- Overall, the French were at a disadvantage compared to the British in terms of military strength, resources, and territorial control, which ultimately led to their failure in the Carnatic Wars.
- Despite the fact that the British and French came to India to trade, they became embroiled in Indian politics. Both desired to consolidate political power in the region. The Anglo-French rivalry in India mirrored England and France’s long-standing rivalry throughout their histories, beginning with the start of the Austrian War of Succession and culminating with the Seven Years’ War.
Battle of Plassey (1757)
- The Battle of Plassey (1757) marked a turning point in modern Indian history, resulting in the cementing of British power in India. The East India Company, led by Robert Clive, battled against the Nawab of Bengal (Siraj-Ud-Daulah) and his French Troop in this fight. This fight is commonly referred to as the “decisive event,” because it was the root of the British’s ultimate authority in India. The fight occurred during the late rule of the Mughal Empire (known as the later Mughal Period). At the time of the Battle of Plassey, the Mughal emperor Alamgir-II ruled the empire.
Background on the Battle of Plassey
- As Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-Ud-Daula succeeded his grandfather Alivardi Khan.
- The previous year, he had become Nawab of Bengal, and he had ordered the English to halt their fortress expansion.
- The British success in the Carnatic wars frightened Siraj-Ud-Daula about the British rising authority in India.
- The Company’s officials misused their trading powers, causing financial harm to the Nawab.
The Reasons for the Battle of Plassey
- The Company’s officials misused their trading powers, causing financial harm to the Nawab.
- The English fortified Calcutta without the approval of the Nawab.
- The Company attempted to deceive him even further by offering sanctuary to a political fugitive, Krishna Das, son of Raj Ballabh, who had fled with huge treasures against the nawab’s desire.
- For their side, the Company suspected Siraj of plotting with the French in Bengal to substantially curtail its trade advantages.
- As a result, Siraj’s raid on and seizure of the English fort in Calcutta exposed their animosity.
- The infamous ‘Black Hole Tragedy’ should be addressed here.
- Siraj-ud-Daulah is thought to have imprisoned 146 English people, who were held in a very small room and died of asphyxia, 123 of them died.
Battle of Plassey
- The Battle of Plassey took place on June 23, 1757, in Bengal’s Palashi district.
- The landing in Calcutta of a strong force led by Robert Clive from Madras enhanced the English dominance in Bengal.
- Clive established a clandestine alliance with the nawab’s traitors, Mir Jafar, Rai Durlabh, Jagat Seth (a powerful Bengal banker), and Omichand.
- As part of the arrangement, Mir Jafar was to be made nawab, and the Company would be compensated for its services.
- The secret partnership between the Company and the conspirators strengthened the English position even further.
- As a result, the English won the conflict of Plassey before the conflict ever started.
- As a result of the Nawab’s officials’ conspiracy, Siraj’s 50,000-strong force was beaten by a handful of Clive’s soldiers.
- Miran, Mir Jafar’s son, ordered the capture and assassination of Siraj-ud-Daulah.
- The English gained access to Bengal’s huge resources as a result of the Battle of Plassey.
- After Plassey, the English effectively monopolised Bengal’s trade and commerce.
Battle of Plassey participants
- He was Bengal’s Nawab.
- He was implicated in the Black-Hole Tragedy (in which 146 English people were imprisoned and confined in a very small chamber, where 123 died of suffocation).
- The East India Company’s flagrant abuse of trading privileges had a negative impact.
- He assaulted and took control of the English fort in Calcutta, demonstrating its animosity towards the British.
- He granted political fugitive Krishna Das shelter, which displeased Siraj-Ud-Daulah.
- Trade privileges were abused.
- He fortified Calcutta without the authorization of the Nawab.
- He was the Nawab’s army’s Commander-in-Chief.
- The East India Company (EIC) was bribed by him.
- For conspiring against Siraj-Ud-Daulah, EIC was planning to declare him Nawab.
- During the battle, he tricked Siraj-Ud-Daulah.
- He was a commander in Nawab’s army.
- He joined Siraj-Ud-army Daulah’s but did not fight, thereby betraying Siraj.
- He was a powerful banker.
- He was a part of the plot that led to the detention and eventual killing of Nawab Siraj-Ud-Daulah.
- He was a Bengali trader.
- He was a signatory to the pact made by Robert Clive before the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and one of the principal organisers of the conspiracy against the Nawab.
The Importance of the Battle of Plassey
- As a result of his triumph, Mir Jafar has crowned Nawab of Bengal.
- He paid significant sums of money to the English, as well as the zamindari of 24 Parganas.
- The Battle of Plassey was politically significant since it established the British empire in India; it is appropriately recognised as the start of British dominance in India.
- The fight consolidated English military dominance in Bengal.
- Their major competitors, the French, were ousted.
- They were given lands in order to keep a well-equipped military force, and their prestige surged.
- Despite the fact that total control of affairs had transferred to Clive, on whose support the new nawab, Mir Jafar, was entirely dependent in order to maintain his newly gained position, there was no visible change in the form of governance.
- The English were given control over Calcutta, and they stationed a resident at Nawab’s court.
The Aftereffects of the Battle of Plassey
- At the Battle of Plassey, the French forces were defeated.
- Mir Jafar was appointed as Nawab of Bengal.
- Mir Jafar was displeased with his situation and ordered the Dutch to attack the British in order to strengthen his position.
- The Dutch and British soldiers fought the Battle of Chinsura on November 25, 1759.
- The British placed Mir Qasim as Nawab of Bengal.
- The British consolidated their position as the major European power in Bengal.
- Robert Clive was elevated to the title “Lord Clive”, Baron of Plassey, and was elected to the British House of Commons.
- The Indian economy suffered greatly.
- Following the triumph, the British imposed stringent rules and regulations on the Bengalis in the guise of tax collection.
Mir Kasim and the Treaty of 1760
- Clive’s intervention with Mir Kasim and the Treaty of 1760 annoyed Mir Jafar more and more.
- He created a plot with the Dutch at Chinsura.
- The Dutch, on the other hand, was crushed and humiliated by English forces in November 1759 at Bedara.
- The English were upset by Mir Jafar’s duplicity and failure to fulfil Company payments.
- Meanwhile, Jafar’s son, Miran, died, and a battle for the nawabship of Bengal broke out between Mir Kasim, Mir Jafar’s son-in-law, and Miran’s son.
- Following the signing of a treaty between Mir Kasim and the Company in 1760, the new Governor of Calcutta, Vansittart, pledged to support Mir Kasim’s claim.
The pact had the following major provisions
- Mir Kasim agreed to hand over to the Company the districts of Burdwan, Midnapur, and Chittagong.
- Sylhet’s chunam trade would be split 50/50 with the Company.
- Mir Kasim agreed to settle the Company’s debts.
- Mir Kasim committed to donating five lakh rupees to the Company’s fighting operations in southern India.
- Mir Kasim’s opponents became the Company’s foes, and his friends became the Company’s allies.
- Tenants of the nawab’s realm were not permitted to settle on the Company’s estates, and vice versa.
- Under pressure from the Company, Mir Jafar resigned in favour of Mir Kasim.
- Mir Jafar was given a yearly pension of Rs 1,500.
Mir Kasim’s Initiative
- Mir Kasim was Alivardi Khan’s most capable successor.
- After attaining control, Mir Kasim relocated the capital from Murshidabad to Munger in Bihar.
- It was decided to stay a safe distance from the Company in Calcutta.
- Among his other notable actions were reorganising the bureaucracy with men of his choice and revamping the army to improve its ability and efficiency.
- The conflict climaxed in Robert Clive’s stunning victory at Plassey, where 3,000 British and sepoy men destroyed Siraj-ud-18,000-man Daulah’s Franco-Bengali army in forty minutes. After the victory at Plassey in 1757, Britain established itself as the dominating force in India, which gradually fell under British control and became the empire’s most cherished possession. Few wars have had such far-reaching implications in history.
Battle of Buxar (1764)
- On October 22, 1764, the British army headed by Hector Munro faced a combined alliance of Indian kings from Bengal, Awadh, and the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Buxar. This epic battle established British control over India for the following 183 years. After winning the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the British East India Company set its sights on Bengal. The fight ended in 1765 when the Mughal Emperor surrendered and Bengal was taken over by the British.
Background to the Battle of Buxar
- The Company reasoned that Mir Kasim would be a perfect puppet for them. Mir Kasim, on the other hand, defied the expectations of the Company.
- Bihar’s deputy governor, Ram Narayan, refused to respond to the nawab’s repeated requests to present Bihar’s revenue accounts.
- Mir Kasim was powerless to confront such flagrant disobedience of his authority. Ram Narayan, on the other hand, had the support of Patna’s English officials.
- Misuse of the Company’s dastak or trade permission (which exempted selected items from duty payment) by Company officials exacerbated tensions between the Nawab and the English.
- As a result of the dastak’s misuse, the nawab lost tax money.
- Local merchants were also compelled to compete unjustly with Company merchants.
- Through an imperial Farman, the English business secured the right to trade in Bengal without paying transit dues or tolls.
- The Company’s servants, on the other hand, claimed the same privileges for their own enterprise.
- The Company’s servants also marketed Dastak to Indian merchants for a commission.
- Furthermore, they employed forced means to obtain lower-priced goods, which violated the spirit of duty-free trade.
- Duty-free buying simply meant getting a good price in a market that was otherwise competitive.
- Mir Kasim planned to eliminate all customs, but the British complained and demanded preferential treatment over other businessmen.
- The English and Mir Kasim went to war in 1763 as a result of the Nawab-Company rivalry over transit duty.
- In fast succession, the English won in Katwah, Murshidabad, Giria, Sooty, and Munger.
- Mir Kasim went to Awadh (or Oudh), where he formed a confederacy to recapture Bengal from the English with the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daulah, and the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II.
Battle of Buxar Events
- A united force of 40,000 troops from the Mughals, Awadh, and Mir Qasim was ruthlessly defeated by a British army of 10,000 men in one of the subcontinent’s first big defeats.
- One of the fundamental causes for this setback was a lack of coordination among the major three diverse allies.
- Major Hector was able to organise the British lines in twenty minutes and block the Mughals’ advance when Mirza Najaf Khan led the Mughal Army’s first flank to ambush the British at daybreak.
- As a result, Munro separated the British Army into columns and chased the Nawab of Awadh, Mughal Grand Vizier Shuja-ud-Daula, who retaliated by blowing up his boat bridge after crossing the river.
- As a result of this, Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and his troops abandoned the battle.
- According to historian John Willaim Fortescue, the British lost 847 soldiers while their Indian allies lost 2000.
- Munro then chose to assist the Marathas, a “warlike race” known for their unwavering enmity of the Mughal Empire and its Nawabs.
Participants in the Battle of Buxar
- He objected to the usage of the words “dastak” and “farmans” by the English.
- By making an alliance with the Nawab of Awadh and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, he planned against them.
- He was Awadh’s Nawab.
- He joined forces with Mir Qasim and Shah Alam-II to build a confederacy.
- He was the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II.
- He sought to expel the English from Bengal.
- He was a major in the British Army.
- In the Buxar War, he headed the English side.
- Clive Robertson
- After winning the Buxar war, he formed treaties with Shuja-Ud-Daulah and Shah Alam-II.
The Aftereffects of the Battle of Buxar
- On October 22, 1764, at Buxar, the united troops of Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Awadh, and Shah Alam II were destroyed by English forces led by Major Hector Munro.
- The English campaign against Mir Kasim was short but effective.
- This fight was significant because the English defeated not only the Nawab of Bengal but also the Mughal Emperor of India.
- The victory established the English as a significant power in northern India and a contender for national supremacy.
- Following the battle, Mir Jafar, who was appointed Nawab in 1763 when relations between Mir Kasim and the Company deteriorated, consented to hand up to the English the districts of Midnapore, Burdwan, and Chittagong for army maintenance.
- With the exception of a 2% salt tariff, the English were likewise granted duty-free trade in Bengal.
- Mir Jafar’s minor son, Najimud-dula, was designated nawab after his death, although the true power of administration lay with the naib-subahdar, who could be nominated or fired by the English.
Allahabad Treaty of 1765
- Robert Clive signed two major treaties in Allahabad in August 1765, one with the Nawab of Awadh and the other with the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II.
- Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula decided to hand over Allahabad and Kara to Emperor Shah Alam II in exchange for Rs 50 lakh in war reparations and full control of his estate to Balwant Singh, Zamindar of Banaras.
- Shah Alam II agreed to reside in Allahabad, which had been ceded to him by the Nawab of Awadh, under the protection of the East India Company; issue a Farman granting the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa to the East India Company in exchange for an annual payment of Rs 26 lakh; and a provision of Rs 53 lakh to the Company in exchange for the nizamat functions (military defence, police, and administration of justice).
Bengal’s Dual Government (1765-72)
- The East India Company established itself as the actual ruler of Bengal following the Battle of Buxar.
- In Bengal, Robert Clive established the dual system of administration, i.e., the rule of two—the Company and the Nawab—under which the Company controlled both the Diwani, i.e., tax collection, and the nizamat, i.e., police and judicial responsibilities.
- As the diwan, the Company exercised diwani and nizamat rights by appointing the deputy subahdar.
- The Diwani and nizamat functions were passed down to the Company from the Emperor and the subahdar of Bengal, respectively.
- The system provided significant benefits to the company.
- It provided the puppet Indian monarch with the illusion of authority while the Company retained sovereign power.
- The nawab was responsible for keeping the peace and order, but he had to rely on the Company for both cash and forces because the latter controlled the army and revenue.
- To carry out Diwani tasks, the Company selected two deputy Diwans, Mohammad Reza Khan for Bengal and Raja Sitab Roy for Bihar.
- Mohammad Reza Khan was also the deputy Nazim or subahdar.
- The dual system resulted in an administrative breakdown, which was terrible for the Bengali people.
- Neither the Company nor the Nawab was concerned with administration or the welfare of the public.
- Warren Hastings terminated the dual system in 1772.
- Clive was opposed to annexing Awadh because it would have forced the Company to defend a huge land border against Afghan and Maratha assaults.
- The pact made the Nawab a close supporter of the Company and Awadh a buffer state.
- Clive’s agreement with Shah Alam II was also motivated by pragmatic reasons. The Emperor became a valuable ‘rubber stamp’ for the Company as a result. Furthermore, the Farman of the Emperor legalised the Company’s political victories in Bengal.
- Mir Kasim, Bengal’s dethroned Nawab, died in June 1777 after spending the rest of his life in abject poverty.
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