Friday, 5th May 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


Maoist movement in India

2   Daily Current Affairs


Divorce on Irretrievable Breakdown under Article 142


Curbing Promotion of Online Gambling


Black Tigers


Report On Currency and Finance (RCF)


Coal Ministry Action Plan 2023-24 Target


WMO and El Nino


Procedure for blocking mobile apps


CU-Chayan Portal


Kalesar National Park


World Press Freedom Index 2023


Rail Vikas Nigam Limited (RVNL)


National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO)


Krishi MApper


Global Report on Food Crisis


Digital Twin City



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Editorial of the day

Maoist movement in India

Exam View: Government’s approach towards Maoists; The “Maoist movement” and the development conundrum.

Context: The efficacy of the Maoist movement needs to be gauged in terms of their declining social base, not on the basis of how many violent incidents occur. Also, the social question of exclusion cannot be understood either through the securitisation paradigm or through a singular focus on violence and overthrow of state power.

Decoding the editorial: Government’s approach towards Maoists

  • Argument: There is a declining Maoist presence and the use of more force will finish its vestigial influence.
    • This includes specially-trained forces such as the Greyhounds and extra-judicial experiments involving civilians such as the Salwa Judum.
  • Counter-argument: Many studies have shown that the use of more force only helped the Maoists recruit from the local tribal population.
    • The Maoist movement moved from the leadership of outsiders (mostly from Telangana) to that of local tribals.
    • Such internal changes often lead to local support among the tribals in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.

  • Argument: The efficacy of the movement needs to be gauged on the basis of how many violent incidents occur.
  • Counter-argument: The efficacy of the movement needs to be gauged in terms of its declining social base.
    • Evaluation on violent occurrences often ends up giving the wrong picture because it could well be a political strategy of the Maoists to go silent.
    • The wrong assessment could lead to lapses on the part of the security forces.

  • Argument: Development can enhance the state reach, improve governance, bring in welfare and development as part of the “strategy” to mellow down and make the Maoists irrelevant.
  • Counter-argument: The state’s model of development has resulted in the displacement of tribals.
    • The D Bandyopadhyay Committee, set up by the Planning Commission in 2006, stated in its report that land alienation and poverty among Scheduled Tribes and Dalits, and lack of access to basic forest resources contributed to the growth of Naxalism.
    • The adverse impact of “development” also led to peaceful protests such as the Pathalgarhi movement in Jharkhand, where the tribals proclaimed sovereignty over resources in the areas they have inhabited for centuries.
    • Attempts were made by the previous governments by invoking the Eminent Domain doctrine, arguing that all resources belong to the nation and can be extracted in the “national interest”.

The “Maoist movement” and the development conundrum

  • The Maoists too have a simplistic understanding of the situation and do not have solutions to the new aspirations and generational shifts.
    • Sections of tribals desire modern development, including access to modern infrastructure, roads, transport, schools and hospitals. Such a section may not want to live off natural resources and continue with age-old practices.
  • It has hollowed out as a political project because of their inability to understand various shades, the multiplicity of demands and growing social differentiation among the tribals.
  • The tribals should not be the fodder for a political vision of takeover of state power by the Maoists.
  • Civil rights activist K Balagopal noted, the Maoists, who claim to represent the poor, seem to end up killing more of this social base when they target jawans and tribals for being “informants”.

One thing that was common between Ambedkar and Gandhi was their steadfast position that matters of social exclusion and caste cannot be addressed through violence. Both remained champions of non-violence and constitutional means. There is a need to address multiple and sometimes contradictory demands of subaltern groups that cannot be brought together under a single idea of development or even welfare.



Keywords: GS Paper – 3: Left Wing Extremism, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Divorce on Irretrievable Breakdown under Article 142

In News: Supreme Court (SC) ruled that it can exercise its plenary power to do “complete justice” under Article 142(1) to dissolve a marriage on the ground that it had broken down irretrievably, without referring the parties to a family court where they must wait 6-18 months for a decree of divorce by mutual consent.

Highlights of the Supreme Court ruling:

  • In Shilpa Sailesh vs Varun Sreenivasan case, the SC held that under extraordinary powers of Article 142, it can waive the mandatory six-month waiting period for divorce under Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955, and allow the dissolution of marriage on grounds of irretrievable breakdown.
  • The SC also observed that the same extraordinary power could be used to quash pending criminal or legal proceedings, between the couples to wipe the slate clean and help them start afresh their separate lives.
  • The court noted that the entire law of divorce was built predominantly on “assigning fault” on one or the other partner which fails to serve broken marriages.
  • However, the judgement cautioned that grant of divorce by SC on the ground of irretrievable breakdown of marriage was not a matter of right, but a discretion which is to be exercised with great care and caution.

Current procedure for divorce under the HMA, 1955

  • Section 13B of the HMA provides for “divorce by mutual consent” where both parties must together file a petition to the district court on the ground that they have been living separately for a period of one year or more.
  • Under Section 13B(2) of the Act, the parties must move a second motion before the court “not earlier than six months after the first petition and not later than 18 months”.
  • Thereafter, the court shall hear the parties and after being convinced that the averments in the petition are true, pass a decree of divorce declaring the marriage to be dissolved.
  • Usually a petition for divorce by mutual consent can be moved only after a year of the marriage. However, Section 14 of the HMA allows a divorce petition sooner in case of “exceptional hardship to the petitioner or of exceptional depravity on the part of the respondent”.
  • In the 2021 ruling, the SC said that if there was a chance of reconciliation, a cooling period of 6 months was to be enforced. However, if there seems no possibility of reconciliation, it would be meaningless to prolong the agony of the parties to the marriage.

Irretrievable breakdown of Marriage: Several factors would be considered by the Supreme Court before invoking Article 142 in matrimonial cases on the ground of “irretrievable breakdown of marriage”

  • Court should be fully convinced and satisfied that the marriage is totally unworkable, emotionally dead and beyond salvation
  • Period of time that the parties had cohabited after marriage and when they last cohabitated.
  • Nature of allegations made by the parties against each other and their family members;
  • Orders passed in the legal proceedings from time to time;
  • Cumulative impact on the personal relationship;
  • Whether, attempts were made to settle the disputes by a court or through mediation.


Keywords: GS-1 Indian Society and issues associate to Women, GS-2 Judiciary
Daily Current Affairs

Curbing Promotion of Online Gambling

In News: The Centre has asked States to take action against online betting and gambling platforms using outdoor media, such as hoardings and posters, to promote their websites and applications.

About the News:

  • The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had issued an advisory in June 2022, directing mainstream print, electronic and digital media, to refrain from advertisements of online betting websites and gambling platforms.
  • Such advertisements were prima facie found to be misleading, and not in strict conformity with the Consumer Protection Act.
  • Since betting and gambling is illegal in most parts of the country, they pose financial and social economic risk for the consumers, especially youth and children.
  • Later the Ministry issued two more advisories to curb the practice of surrogate advertising of online betting and gambling on private satellite television channels, digital news publishers and OTT platforms.
  • However, it has now come to the notice that some betting and gambling platforms have started using outdoor media such as hoardings, posters, banners, auto rickshaw branding, etc. to promote their websites/apps in India.

Legal Framework with respect to betting and gambling in India

  • Gambling in India is largely a state subject. This means states are expected to create their own laws to regulate gambling in their jurisdictions.
  • Every state in India prohibits any sort of gambling, betting or wagering on games of chance. Exceptions: Goa, Sikkim, and the UT of Daman.
  • Public Gambling Act, 1867, India’s only central law that governs gambling in all its forms is old, obsolete and ill-equipped to handle the challenges of digital casinos, online gambling and gaming.



Keywords: GS-2 Government Policies & Interventions, Judgments & Cases
Daily Current Affairs

Black Tigers

In News: Death of rare Black Tiger in Odisha's Similipal Tiger Reserve

About Black Tigers:

  • These are rare Bengal tigers with a gene mutation that causes them to have distinctive dark stripe patterns.
  • They are not a specific species but rather a color variant of the typically orange Bengal tiger with dark coats or pseudo-melanistic or false coloured when spotted in camera traps.
  • The black tigers are only found in the Simlipal Tiger Reserve in India's Odisha state which has the world's highest rate of black tiger sightings.
  • The tigers in this geographical territory are an isolated population in eastern India, with restricted gene flow between them and other tiger populations.
  • This isolated and inbred population makes them prone to extinction over even short periods of time.
  • Since the population of black tigers in Similipal is very limited, experts have apprehension that the death of a male tiger will definitely affect the breeding of tigers in the region.


Keywords: GS-III: Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Report On Currency and Finance (RCF)

In News: RBI releases report on “Currency and Finance (RCF) for the year 2022-23

About the report:

  • The theme of the report for 2022-23 is 'Towards a Greener Cleaner India' and it focuses on climate change, challenges to sustainable growth.
  • The report covers four major dimensions of climate change to assess future challenges to sustainable high growth in India viz.,
    • Unprecedented scale and pace of climate change;
    • Macroeconomic effects
    • Implications for financial stability
    • Policy options to mitigate climate risks.
  • As per the Climate Change Performance Index(2023), India currently ranks the best amongst G-20 countries in terms of climate action plan to reduce carbon emissions.
  • India’s green financing requirement is estimated to be at least 2.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) annually till 2030.
  • For India to further achieve its net zero target by 2070 the country would require an accelerated reduction in the energy intensity of GDP by around 5 percent annually.
  • Of the total funding for energy transition, a significant improvement in its energy mix has to be in favour of renewables to around 80 percent by 2070-71.
  • The report has also highlighted the need for a balanced policy intervention with progress ensured across all policy levers.
  • Target oriented policy outcomes are needed for India to achieve its green transition targets by 2030 and later make the net zero goal by 2070


Keywords: GS-III: Important reports
Daily Current Affairs

Coal Ministry Action Plan 2023-24 Target

In News: Ministry of Coal has created an Action Plan 2023-24 to achieve Aatmanirbhar Bharat by enhancing coal production, efficiency, sustainability, and technology.

About Coal Action Plan 2023-24:

  • Coal Production: The Ministry has finalized the total coal production target of 1012 MT for Fiscal Year 2023-24.
  • Outsourcing of Mines: Government will take various steps to increase coal production and efficiency for the operationalization of CIL Mines/Blocks and production in discontinued/abandoned mines on a revenue-sharing basis.
  • Coking Coal Strategy: The Ministry will also formulate a coking coal strategy to enhance coking coal availability in the country to reduce imports.
  • Quality of Coal: The Ministry and coal companies will take various measures to achieve the objective of supply of quality coal to all consumers such as use of Third-party sampling agencies for both power and non-power coal consumers.
  • Private Investment: The government has set CAPEX target for FY 2023-24 at Rs 21030 Crores while the overall projected target of Assets Monetization plan for FY 2023-24 is Rs. 50,118.61 Crores.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Push for new railway line projects that are critical for coal evacuation and is undertaking Mapping of Coal Sector besides adopting a Coal Logistics Policy/Plan for effective and environmental friendly transport of coal.
  • Safety in Mines: Commitment to the best safety standards and utmost priority to safety in Coal Mines, including disaster management, safety management & response drills, use of PPE, etc.
  • Technology Push to Coal: Monitoring framework for coal companies for implementation of Technology use such as Drone, Remote sensing etc., to promote efficiency, safety, and the environment.
  • Diversification of Coal India Limited (CIL): It will be diversified for sustainable future business operations like New Business Areas including Aluminium, Power, Solar wafer & Renewable etc.
  • Sustainability in Coal Sector: Promoting a sustainable development model in which coal production goes hand in hand with environmental protection besides resource conservation.


Keywords: GS-III: Infrastructure
Daily Current Affairs

WMO and El Nino

In News: World Meteorological Organisation predicts extreme Weather across the world owing to the possibility of El Niño event later this year.

About WMO & El Nino:

  • El Niño is characterized by an unusual warming of waters in the eastern equatorial Pacific and has a high correlation with warmer summers in India and weaker monsoon rains.
  • It leads to increased rainfall in parts of southern South America, the southern United States, the Horn of Africa, and central Asia while severe droughts over Australia, Indonesia, and parts of southern Asia.
  • During summer in the northern hemisphere, El Niño’s warm water can fuel hurricanes in the central/eastern Pacific Ocean and it can hinder hurricane formation in the Atlantic Basin.

Impact on Global Temperature:

  • El Niño might bring respite from the drought in the Horn of Africa and other La Niña-related impacts but could also trigger more extreme weather and climate events.
  • It’s impact on rising global temperatures usually plays out in the year after its development and is likely to be felt globally in 2024.
  • The development of El Niño will most likely lead to a new spike in global heating and increase the chance of breaking temperature records.

Impact on India:

  • As per WMO map, most parts of north, northeast, northwest, and central India will experience dry periods during the June to September monsoon season.
  • The monsoon season is crucial to India’s agriculture, bringing about 70% of India’s annual rainfall and are a lifeline for about 60% of the country’s net cultivated area, which has no irrigation.

El Nino

  • The name "El Niño" means "the boy" in Spanish, and it refers to the Christ child, as the phenomenon often occurs around Christmas time.

  • It is a climate phenomenon that occurs every few years in the tropical Pacific Ocean, and it can have significant impacts on weather patterns and climate across the world.
  • The phenomenon is characterized by a warming of the surface waters in the eastern equatorial Pacific, which can have far-reaching effects on global climate.
  • During an El Niño event, the normal ocean and atmospheric patterns that exist across the Pacific can shift, causing changes in rainfall patterns, temperatures, and winds around the world.
  • The effects can also lead to more frequent and intense hurricanes in the eastern Pacific, while the Atlantic is often less affected.


Keywords: GS-I: Geography: El Nino
Daily Current Affairs

Procedure for blocking mobile apps

In News: The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) recently issued orders to block 138 online betting platforms and 94 money lending apps on an “urgent” and “emergency” basis under Section 69(A) of the Information Technology Act, 2000.


  • Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, 2000, was introduced by an amendment to the Act in 2008 that gives the Central government the power to block public access to any information online whether on websites or mobile apps.
  • According to Section 69A, if a website poses a threat to India's defense, sovereignty, integrity, friendly relations with foreign countries, or public order, the government has the authority to prohibit it, following the appropriate procedures.
  • The specific steps required to carry out this action are outlined in the Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking Access of Information by Public) Rules of 2009.
  • Threema, Zangi, Wickr Me, Crypviser, and BChat are some of the latest banned apps by the government of India.


Keywords: GS –3 GS –2 Government Policies & Interventions, IT & Computers
Daily Current Affairs

CU-Chayan Portal

In News: Recently, University Grants Commission (UGC) has launched CU-Chayan, a unified faculty recruitment portal for Central Universities.


  • CU-Chayan portal is a completely user-friendly portal and caters to the needs of all the stakeholders in the recruitment process.
  • The portal provides a common platform for listing vacancies/advertisements/jobs across all Central Universities.
  • The portal makes the recruitment process completely online starting from application to screening with alerts to all the users of the portal.
  • The applicant can also search for jobs using various filters like the name of the university, location, designation, category, subject, type of employment, experience, and education level.

Features of the CU-Chayan Portal

  • single applicant login for applying to any/all central universities,
  • real-time tracking of applications,
  • a personalized dashboard for each applicant,
  • admin dashboard for each university/ department,
  • online feedback/ reference for applicants,
  • and real-time analysis and application insights.


Keywords: GS –2 Education, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Kalesar National Park

In News: The Haryana forest department has launched efforts to trace pug marks of a tiger that was caught in a camera trap at Kalesar National Park in Yamunanagar — the first sighting of the big cat in any part of the state in 110 years.


  • Kalesar Park is adjacent to Simbalbara National Park in Himachal’s Sirmaur district. It shares a corridor with Himachal Pradesh’s Simbalbara National Park and Uttarakhand’s Rajaji National Park.
  • It falls under Yamunanagar District of Haryana, sharing boundary with three States viz., Himachal Pradesh, Uttranchal & U.P.
  • A part of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as Kalesar national park in the year 2003.
  • The national park covers a total area of 46.82 sq. Km.
  • In 1996, it was designated as a Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Kalesar National Park is named after the Kalesar (Shiva) temple located in a protected area.
  • The entire region is rich in biodiversity, with deep Sal forests, Khair woodland, and sward land cover that sustain a diverse range of flora and wildlife.


Keywords: GS –3 Ecology and Environment
Daily Current Affairs

World Press Freedom Index 2023

In News: India slips in World Press Freedom Index, ranks 161 out of 180 countries.


  • World Press Freedom Index is an annual report published by the global media watchdog Reporters Without Borders (RSF). It compares the level of freedom enjoyed by journalists and media in 180 countries and territories.

The ranking is based on five categories

  • Political,
  • Legislative,
  • Economic,
  • Sociocultural,
  • Safety of journalists.

Highlights of the 2023 Report:

  • India is ranked 161 out of 180 countries. Press freedom in India has gone from “problematic” to “very bad”, with the country slipping 11 ranks since the 2022 report.
  • Except for Bangladesh (163), Myanmar (173), and China (179), all other neighbours have a better rank than India -- Bhutan (90), Nepal (95), Sri Lanka (135), Pakistan (150), Afghanistan (152).
  • India was positioned 169 in political indicators while it was 144 in legislative, 155 in economic, 143 in social indicators, and 172 in the safety of journalists.
  • Norway is ranked first for the seventh consecutive year.

About Reporters Without Borders (RSF):

  • It is an international NGO whose self-proclaimed aim is to defend and promote media freedom.
  • Its headquarter is located in the Paris, France.
  • It has consultative status with the United Nations.
  • RSF defines press freedom as “the ability of journalists as individuals and collectives to select, produce, and disseminate news in the public interest independent of political, economic, legal and social interference and in the absence of threats to their physical and mental safety.”


Keywords: GS-2 Report and Indexes
Daily Current Affairs

Rail Vikas Nigam Limited (RVNL)

Why in news? Recently, Rail Vikas Nigam Limited (RVNL), a central public sector enterprise under the Ministry of Railways, has been granted Navratna Status.


  • RVNL was incorporated in 2003 with the objective of implementing rail infrastructure projects on a fast-track basis and raising extra budgetary resources for SPV projects.
  • The company began operations in 2005 after the appointment of its board of directors.
  • It was granted Mini-Ratna status in 2013.
  • With the grant of Navratna status, RVNL will enjoy enhanced delegation of powers, more operational freedom and financial autonomy.
  • RVNL has been assigned the functions of undertaking project development and execution of works covering the full project lifecycle, creating project specific SPVs for individual works if required, and handing over completed railway projects to the concerned zonal railway for operation and maintenance.
  • RVNL has an authorized share capital of Rs. 3000 crore and a paid-up share capital of Rs. 2085 crore.
  • The company has implemented several projects in the rail sector, including doubling and electrification of existing lines, construction of new lines, and gauge conversion projects.


Keywords: General Studies –2 Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO)

Why in news? Recently, The Union Health Ministry said it will soon release a transplant manual and a standard course for training transplant coordinators.


  • The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO) is working on a transplant manual as a step-by-step guide for the implementation of organ donation and transplantation programmes in hospitals and a standard course for training of transplant coordinators.
  • NOTTO is set up under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, located in New Delhi.
  • National Network division of NOTTO functions as apex centre for all India activities for procurement, distribution and registry of organs and tissues donation and transplantation in the country.


Keywords: General Studies – 2 Health
Daily Current Affairs

Krishi MApper

Why in news? Recently, Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers inaugurated the Krishi MApper.


  • Krishi MApper is an integrated app for Geospatial Data in Agriculture.
    • Geospatial data refers to information that describes objects, events or other features with a location on or near the surface of the earth.
  • Benefits: Will help in better management of resources, prediction of crop outcomes, increasing yields improving farm practices etc.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Agriculture
Daily Current Affairs

Global Report on Food Crisis

Why in news? Recently, Global Report on Food Crisis was released by the Food Security Information Network (technical platform for exchanging expertise) along with Global Network against Food Crises.


  • According to The Global Report on Food Crisis, the number of people experiencing acute hunger and requiring urgent food, nutrition and livelihood assistance increased to 258 million in 2022.
  • This figure was 193 million in 2021. This is a 34 per cent jump in just one year.
  • Number of people experiencing acute food insecurity increased for the fourth consecutive year in 2022.
    • Acute food insecurity is when a person’s inability to consume adequate food puts their lives or livelihoods in immediate danger.
  • Key drivers: Economic shocks (including due to COVID-19 and Ukraine War), Conflict/insecurity, Weather/Climate extremes etc.
  • Global Network Against Food Crisis: It is an international alliance of the United Nations, the European Union and other agencies working to tackle food crises.


Keywords: General Studies –2 Health, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Digital Twin City

Why in news? Urban India’s 3D digital twins are on their way to be born.


  • A Digital Twin is a three-dimensional (3D) virtual representation of an object or system that deliver real-time insights into the performance, operation, or profitability of a physical object—even a city.
  • The digital twin city offers a model of urban planning and construction for future sustainable development that effectively combines innovations in digital technology with urban operational mechanisms and provides a feasible path for urban upgrading.
  • It promotes safer, more efficient urban activities and more convenient and inclusive everyday services, as well as helps to create more low-carbon, sustainable environments.
  • Digital twin of a city, thus, can help policymakers improve city governance and the urban ecosystem by enabling better planning of infrastructure at lower costs.
  • Other benefits are climate-smart cities or green infrastructure, better healthcare, green environment, smart education, smart agriculture etc.
  • At the beginning of 2021, the World Economic Forum and the China Academy of Information and Communication Technology (CAICT), together with key global stakeholders, launched a three-year initiative that seeks to make digital twin technology accessible to the public and jointly shape the future of digital twin city development.


Keywords: General Studies –2 Health, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Indian Defence Minister laid the foundation stone for the Maldives National Defence Forces (MNDF) Coast Guard ‘Ekatha Harbour’.


  • Maldives is an island nation situated in north central Indian Ocean.
  • 8 Degree channel separates Maldives from Minicoy Island (India).
  • Geographical Features
    • The Maldive Islands are a series of coral atolls built up from the crowns of a submerged ancient volcanic mountain range.
    • It consists of a chain of about 1,200 small coral islands and sandbanks, grouped in clusters, or atolls.
    • Highest peak: Mount Villingili on Addu Atoll.
    • The average annual temperature: 24 to 30 °C.


Keywords: General Studies –1 Geographical location
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