Friday, 14th July 2023

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs


Nari Adalats


Performance Grading Index for Districts (PGI-D)


Export Control


Hydrazine Hydrate


Standard Operating Procedure (SoP) by CBIC


Shelf Cloud


India joins the Champions Group of the Global Crisis Response Group


Captive Breeding of Fishes


Evidence of superbug found in Delhi’s stray dogs







2   Daily Editorial Analysis


Demographic transition and change in women’s lives

.... Show less Show more
Daily Current Affairs

Nari Adalats

In News: Indian government set to launch a unique “Nari Adalat” court at the village level as an alternate dispute resolution forum.

About Nari Adalats:

  • Nari Adalats, or women's courts, are being set up at the village level in India as a unique initiative for alternate dispute resolution.
  • It will be launched on a pilot basis in 50 villages each in Assam and Jammu and Kashmir to address issues including domestic violence, property rights etc
  • These women only courts will serve as platforms for grievance redressal, reconciliation, and creating awareness about women's rights and entitlements.
  • Each Adalat will have 7-9 members, including elected gram panchayat members and women with social standing, such as teachers, doctors, and social workers.
  • The members will be nominated or selected by the villagers, ensuring representation and diversity in the decision-making process.
  • It will focus on reconciliation, raising awareness, and resolving cases within their jurisdiction.
  • Its implementation will be overseen by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, under the Sambal sub-scheme of Mission Shakti.
  • The tenure of the head known as the Mukhya Nyaya Sakhi will be approximately six months, after which a new head will be selected to ensure active involvement and fresh perspectives.
  • These Adalats, although lacking legal status, will play a crucial role in reconciliation, grievance redressal, and awareness-raising about rights and entitlements.
  • Overall, Nari Adalats holds the potential to empower women, provide accessible justice, and strengthen community support systems at the grassroots level.,and%20countering%20the%20patriarchal%20system.

Keywords: GS-2: Government initiatives
Daily Current Affairs

Performance Grading Index for Districts (PGI-D)

In News: Ministry of Education releases report on Performance Grading Index for Districts (PGI-D) for

About Performance Grading Index for Districts (PGI-D)

  • The Department of School Education and Literacy (DoSE&L) under the Ministry of Education, has recently released the PGI-D combined report for the year 2020-21 & 2021-22.
  • The report graded the performance of the school education system at the 742 and 748 districts during 2020-21 and 2021-22 across the States/UTs by creating an index for comprehensive analysis.
  • Based on the success of State PGI, an 83-indicator grouped into 6 categories and 12 domains, including Learning Outcomes and Quality, Access Outcomes, Teacher Availability etc,
  • Districts are graded as Daksh for scoring more than 90% of the total points in a category or overall and Akanshi-3 which is lowest for scoring up to 10% of the total points.
  • Highest scoring district in PGI-D is Pathanamthitta in Kerala with a score of 518, followed by Kottayam in Kerala with a score of 516.
  • Lowest scoring district in PGI-D is Kiphire in Nagaland with a score of 79, followed by Longleng in Nagaland with a score of 80.
  • Top performing states/UTs in terms of average score of their districts are Kerala, Chandigarh, Delhi, Tamil Nadu, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • Most improved states/UTs in terms of average score of their districts from 2018-19 to 2020-21 & 2021-22 are Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.
  • With Indian Education System being one of the largest in the world, PGI-D will help districts to prioritize areas for intervention in school education besides improving the reach to the highest grade.


Keywords: GS-III: Education, Government reports
Daily Current Affairs

Export Control

In News: China has recently announced that it will impose export controls on gallium and germanium, two critical elements for semiconductor manufacturing, from August 1, 2023.

About Gallium and Germanium:

  • Gallium:
    • Gallium is used to make gallium arsenide which forms the core substrate for semiconductors.
    • They are used to manufacture semiconductor wafers utilised in integrated circuits, mobile and satellite communications (in chipsets), and LEDs (in displays).
    • Gallium is also used in automotives and lighting, and for sensors in avionic, space and defence systems.
  • Germanium:
    • Germanium is a lustrous, hard, silvery-white semi-metal which is used in electronic and optical devices.
    • It is used in fibre-optic cables, infrared imaging devices - used by enforcement agencies for surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance and optical devices - to improve the ability to operate weapon systems in harsh conditions.
    • They are also used in solar cells for their ability to withstand heat and higher energy conversion efficiency.

Reasons for China’s export control measures:

  • The Chinese Ministry of Commerce announced that it would implement export controls on items related to gallium and germanium in order to safeguard national security interests.
  • It appears to be a retaliatory step over the export control measures by the US, Japan and Netherlands to restrict China’s ability to obtain advanced computing chips, develop and maintain supercomputers, and manufacture advanced semiconductors.

Impact of the Export Control decision by China:

  • Shortage of critical raw material for chip industry as China commands 80% of gallium production and 60% of Germanium production.
  • Supply Chain disruption for import dependent nations. The European Commission has an import dependency of 71% and 45% for gallium and germanium respectively in China.
  • Increase in prices of Semiconductors. Restrictions may lead to an increase in prices of gallium and germanium in the global market resulting in increased prices of semiconductor devices.
  • Diversification of supply chain. Restrictions of raw materials present an opportunity to the global market to diversify its supply sources and create a resilient supply chain.
  • Export controls may have a short-term impact on India and its industries, however long-term consequences depend on alternative supply sources and domestic production capabilities.



Keywords: GS-1 Mineral & Energy Resources; GS-2 India and its Neighbourhood, International Geopolitics
Daily Current Affairs

Hydrazine Hydrate

In News: In alignment with the Atma Nirbhar Bharat mission, Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd (GACL), a chlor-alkali producer has started shipments of indigenously produced Hydrazine Hydrate to reduce import dependence on Europe.

About Hydrazine Hydrate:

  • Hydrazine Hydrate (N2H4H2O) is a colorless liquid that is widely used as a reducing agent.
  • It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling water reactors and in the process of electrolytic plating of metals on plastic and glass.
  • Hydrazine Hydrate has applications in industries such as Pesticides, Agrochemicals, Water Treatment, Pharmaceuticals, blowing agent in Polymer Industry, Fine Chemicals

Significance of indigenous production of Hydrazine Hydrate and Phosphoric Acid:

  • Hydrazine Hydrate is an import-substitute product with world-class quality that will help in reducing the country’s dependency on imports, thereby saving valuable foreign exchange.
  • In order to overcome the import-dependence, GACL and CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad, jointly received patents from India and the US for indigenous manufacturing of Hydrazine Hydrate (H6N2O).
  • GACL established a commercial-scale plant in Dahej to manufacture 10,000 metric tonnes per annum of Hydrazine Hydrate.
  • India has a very few manufacturers for Purified Phosphoric Acid, thus requiring imports of around 35,000 MTA Purified Phosphoric Acid. It has applications in Sugar Refining, Edible Oil Refining, Beverages, and Pharmaceuticals among others.
  • Purified Phosphoric Acid plant set up by GACL will further reduce import dependency and herald an era of Atma Nirbhar Bharat. .

Keywords: GS- 2 Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Standard Operating Procedure (SoP) by CBIC

Why in News: The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has issued a standard operating procedure (SoP) to prevent the use of freebies, illicit liquor, and other prohibited items to lure voters during elections.

Standard Operating Procedure (SoP):

  • SoP is a set of guidelines and instructions that define how a particular task or process should be carried out.
  • These guidelines and instructions ensure consistency, enhances efficiency and help to compliance with the set protocols.
  • SoP by CBIC:
    • It aims to ensure fair and transparent elections by preventing the flow of suspicious cash, illicit liquor, drugs/narcotics, freebies and smuggled goods during assembly and general elections.
    • CBIC has instructed its field officials to monitor both monetary and non-monetary inducements used during the election process.
    • The officers will report their activities to the Election Commission on a daily basis.

Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC):

  • It was formerly known as the Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC). It is one of the Statutory Boards constituted under the statute the Central Boards of Revenue Act, 1963 (54 of 1963).
  • It is subordinate to the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
  • It is headed by a chairman and has 6 members in addition to the Chairman.
  • It deals mainly with the tasks of formulation and implementation of policy concerning to the levy and collection of Customs duties, Central Excise duties and Goods & Services tax, prevention of smuggling and administration of matters relating to Customs, Central Excise, Central Goods and Service Tax (CGST) and Narcotics to the extent under CBIC’s purview.,contraband%2C%E2%80%9D%20the%20CBIC%20said.

Keywords: GS – 2: Indian Polity (Election)
Daily Current Affairs

Shelf Cloud

Why in News: A terrifying shelf cloud recently appeared in Uttarakhand’s Haridwar.

Shelf Cloud:

  • A “shelf cloud” or “Arcus cloud” generally forms along the leading edge of thunderstorms.
  • It is a type of low-lying, horizontal cloud formation characterized by a clearly defined line of solid clouds.
  • It is known for its distinctive wedge-shaped They usually appear as a broad arc across the sky that can sometimes appear to be rotating horizontally.
  • Formation:
    • It forms when cold and dense air is forced into a warmer air mass by wind.
    • As the warm air rises, it cools and condenses, forming a cloud. The rising air creates a boundary between the cool, downdraft air from the storm and the warm, updraft air ahead of it.
    • Shelf clouds produced by thunderstorms are always preceded by a rush of dry and cold air ahead of the cloud, with rain arriving after the shelf cloud has passed overhead.


  • A thunderstorm is a rain shower during which the thunder is heard. This thunder is due to lightening. So, all thunderstorms have lightening.
  • Thunderstorms form when warm, moist air rises into cold air. The warm air becomes cooler, which causes moisture, called water vapor, to form small water droplets. The cooled air drops lower in the atmosphere, warms, and rises again. This forms a circuit called Convection cell.
  • If this happens a small amount, a cloud will form. If this happens with large amounts of air and moisture, a thunderstorm can form.

Keywords: GS – 1: Physical Geography (Weather and Climate)
Daily Current Affairs

India joins the Champions Group of the Global Crisis Response Group

Why in news? Recently, India has accepted an invitation from United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres to join the Champions Group of the Global Crisis Response Group (GCRG).


  • The GCRG was established (in 2022) by the UN Secretary-General to address urgent global issues related to food security, energy, and finance, and to coordinate a global response.
  • UN Deputy-Secretary-General leads the Steering Committee of the GCRG involving 32 UN agencies, international and regional financial institutions, and multi-stakeholder partners.
  • It is overseen by the Champions Group consisting of heads of state or government from Bangladesh, Barbados, Denmark, Germany, Indonesia, and Senegal.
  • Within the Group, three work streams on Food, Energy and Finance has set up.
    • They will collate data and generate analysis, policy recommendations and solutions to support decision-making and advocacy for consideration of the Steering Committee.

More Information:

  • India’s decision to join the group signifies its growing global leadership and commitment to addressing contemporary global challenges.
  • India’s participation will enhance the United Nations’ efforts in finding effective solutions for developmental issues that affect the world, particularly developing countries.

Keywords: General Studies – 2 Important International Institutions
Daily Current Affairs

Captive Breeding of Fishes

Why in news? The Centre for Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) in Visakhapatnam is engaged in captive breeding and seed production of Groupers, John’s Snapper, and Indian Pompano at its mariculture lab.



  • Captive breeding of fishes refers to the practice of breeding and rearing fish species in controlled environments such as fish farms, hatcheries, or aquariums.
  • The stages in development of fish are; eggs – larvae – fingerlings – juvenile – grow out – adult.
  • The grow out to adult stage takes about six months.
  • The Indian Pompano commands the maximum demand. A fully grown adult of this species can weigh between 2.5 kg and 5 kg. Groupers can grow up to 9 kg and John’s Snapper weighs up to 8 kg. appalu chepa
  • These fish species, typically found in deep waters, are being bred to provide sustained income to coastal fish farmers affected by frequent cyclones.

appalu chepa

About CMFRI:

  • The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute is the leading tropical marine fisheries research institute in the world.
  • It was established in 1947 under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, and later joined the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) family in 1967.
  • The institute is headquartered in Kochi, Kerala, and has four regional centers and seven regional stations spread across India.


Keywords: General Studies – 3 Environment, Conservation
Daily Current Affairs

Evidence of superbug found in Delhi’s stray dogs

Why in news? Recently, Scientists have discovered and isolated the first live culture of the superbug Candida auris, a disease-causing fungus, from the ear canals of Delhi's stray dogs.


  • Candida auris (C. auris) is a drug-resistant, emerging fungus that can cause persistent and severe infections and widespread outbreaks in hospitals.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it one of the world's four 'critical priority' fungal pathogens.
  • auris can survive in harsh conditions i.e., in tidal marshes and in environments with extremely high salinity.
  • Origin:
    • It was first identified in Japan in 2009
    • The fungus has been reported in more than 40 countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, South Africa, and Australia.
  • Spread
    • It is generally thought to be spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or by person-to-person transmission.
  • Infections Caused:
    • It has caused bloodstream infections, wound infections, and ear infections.
  • Symptoms
    • Its symptoms are often similar to those of other common diseases, such as fever and chills that do not go away after treatment with antibiotics.
  • Treatment
    • It is resistance to multiple classes of antifungal drugs.
    • Most C. auris infections are treatable with a class of antifungal drugs called echinocandins.
  • Findings
    • Report documents for the first time the isolation of live C. auris culture from an animal source.
    • Overall, 4 of the 87 dogs (4.5%) contained evidence of C. auris infection or colonisation in their ear and on the surface of their skin.
    • The recent finding suggests pets could act as reservoirs for superbugs, potentially transmitting infections to humans.

Keywords: General Studies –3 Biotechnology
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, a new study has revealed that Injecting ageing monkeys with a ‘longevity factor’ protein that can restore levels of Klotho, can improve their cognitive function.


  • Klotho is a protein that is primarily produced in the kidneys.
  • Circulating levels of soluble Klotho decrease with age and the Klotho gene is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases.
  • It has been shown to suppress both oxidative stress and age-related inflammation and hence makes it an effective anti-inflammatory and anti-aging factor.

Key Findings:

  • The findings, published in Nature Aging, could lead to new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.
  • It is the first time that restoring levels of klotho — a naturally occurring protein that declines in our bodies with age — has been shown to improve cognition in a primate.
  • Previous research on mice had shown that injections of klotho can extend the animals’ lives and increases synaptic plasticity— the capacity to control communication between neurons, at junctions called synapses.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Biotechnology
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? The port city of Guayaquil in Ecuador (a route for cocaine trafficking from neighbouring Colombia to the United States and Europe) is grappling with a devastating battle for control among criminal gangs, leaving the country broken.


  • Ecuador is on South America’s west coast.
  • It is bordered by Colombia to the north, Peru to the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
  • The capital of Ecuador is Quito, which is located in the Andes Mountains.
  • Ecuador is a diverse country, with a variety of landscapes, including the Amazon rainforest, the Andes Mountains, and the Galapagos Islands.
  • Ecuador is home to a variety of wildlife, including jaguars, monkeys, parrots, and penguins.
  • Ecuador’s role in the drug trade dates back to the 1980s, when it was a transit route for Peruvian coca base trafficked into Colombia.

Keywords: General Studies –1 Geography
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? Sweden’s request for joining NATO membership has been facing hurdles (Turkey and Hungary have still not approved).


  • Sweden is a country located in Northern Europe.
  • It is a Scandinavian nation with thousands of coastal islands and inland lakes, along with vast boreal forests and glaciated mountains.
  • It is bordered by Norway to the west and Finland to the northeast, and it is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund Strait.
  • Stockholm is the capital and largest city of Sweden, built on 14 islands.


  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance between 31 member states – 29 European and two North American.
  • It was formed in 1949 to promote mutual defence and collective security among its members.
  • Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium.
  • Recently, Finland became NATO's 31st member in April 2023.

Keywords: General Studies –1 Geography
Daily Editorial Analysis

Demographic transition and change in women’s lives

Exam View: India’s population status; Changes for Indian women; Harnessing gender dividend.

Context: Women’s childhood, adulthood, and old age have all been transformed in India’s demographic journey.

Background: India’s population status

  • Today, life expectancy for men is 69 years, and nearly 50% live to see the ripe old age of 75.
    • In 1941, male life expectancy was about 56 years; only 50% of boys survived to age 28.
  • The Total Fertility Rate fell from 5.7 in 1950 to 2.1 in 2019 because the rapid decline in mortality took parents by surprise, who no longer needed to have four children to ensure that at least two would survive.
  • Women’s childhood, adulthood, and old age have been transformed over the course of demographic transition, sometimes positively, sometimes negatively.

Decoding the editorial: Changes for Indian women

  • Birth and Meta son preference:
    • With four children, the chance of not having a son was barely 6%, but with two children, it grew to 25%.
    • Social norms and patrilocal kinship patterns combined with lack of financial security reinforce a preference for sons.
    • The India Human Development Survey (IHDS) found that 85% of women respondents expected to rely on their sons for old age support, while only 11% expected support from their daughters.
    • Hence, parents who want to ensure that they have at least one son among their one or two child families, resort to sex-selective abortion, and, in some cases, the neglect of sick daughters.
    • Consequently, the number of girls per 100 boys, ages under five dropped from 96 to 91 between 1950 and 2019.
  • Education:
    • With a fertility decline, active mothering occupies a smaller proportion of women’s lives, creating space for education and employment.
      • The number of years women spend caring for children under five declined from 14 years in 1992-93 to eight in 2018-20; the years spent caring for children ages six to 15 dropped from 20 to 14 years.
    • However, early marriage and childbearing still remain the predominant forces defining women’s lives despite women’s educational attainment.
    • The average age at first birth was about 20 for women born in the 1940s and still remains well below 22 years for those born in the 1980s.
  • Labour force participation:
    • Early motherhood explains why lower fertility does not translate into higher labour force participation for women.
    • By the time peak childcare demands end, they miss the window for occupations that require specific skills, leaving only unskilled work open to them.
  • Life expectancy:
    • With rising life expectancy, the proportion of the female population aged 65 and above increased from 5% to 11% between 1950 and 2022, and is projected to reach 21% by 2050. It has unique implications.
      • Women generally marry men who are older and are more likely to outlive their husbands.
      • The 2011 Census shows that while only 18% of men above age 65 are widowed, about 55% of the women are widowed.
    • For widowed women, the lack of access to savings and property results in dependence on children, mainly sons, bringing the vicious cycle of son preference to full circle.

Harnessing gender dividend

  • Enhancing women’s access to employment and assets
    • It will reduce their reliance on sons and could break the vicious cycle of gendered disadvantage, stretching from childhood to old age.
  • Access to safe and affordable childcare.
    • A World Bank evaluation based on a randomised controlled trial in Madhya Pradesh found that the expansion of Anganwadis to include a crèche led to an increase in the work participation of mothers.
    • Making staffing crèche an acceptable form of work under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) could help with childcare.
    • The burgeoning self-help group movement can be harnessed to set up neighbourhood child-care centres in urban and rural areas.

Obtaining the much hoped for demographic dividend cannot be done without fully harnessing the gender dividend.


Keywords: GS Paper-1: Role of women; Social empowerment; Issues related to women.
Rating 0.0
Please rate the article below, your opinion matter to us
A notification message..

Share the article

Share the article


Edukemy’s Current Affairs Quiz is published with multiple choice questions for UPSC exams


14th Jul '23 Quiz
Subscribe now

Get Latest Updates on Offers, Event dates, and free Mentorship sessions.

*you’ll be agreeing to our Terms & Conditions

Get in touch with our Expert Academic Counsellors 👋

Preferred time to call

Frequently Asked Questions

UPSC Daily Current Affairs focuses on learning current events on a daily basis. An aspirant needs to study regular and updated information about current events, news, and relevant topics that are important for UPSC aspirants. It covers national and international affairs, government policies, socio-economic issues, science and technology advancements, and more.

UPSC Daily Current Affairs provides aspirants with a concise and comprehensive overview of the latest happenings and developments across various fields. It helps aspirants stay updated with current affairs and provides them with valuable insights and analysis, which are essential for answering questions in the UPSC examinations. It enhances their knowledge, analytical skills, and ability to connect current affairs with the UPSC syllabus.

UPSC Daily Current Affairs covers a wide range of topics, including politics, economics, science and technology, environment, social issues, governance, international relations, and more. It offers news summaries, in-depth analyses, editorials, opinion pieces, and relevant study materials. It also provides practice questions and quizzes to help aspirants test their understanding of current affairs.

Edukemy's UPSC Daily Current Affairs can be accessed through:

  • UPSC Daily Current Affairs can be accessed through Current Affairs tab at the top of the Main Page of Edukemy. 
  • Edukemy Mobile app: The Daily Current Affairs can also be access through Edukemy Mobile App. 
  • Social media: Follow Edukemy’s official social media accounts or pages that provide UPSC Daily Current Affairs updates, including Facebook, Twitter, or Telegram channels.

Have questions about a course or test series?

unread messages    ?   
Ask an Expert


Help us make sure you are you through an OTP:

Please enter correct Name

Please authenticate via OTP

Please enter correct mobile number
Please enter OTP

Please enter correct Name
Please enter correct mobile number

OTP has been sent.

Please enter OTP