Tuesday, 20th December 2022

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs


Indian states’ ban on alcohol and its effects


Key takeaways from the COP15 biodiversity summit


Carbon markets


Organ donations rise after Covid-19 dip: Study


Whole Genome sequencing


Court Vacation


Betta Kuruba


Goa Liberation Day






Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Satellite


North Eastern Council


Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS)


Tal Chhapar Sanctuary

2   Daily Editorial Analysis


A planet in crisis: on tangible outcomes from biological diversity convention: The Hindu

3   Case Study of the Day


10 Gorgeous Art Forms That Won the GI Tag

.... Show less Show more
Daily Current Affairs

Indian states’ ban on alcohol and its effects

In News

The recent incident of 38 deaths due to the consumption of illicit liquor in Bihar has led to criticism of the state’s prohibition policy. An official ban on alcohol has resulted in a thriving underground economy where such spurious alcohol is produced and sold.

About Alcohol ban:

  • Prohibition refers to the legal prevention of the manufacture, storage, transportation, distribution, sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages with the aim of obtaining total abstinence through legal means.
  • India has a long history of banning alcohol, with prohibition a part of the Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 47) in the Constitution and also among the key Gandhian principles.
  • According to the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, alcohol is a state subject, i.e. state legislatures have the right and responsibility to draft laws regarding it, including “the production, manufacture, possession, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors.”
  • Currently, there are four states namely Gujarat, Bihar, Mizoram, Nagaland along with Lakshadweep (UT) with total prohibition and some more with partial prohibition.
  • Bihar had introduced complete ban on both sale and consumption of liquor in 2016.

What are the benefits of alcohol ban?

  1. Alcohol ban has several health benefits, as its consumption affects utility and functioning of the vital organs of the body, especially liver and kidney.
  2. Alcohol ban has positive effect on curbing gender violence. Several studies have pointed out direct correlation between consumption of alcohol and gender violence including in the domestic setting.
  3. A reduction in alcohol consumption is also desired to reduce crime in the society as intoxication impairs an individual’s ability to distinguish between right or wrong.
  4. Addiction to alcohol results in diversion of meagre resources of poor families towards alcohol purchase. This in turn leads to economic stress and pushes the family into borrowings.

What are the criticisms of the alcohol ban?

  1. Prohibition leads to the creation of underground economy that distributes liquor, outside regulatory framework of the state. This creates its own problems of strengthening organized crime groups and mafias.
  2. Alcohol ban has also resulted in spike in cases of substance abuse.
  3. Prohibition disproportionately affects poorer sections of society with upper classes still being able to procure expensive and safe alcohol.
  4. A total ban goes against an individual’s right to choice and undermines a person’s freedom.
  5. Ban on sale of alcohol gravely impacts the state exchequer and causes economic loss to the state. Complete prohibition also has a negative impact on tourism and hospitality sectors.
  6. Alcohol prohibition is also claimed to be used merely as a political card, especially to woo women voters. It does not solve the problem as people addicted to alcohol end up consuming hooch and other illegal alcoholic substances.
  7. Alcohol ban also creates a tremendous burden on the courts and enhances the pendency of cases.




Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.

Keywords: GS-2 Health and Human resource, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Key takeaways from the COP15 biodiversity summit

In News:

  • Global leaders conclude COP15 on biodiversity with a goal of 30-by-30

About the News:

  • The 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)Conference of Parties (COP) 15 was recently held in Montreal, Canada.
  • Previously, China as the official president of the CBD opened COP15 in Kunming through an online event at which parties to the CBD adopted the non-binding Kunming Declaration.
  • The summit culminated with a global deal to protect the ecosystems that prop up half the world economy and prevent the further loss of already ravaged plant and animal populations.


  • About: The CBD was agreed upon at the Earth Summit in Brazil in 1992 with three main objectives viz., the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
  • Protocols: At every conference of parties, parties deliberate on three international agreements: the CBD, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya Protocol on access to genetic resources and fair and equitable benefit-sharing.
  • Members: At present, nearly 195 countries and the European Union are parties to the CBD with the United States as the only member state of the United Nations that has not ratified the agreement.

Major highlights of COP-15:

Major Pillars

Target agreements

Conservation, protection and restoration

  • Protecting 30% of land and 30% of coastal and marine areas by 2030 including indigenous and traditional territories for goal realisation.
  • To restore 30% of degraded lands and waters throughout the decade, up from an earlier aim of 20%.
  • Taking steps to prevent destroying intact landscapes and areas with a lot of species, bringing those losses “close to zero by 2030”.

Money for nature


  • To ensure that $200 billion per year is channelled to conservation initiatives, from public and private sources.
  • Wealthier countries asked to contribute at least $20 billion of this every year by 2025, and at least $30 billion a year by 2030.

Big companies report impacts on biodiversity

  • Companies to analyse and report how their operations affect and are affected by biodiversity issues.
  • Large companies and financial institutions will be asked to make disclosures regarding their operations, supply chains and portfolios.

Harmful subsidies

  • Countries committed to identify subsidies that deplete biodiversity by 2025, and then eliminate, phase out or reform them.
  • Countries to slash those incentives by at least $500 billion a year by 2030, and increase incentives that are positive for conservation.

Pollution and pesticides

  • Focusing on the risks associated with pesticides and highly hazardous chemicals instead.
  • Parties pledge to reduce those threats by “at least half”, and instead focusing on other forms of pest management.

Monitoring and reporting progress

  • Agreed aims to be supported by processes to monitor progress in the future.
  • National action plans to be set and reviewed, following a similar format used for greenhouse gas emissions under U.N.-led efforts to curb climate change.





Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.


Keywords: General studies II& III : International agreements, environment, COP-15, CBD
Daily Current Affairs

Carbon markets

Why in news?

  • Recently, the Parliament passed the Energy Conservation (Amendment) Bill, 2022 that amends the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, to empower the Government to establish carbon markets in India and specify a carbon credit trading scheme.

What are carbon markets?

  • A carbon market creates incentives to cut emissions or increase energy efficiency by turning emission removals and reductions into tradable assets. Carbon markets may be both voluntary and compliant.
  • A United Nations Development Program release this year noted that interest in carbon markets is growing globally, i.e, 83% of NDCs submitted by countries mention their intent to make use of international market mechanisms to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Types of Carbon Markets

Voluntary Markets

Compliance Markets

Emitters— corporations, private individuals, and others— buy carbon credits to offset the emission of one tonne of CO 2 or equivalent greenhouse gases.

Compliance markets— set up by policies at the national, regional, and/or international level— are officially regulated.

A corporation looking to compensate for its unavoidable GHG emissions purchases carbon credits from an entity engaged in projects that reduce, remove, capture, or avoid emissions.

For Instance, in the aviation sector, airlines may purchase carbon credits to offset the carbon footprints of the flights they operate.

Compliance markets mostly operate under a principle called ‘cap-and-trade”, most popular in the European Union (EU).

Under the EU’s emissions trading system (ETS) launched in 2005, member countries set a cap or limit for emissions in different sectors, such as power, oil, manufacturing, agriculture, and waste management.

Credits are verified by private firms as per popular standards. There are also traders and online registries where climate projects are listed and certified credits can be bought.

This cap is determined as per the climate targets of countries and is lowered successively to reduce emissions. Entities in this sector are issued annual allowances or permits by governments equal to the emissions they can generate.

What are the challenges to carbon markets?

  • Double counting of greenhouse gas reductions and quality and authenticity of climate projects that generate credits to poor market transparency.
  • Greenwashing—companies may buy credits, simply offsetting carbon footprints instead of reducing their overall emissions or investing in clean technologies.
  • According to International Monetary Fund, including high emission-generating sectors under trading schemes to offset their emissions by buying allowances may increase emissions on net and provide no automatic mechanism for prioritizing cost-effective projects in the offsetting sector.

About the Energy Conservation (Amendment) Bill:

  • It mandates the use of non-fossil sources, which includes green hydrogen, green ammonia, biomass, and Ethanolfor energy and feedstock; 
  • Carbon Credits:
    • According to Global Energy Monitor, the government will provide carbon credits to organisations who are interested in participating in the programme.
    • To achieve their carbon budget, industries might trade and purchase credits.
  • Scope for Energy Conservation Building Code:
    • The modified bill proposes to expand the application of the Energy Conservation Building Code by bringing big residential buildings within the Energy Conservation regime.
  • Meaning of Energy Conservation Building Code:
    • The term "energy conservation building codes" in the draught refers to the rules and standards of energy consumption stated per square metre of the area where energy is consumed.
    • it also includes the location of the building.
  • Carbon Market:
    • The Bill gives the federal government the authority to designate a carbon credit trading system.
    • By establishing the framework for the issuance of carbon credits in exchange for the use of clean technology, the proposed amendments aim to promote the creation of a carbon market.
  • Aims to reduce the connected loads of states:
    • The goal of the bill was to include large residential buildings in the Energy Conservation regime. These structures had to have a minimum connected load of 100 kW or a contract demand of 120 kVA.
    • States might reduce the connected load and decrease demand if they so desired.


Content Source Link:



Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.


Keywords: GS paper 2 & 3, Environmental Pollution, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Organ donations rise after Covid-19 dip: Study

Why in news?

  • As per data shared in Parliament by the Union Health Ministry, after a dip in 2020 owing to the pandemic, organ donations picked up again in 2021 with 12,387 organs harvested from deceased as well as living donors.

More Information

  • Organ donation rates bounced back in 2021 after declining during the first year of the Covid-19 epidemic, but the proportion of deceased donors has continued to lag behind that of surviving donors.
  • Organs donated by family members of people who passed away from cardiac or brain death are known as deceased donations.

Key Points the Report

  • Data:
    • Of the 12,387 organs — kidney, liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas among others — harvested in 2021, only 1,743 (a little more than 14%) were from deceased donors.
    • The numbers harvested in 2021 were close to the highest in the last five years (12,746, in 2019).
  • Living Donations are skewed for organs like kidneys and livers donated by living family members.
  • Geographical skew in deceased donations:
    • All but two deceased organ donations in 2021 were in 15 states.
    • The top five — Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka — accounting for more than 85% of the total.
    • Reason: One reason for the geographical skew could be that most organ transplant and harvesting centres are concentrated in these geographies.
  • Rate of Donations:
    • India has an organ donation rate of about 0.52 per million population.
    • In comparison, the organ donation rate in Spain, the highest in the world, is 49.6 per million population.

Why is there a need to increase deceased donations?

  • Higher demand
    • First, there is a gap in the number of organs needed and the number of transplants that happen in the country.
      • In absolute numbers, India conducts the third highest number of transplants in the world.
      • Of the estimated 1.5-2 lakh persons who need a kidney transplant every year, only around 8,000 get one. And of the 10,000 who need a heart transplant, only 200 get it.
    • Reason:
      • Demand is on the rise because of the increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases.
      • Besides, organs like heart and lungs can be retrieved only from deceased donors.
    • Wastage of precious resources
      • Without deceased donations, a precious resource is wasted.
      • Nearly 1.5 lakh persons die in road traffic accidents every year in India, many of whom can ideally donate organs.

Regulatory provisions in India

  • Related legislation
    • The Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA), 1994:
    • The Transplantation of Human Organs Rules, which expanded the definition of donation and added tissues for transplantation, was introduced in 1995 and last updated in 2014.
    • The act criminalised the sale of organs and legalised brain death in India, allowing for deceased organ donation using brain stem-dead donors' organs.
  • Related institution
    • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare established the Nationwide Organ and Tissue Transplant Institution (NOTTO), a national organisation.
    • It manages all national-level operations related to organ donation in addition to outlining policy guidelines and protocols for specific functions.

Content Source Link:




Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.


Keywords: GS Paper 3, Health
Daily Current Affairs

Whole Genome sequencing

  • Context: Genes responsible for the long lifespan of banyan, peepal trees identified.

  • Genome sequencing is figuring out the order of DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome—the order of Adenine, Cytosine, Guanines, and Thymine that make up an organism's DNA.
  • All organisms have a uniquegenetic code, or genome, that is composed of nucleotide bases- Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G).
  • The unique Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) fingerprint or pattern can be identifiedby knowing the sequence of the bases in an organism.
  • Determining the orderof bases is called sequencing.
  • Whole genome sequencingis a laboratory procedure that determines the order of bases in the genome of an organism in one process.







Image source:



Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.

Keywords: GS Paper 3, Science and Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Court Vacation

  • Context: No Supreme Court Benches will be available during winter vacation: CJI

  • The Supreme Court breaks for its annual summer vacation for seven weeks — it starts at the end of May, and the court reopens in July. The court takes a week-long break each for Dussehra and Diwali, and two weeks at the end of December.
  • The Supreme Court has 193 working days a year for its judicial functioning, while the High Court's functions for 210 days, and trial courts for 245 days. High Courts have the power to structure their calendars according to the service rules.
  • During Vacation, judges spend time writing judgments, travelling, administrative work and preparing cases for hearings.
  • Generally, when the court is in recess, a combination of two or three judges, called “vacation benches”, hear important cases such as bail, eviction, often find precedence in listing before vacation benches.
  • In 2000, the Justice Malimath Committee suggested that the Supreme Court work for 206 days, and High Courts for 231 days every year, keeping in mind the long pendency of cases.





Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Polity
Daily Current Affairs

Betta Kuruba

  • Context: Recently Betta-Kuruba community has been added to ST list.
  • They are believed to be descendants of the Pallavas. Some of them collect forest goods while others work at the plantation.
  • The community has been living in the Chamarajnagar, Kodagu and Mysuru districts of
  • The Constitution does not define the criteria for recognition of Scheduled Tribes.

  1. Article 366 of the Constitution only provides a process to define Scheduled Tribes.
  2. 342(1): The President is conferred power to specify a tribe as ST after consultation with the Governor of the state.
  3. The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution lays out provisions for the control and administration of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in states other than Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

Legal protection for Tribes in India

1.Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 against Untouchability.

2. Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.

3.Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996.

4. Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.

    • Under the Government of India Act of 1935, representatives of "backward tribes" in provincial assemblies were given representation for the first time.
    • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Tribal Affairs.




Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.


Keywords: GS II:, Issues related to SCs and STs
Daily Current Affairs

Goa Liberation Day

  • Context: 'Goa Liberation Day' is celebrated on December 19 to commemorate the state's liberation from Portuguese rule in 1961.

  • The Portuguese colonial presence in Goa began in 1510, when Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the ruling Bijapur king and subsequently established a permanent settlement in Velha Goa.
  • Background:
    1. The upsurge of nationalist sentiments opposing Portugal's colonial rule was in line with the anti-British nationalist movement in the 20th
    2. Foundation of Goa National Congress at the Calcutta session of the INC in 1928 under leaders such as Tristão de Bragança Cunha.
    3. In 1946, the socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia led a historic rally for freedom, which became a watershed moment in Goa’s freedom struggle.
  • ‘Operation Vijay’
    • The Indian government declared that Goa should join India “either with full peace or with full use of force”.
    • 1961 saw a full-fledged military operation termed ‘Operation Vijay’, which was carried out with little resistance and an instrument of surrender (Manuel António Vassalo e Silva , Portugues governor-general) was signed, leading to Goa’s annexation by India.

Daman & Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Portuguese colonies) were integrated into India in 1961.




Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.

Keywords: GS I: Indian Polity, Post-independence consolidation
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? “Designing Innovative Solutions for Holistic Access to Justice” (DISHA) Scheme launched for a period of five years 2021-2026 to advance the cause of access to justice.


  • It was launched in order to provide a comprehensive, holistic, integrated and systemic solution on access to justice at the pan-India level.
  • It aims to secure “Justice” for the people of India as enunciated in the Preamble and under Articles 39A, 14 and 21 of the Constitution of India.
  • It aims to design and consolidate various initiatives to provide citizen-centric delivery of legal services.




Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.


Keywords: General Studies – 2, Polity and Constitution
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? India has abstained in the U.N. Economic and Social Council on a draft resolution to oust Iran from its principal global intergovernmental body.


  • Established by the UN Charter in 1945.
  • It is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues.
  • It has 54 members, elected by the UN General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms.
  • It is the UN's central platform for reflection, debate and innovative thinking on sustainable development.
  • It coordinates the work of the 14 UN specialized agencies, ten functional commissions and five regional commissions.




Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.


Keywords: General Studies – 2, Important International Institution
Daily Current Affairs

Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Satellite

Why in news? NASA set to launch first global water survey satellite.