Monday, 27th March 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


Emerging global disorder

2   Daily Current Affairs


Defamation Law and Disqualification of MPs


Special Courts


Technology and Innovation Report 2023: UNCTAD


Government launches ‘City Finance Rankings 2022’


Hypersonic weapons


Sarus Crane


Guillotine in Indian Legislative


DNA Profiling of Elephants


Sagar Manthan Dashboard


Radioactive Tsunami


Abel Prize

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Editorial of the day

Emerging global disorder

Exam View: Post-War world order; China’s disruption of world order; Russia-Ukraine War; Indo-pacific strategy and interpretation.

In News: Tension in Indo-Pacific and Russia-Ukraine conflict are symptoms of an emerging global disorder. India is committed to rejecting the authoritarian and coercive world order that China promotes.

Emerging disruptions

China’s disruption:

  • China was one of the beneficiaries of the post-war world order. Its entry into the WTO in 2001 was premised on the commitment that it would adhere to the core principles of this world order. However, as it grew in strength, it started to challenge that order in the name of rejecting what it calls the US-led world order
  • China has been accused of colonising the Indo-Pacific region. It disregarded sovereign national boundaries in the name of historical claims and disputed the mandates of international agencies.

Russia’s war in Ukraine:

  • It is the most disruptive conflict that Europe has seen since 1945.
  • West sees the war as a choice by Russia where as Russia states that NATO’s 2008 decision in favour of eventual Ukrainian membership brought an existential threat to Russia’s borders.

Strategy in the Indo-Pacific:

  • India’s Indo-Pacific strategy: The annual Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore in 2018 unveiled India’s strategy of -
    • Freedom of navigation and open sea-lines,
    • Inclusivity and ASEAN centrality.
  • Tokyo’s Indo-Pacific strategy:
    • To promote a “free and open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP), and it will be the defining feature of the new global order;
    • To curb China’s growing regional assertiveness;
    • To promote India as critical to dismantling the Sino-centric order. As the world’s largest democracy, its commitment to freedom, human rights and peace also are above board. It contributed significantly to upholding multilateralism through the UN and allied institutions.
  • Learning curve:
    • Upholding India’s principle of strategic autonomy is important to ensure that the Global South has a significant role in shaping the 21st-century world order.
    • Rejection of the widespread Western belief in the universality of the West’s values as it will only further antagonise other civilisations.
  • Indo-Pacific conflict cannot be viewed apart from the ongoing conflict in the Eurasian region. Both are symptoms of an emerging global order in which traditional superpowers are diminishing in influence and newly emerged powers are throwing their weight around in an ominous manner.




Keywords: GS Paper-2: International relations
Daily Current Affairs

Defamation Law and Disqualification of MPs

In News: Rahul Gandhi, a Member of Parliament (MP) was convicted and sentenced to two years in jail, by the Surat Court. The court also granted him bail and suspended the sentence for 30 days to allow him to appeal in a higher court.


  • The MP has been convicted over his remarks about the “Modi surname” during the Lok Sabha campaign in Karnataka.
  • The MP has been sentenced in the 2019 criminal defamation case, filed under Indian Penal Code (IPC) sections 499 and 500, which deal with criminal defamation.
  • Criminal defamation is a type of crime where a person makes a false statement about someone else that harms their reputation and does so intentionally or with reckless disregard for the truth. This false statement must be communicated to others, either in writing or verbally.

Legal provisions regarding the disqualification of MPs

  • Article 102 deals with the disqualification of MPs from either house of the Parliament. It lists the reasons for disqualification.
    • if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or Government of any State,
    • if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court;
    • if he is an undischarged insolvent;
    • if he is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State,
    • if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament.
  • Tenth Schedule of the Constitution provides for the disqualification of the members on grounds of defection.
  • The Representation of The People Act (RPA), 1951 provides for the conduct of election of the Houses of Parliament and State and qualifications and disqualifications for membership of those Houses.

Provisions of RPA regarding disqualifications: The provisions dealing with disqualification under the RPA are:

  • Convicted MPs can be disqualified under Section 8(1) and 8(3). A person is disqualified from the date of conviction to a further period of six years since his release.
  • Section 8(2) lists offences dealing with hoarding or profiteering, adulteration of food or drugs and for conviction and sentence of at least six months for an offence under any provisions of the Dowry Prohibition Act.
  • Section 9 deals with disqualification for dismissal for corruption or disloyalty, and for entering into government contracts while being a lawmaker.
  • Section 10 deals with disqualification for failure to lodge an account of election expenses.
  • Section 11 of the act deals with disqualification for corrupt practices.

How does an appeal against the conviction impact disqualification?

  • The disqualification can be reversed if a higher court grants a stay on the conviction or decides the appeal in favor of the convicted lawmaker.
  • Section 8(4) gives a period of three months from the date of conviction to file an appeal against the sentence before the higher Court.
    • Thus, the law had provided for a pause on disqualification if an appeal against the conviction was filed before a higher court.
  • However, in the 2013 ruling in ‘Lily Thomas v Union of India’, the Supreme Court struck down Section 8(4) of the RPA as unconstitutional, which means that simply filing an appeal will not be enough to prevent disqualification.
    • The convicted MP must secure a specific order of stay against the conviction of the trial court.



Keywords: GS-2 Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act, judiciary, Parliament and State legislatures.
Daily Current Affairs

Special Courts

In News: Supreme Court for State-specific approach to setting up special courts for speedy trial of legislators.


  • According to the Supreme Court (SC) a "one-size-fits-all" approach may not resolve the problem of long pendency of criminal cases involving MPs and MLAs because the burden of cases is different for each state.
  • A Special Court is a court with constrained purview, that manages a specific field of law as opposed to a specific regional ward. In India, these courts are established under the Special Courts Act of 1979.
  • In India, there are various special courts that have been established to deal with specific types of cases. These courts have been set up to provide speedy justice and to address the unique legal challenges associated with certain types of cases.


  • Special jurisdiction refers to the legal authority of courts to handle specific types of cases, such as those pertaining to bankruptcy, claims against the government, probate, family law, immigration, customs, or cases that involve a maximum monetary value. This type of jurisdiction is sometimes called limited jurisdiction.
  • Special courts are responsible for hearing cases that fall within a narrow area of jurisdiction, and their judges serve for a fixed term. In contrast, the primary function of constitutional courts is to decide whether laws under scrutiny are unconstitutional, including whether they infringe on constitutionally protected rights and freedoms.

Issue associated with Special Court

  • Special courts deprive the accused of their right to a rung of appeal. If the case of an MLA or MP whose offence can be tried by a magistrate is directly placed before a special court, the accused would lose his right to defend his case before a magistrate and also is stripped of his right to make his first appeal before a sessions court.


  • In 2017, the Supreme Court had ordered that special courts be set up across the country to fast-track the long-pending trials of lawmakers and 12 special courts were set up across 11 States exclusively to try sitting MPs and MLAs.
  • The special court in each State has jurisdiction over the entire State while the two in Delhi cover cases within the precincts of Delhi or “partly Delhi”.

Keywords: GS-2, Polity, judiciary
Daily Current Affairs

Technology and Innovation Report 2023: UNCTAD

In News:  The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has recently released a report titled “Technology and Innovation Report 2023”.


  • The report provides an in-depth analysis of current trends and issues in the field of technology and innovation.
  • It has urged national governments to ensure consistency in international agreements on trade, intellectual property, and climate change to close the green technology gap.
  • UNCTAD is a permanent intergovernmental body established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1964 to promote economic development through international trade and investment.

Major findings of the report:

  • The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the digital transformation of economies, but it has also widened the digital divide between countries and within countries.
  • The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) is increasing rapidly, but there are also concerns about its impact on jobs, inequality, and privacy.
  • Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize various sectors, including finance, supply chain management, and governance.
  • Green technologies, which include technologies like artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and electric vehicles, are growing and providing increasing economic opportunities.
  • Total exports of green technologies from developed countries jumped to over $156 billion in 2021 from about $60 billion in 2018.
  • Green technologies can create a market worth $9.5 trillion by 2030, up from $1.5 trillion in 2020 with the exports from developing countries rising to about $75 billion from $57 billion.
  • Developing countries in Asia, like India, the Philippines, and Vietnam, have made important policy changes that enabled them to perform better than expected.
  • The report also highlights the importance of international cooperation to address the challenges and opportunities presented by emerging technologies.
  • The report recommends the need to align environmental, science, technology, innovation, and industrial policies with investment in greener sectors to boost investment in research and development.


Keywords: GS-3 Science and Technology, Report and Indices
Daily Current Affairs

Government launches ‘City Finance Rankings 2022’

In News: Recently, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has launched the ‘City Finance Rankings 2022’ portal.


  • City Finance Portal's objective is to evaluate, recognize, and reward municipal bodies on financial health and improvement in performance.
  • The portal has been made entirely digital and 100% paperless, making it easier for Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) across the country to participate in the Rankings.

Major highlights:

  • ULBs will be evaluated on 15 indicators across three parameters - resource mobilization, expenditure performance, and fiscal governance.
  • Rankings to be based on ULBs' scores in four population categories - above 40 lakh, 10 lakh-40 lakh, one lakh to 10 lakh, and below one lakh.
  • Top three cities in each population category will receive recognition and awards at national and state levels.
  • Efforts will be aimed at identifying areas for improvement in financial performance to deliver quality infrastructure and services to citizens.
  • Quality Control of India (QCI) will provide handholding support to ULBs during data collection process in which the participating cities can submit required data/documents on until May 31.


Keywords: GS-2, Government policies, and Intervention
Daily Current Affairs

Hypersonic weapons

In News: IAF Chief, Air Chief Marshal V R Chaudhari recently spoke at the Def-Tech India event about India’s Aerospace Capabilities and Technology Requirements.


  • Hypersonic weapons are missiles or other types of weapons that can travel at speeds above Mach 5, which is five times the speed of sound.
  • They are designed to be highly manoeuvrable, which makes them difficult to intercept with traditional missile defense systems.
  • Hypersonic weapons can be launched from a variety of platforms, including aircraft, ships, and land-based launchers.
  • There are two main types of hypersonic weapons: hypersonic cruise missiles (HCMs) and hypersonic glide vehicles (HGVs).
    • HCMs are powered by a rocket engine and can maintain a sustained hypersonic speed throughout their flight.
    • HGVs are launched into space by a rocket and then glide back to Earth at hypersonic speeds, using their aerodynamic shape to manoeuvre and evade defense.
  • Hypersonic weapons are still in development and have not yet been widely deployed by any country.
  • The United States, Russia, and China are among the countries leading the development of hypersonic weapons.
  • Hypersonic weapons have the potential to revolutionize warfare, as they can travel faster than any existing missile defense system can intercept.


Keywords: GS-3 Science and Technology, Defence Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Sarus Crane

Why in news? Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) Forest Department has relocated a sarus crane, U.P. 's State bird, from Mandka village in Amethi to Raebareli’s Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.


  • The sarus crane, is the state bird of Uttar Pradesh.
  • They are the world’s tallest flying birds, standing around 150 cm tall.
  • The birds are predominantly gray, with long, pale red legs.
  • Juveniles have buff feathers on their head and slightly darker plumage.
  • Scientific Name: Grus antigone


  • The Sarus crane is known for its ability to live in association with humans, inhabiting open, cultivated, well-watered plains, marshlands and jheels.
  • Known to mate for life with a single partner, its breeding season coincides with heavy rainfall in monsoon.
  • In the Indian subcontinent, it is found in northern and central India, Terai Nepal and Pakistan.

Conservation Status

  • IUCN Red list of threatened species: vulnerable (VU).
  • Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule IV.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Environment & ecology, Species in news
Daily Current Affairs

Guillotine in Indian Legislative

Why in news? The ongoing stalemate in Parliament has led to speculation that the government may guillotine the demands for grants and pass the Finance Bill without any discussion.


  • The term guillotine originally referred to an apparatus designed for executions by beheading.
  • It was introduced in France during the French Revolution to make capital punishment more reliable and less painful.
  • In legislative parlance, guillotine means to bunch together and fast-track the passage of financial business. It is a fairly common procedural exercise in Lok Sabha during the Budget Session.
    • Once the guillotine is applied, any remaining demands for grants are put to vote without further discussion.
    • This ensures that the budget is passed within the allocated time, and the government can continue its work without any delay.


Keywords: General Studies – 2 Parliament, Indian Constitution
Daily Current Affairs

DNA Profiling of Elephants

Why in news? While celebrating the 30 years of ‘Project Elephant’, the MoEF&CC has announced the completion of the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Profiling of 270 elephants, aiming at ensuring better protection.


  • The DNA profiling was started in August 2022 for Gaj Soochna Mobile Application for forest
    • DNA profiling is the process where a specific DNA pattern, called a profile, is obtained from a sample of bodily tissue.
  • The DNA profiling will act as the ‘Adhaar card of captive elephants’.
  • With the mobile app, forest officers can identify each elephant and track it and therefore its transfer, which often happens in the case of captive elephants, can be recorded.
  • After the elephant profiling, more focus can be put on elephant care – with unique information about elephants.
  • Unlike Project Tiger, the Project Elephant looks at the welfare and health of captive elephants as well.


Keywords: General Studies – 3 Conservation
Daily Current Affairs

Sagar Manthan Dashboard

Why in news? Recently, the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways (MoPSW) launched Sagar Manthan dashboard.


  • It is the Real-time Performance Monitoring Dashboard of MoPSW that will monitor and track the progress of their projects.
  • This new digital platform has integrated all the data related to the Ministry and other subsidiaries.
  • Features:
    • Data visualization
    • Real-time monitoring
    • Improved communication
    • Data-driven decision making
    • Increased accountability
  • The dashboard is a positive development towards Digital India vision.
  • It will ensure the timely completion of projects, informed decision-making, increased efficiency & effectiveness of projects.
  • It will also promote risk management, resource allocation, and progress reporting.

Keywords: General Studies –3 Government Policies & Intervensions
Daily Current Affairs

Radioactive Tsunami

Why in news? Recently, North Korea claimed to have tested a nuclear-capable underwater drone designed to generate a gigantic “radioactive tsunami” that would destroy naval strike groups and ports.


  • The objective of the “secret weapon” is to infiltrate enemy waters and create an underwater explosion that will trigger tsunami waves, destroying naval strike groups and coastline targets including major ports.


  • These are a series of waves usually generated by movement of the sea floor.
  • These movements are caused by different types of geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions.
  • The word tsunami is a Japanese word, represented by two characters: tsu, meaning, “harbor”, and nami meaning, “wave”.
  • The tsunami waves behave very differently in deep water than in shallow water as their speed is related to the water depth.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Disaster Management
Daily Current Affairs

Abel Prize

Why in news? Luis Caffarelli has won the 2023 Abel Prize for his contributions to regularity theory for nonlinear partial differential equations, including free-boundary problems and the Monge-Ampère equation.


  • Named after: Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829)
  • Awarded annually to outstanding mathematicians.
  • Supports a number of measures directed towards stimulating the interest in mathematics amongst children and youths.
  • Established by: the Norwegian Government in 2002
  • Monetary award: 7.5 million Norwegian kroner (NOK) and a glass plaque.
  • It is awarded by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters on behalf of the Ministry of Education of Norway.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Scientific Innovations & Discoveries
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