Gandhi’s constructive programs during the Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements included khadi (homespun cloth) promotion, village industries, and social reforms. Encouraging self-reliance, he emphasized education, hygiene, and eradication of untouchability. These initiatives aimed to build a self-sufficient, socially just society as an alternative to British rule.
UPSC Mains General Studies Paper – 1 Mains 2021
- Start with a brief introduction of the constructive programme of gandhi ji during these movements.
- Enlist the dimensions of constructive programmes during the Non-cooperation movement and Civil Disobedience Movement.
- Conclusion accordingly.
- Gandhi developed a comprehensive plan for the national rejuvenation of India, which he termed the constructive programme. This program aimed to establish a social order grounded in truth and non-violence. According to Gandhi, the presence and growth of foreign domination in India were due to the nation’s neglect of fundamental duties.The constructive programme encompassed a range of initiatives and actions that sought to address societal issues and uplift the nation.
The dimensions of constructive programmes during the Non-cooperation movement and Civil Disobedience Movement: During the Non-cooperation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement in India, Mahatma Gandhi advocated for constructive programs alongside the mass protests and acts of civil disobedience. Here are some dimensions of the constructive programs during these movements:
- Promotion of Khadi: Gandhi promoted the spinning and weaving of Khadi (hand-spun and hand-woven cloth) as a symbol of self-reliance, economic freedom, and resistance against British industrial goods. Khadi production became a significant aspect of the constructive programs, encouraging local industries, generating employment, and fostering a sense of national pride.
- Village Industries: Alongside Khadi, Gandhi emphasised the development of village industries to improve the economic conditions of rural areas. He encouraged the revival of traditional crafts and cottage industries, promoting self-sufficiency and decentralised economic growth.
- Education and Swadeshi: Gandhi emphasised the importance of education in the constructive programs. He advocated for a practical and holistic education system that integrated manual labour, character development, and promotion of indigenous knowledge. Additionally, Gandhi promoted Swadeshi (using locally made products) as a means of supporting Indian industries and fostering economic independence.
- Women’s Empowerment: Gandhi recognized the crucial role of women in the freedom struggle and their potential as agents of change. He emphasised women’s education, economic empowerment, and their participation in political and social activities. The constructive programs aimed to uplift women and challenge societal norms that hindered their progress.
- Removal of Untouchability: Gandhi vehemently opposed the practice of untouchability and worked towards its eradication. He undertook efforts to bridge the gap between different castes and promote social equality. The constructive programs aimed to bring about a more inclusive and just society by challenging discriminatory practices.
- Village Swaraj: Gandhi envisioned a decentralised and self-sufficient model of governance known as “Gram Swaraj.” The constructive programs emphasised the importance of local self-governance, empowering villages to manage their own affairs and promote community-driven development.
- Hence, we can say that these constructive programs during the Non-Cooperation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement aimed to build a resilient society, foster self-reliance, challenge social inequalities, and lay the foundation for an independent India. They sought to empower individuals, promote self-sufficiency, and create a socio-economic framework that aligned with Gandhi’s vision of a just and equitable nation.
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