Friday, 14th April 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


AI and Laws In India

2   Daily Current Affairs


Nifty Reits & InvITs Index


River Rejuvenation




Dabba Trading and its impact on economy


Increase in Radioactive Contamination in Scraps For Recycling: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)


Tamil Nadu’s Cumbum grapes


Copernicus programme


Cellular Agriculture


Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) 2022


Balikatan" military exercises


Gond Painting

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Editorial of the day

AI and Laws In India

Exam View: Artificial Intelligence; Prospect of AI in India; Advantages of AI; Disadvantages of AI.

Artificial intelligence (AI) was founded as an academic discipline in 1956. In the first decades of 21st century, highly mathematical statistical machine learning dominated the field, and this technique has proved highly successful, helping to solve many challenging problems throughout the industry and academics.

Artificial intelligence in India:

Data protection:

  • India does not have specific laws for data protection but personal information is safeguarded under Section 43A and Section 72A of The Information Technology Act. It gives a right to compensation for improper disclosure of personal information similar to GDPR. In 2017, the Supreme Court declared the Right to privacy as a Fundamental Right protected under the Indian Constitution.


  • AI has the prospect of adding 957 US billion dollars which would be around 15% of India's current gross value in 2035.

Government’s efforts:

  • In the year 2018, NITI Aayog initiated various programs on the applications of AI.
  • Four committees were instituted by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to emphasise and analyse multiple ethical issues of AI.
  • A Joint Parliamentary Committee is currently considering the Personal Data Protection Bill 2019 based on a draft statute on data protection.
  • The recently-launched New Education Policy stresses on teaching coding to students' rights from Class VI.


  • In India, the pace of AI adoption is faster than the rules formed to regulate it. Industries have now begun the process of up-skilling their manpower with AI technology.

Adoption in Law:

  • Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas is the first law firm in India to adopt AI which is primarily used to analyze and improvise contractual and other legal documents. Chief Justice Bobde advocated for greater use of AI in the legal system, especially in the field of docket management and decision-making.

Advantages of AI:

  • AI Learns More Over Time: It uses machine learning and deep learning to recognise patterns on the network and cluster them. It then proceeds to detect any deviations or security incidents from the norm before responding to them.
  • AI Identifies Unknown Threats: As attackers try new tactics from sophisticated social engineering to malware attacks, AI has proven to be one of the best technologies in mapping and stopping unknown threats from ravaging a company.
  • AI Can Handle a Lot of Data: AI and machine learning are capable of swiftly analyzing millions of data sets and tracking down a wide variety of cyber threats from malware menaces to shady behavior that might result in a phishing attack.
  • Better Overall Security: Hackers change their tactics every day. Bigger threats that can make security a challenge are human error and negligence. The solution here is to deploy AI on the network to detect all types of attacks and help prioritize and prevent them.

Disadvantages of AI:

  • Substantial resources and financial investments are required in order to build and maintain an AI system.

  • AI systems are trained using data sets. Acquiring all of these data sets of malware codes, non-malicious codes, and anomalies, is time-intensive.
  • Without huge volumes of data and events, AI systems can render incorrect results and false positives. And getting inaccurate data from unreliable sources can even backfire.
  • Cybercriminals can also use AI to analyze their malware and launch more advanced attacks, which brings us to the next point.
  • AI may cause serious ramifications in a labour surplus economy like India, with the majority of people being uneducated and poverty stricken.



Keywords: GS-Paper 3: Science and Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Nifty Reits & InvITs Index

In News: NSE Indices launches India’s first ever REITs and InvITs index

About InvITs Index:

  • NSE Indices, a subsidiary of NSE index services, has launched India's first ever Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvITs) Index — Nifty REITs and InvITs Index.
  • The index aims to track the performance of REITs and InvITs that are publicly listed and traded on the NSE.
  • The weights of securities within the index are based on their free-float market capitalisation subject to a security cap of 33% each.
  • The average weight of top 3 securities is capped at 72%. The Nifty REITs and InvITs Index has a base date of July 1, 2019, and a base value of 1,000.
  • National Stock Exchange (NSE) has three products classified for trading — capital market for the listing and trading of equities, fixed income securities and the derivatives market.


  • REITs invest in real estate projects whereas InvITs pump funds into infrastructure projects with a long gestation period.
  • Through REITs and InvITs, investors will get exposure to diversified regular income generating real estate and infrastructure assets.
  • The launch of the Nifty REITs and InvITs Index aligns with NSE’s vision to provide market representative benchmarks for different asset classes and will act as a benchmark for active funds.


Keywords: GS-III: Economy: Important indices
Daily Current Affairs

River Rejuvenation

In News: Kuttamperoor River in Alappuzha revived through public participation and government intervention.

About river rejuvenation:

  • River rejuvenation is the process of restoring a degraded or polluted river to its original state or a state that can support aquatic life and provide ecosystem
  • The process involves deepening the channel, removing encroachments, constructing bunds on both sides, and rejuvenating it with a width of 50 meters.
  • It requires funding, planning, and monitoring besides the participation of various stakeholders, including the public, government, NGOs, and experts.
  • River rejuvenation can help control floods, improve water availability, and restore ecosystem services.
  • Several countries around the world have undertaken river rejuvenation projects to restore their degraded rivers and improve the quality of life of their citizens.
  • India has been implementing river rejuvenation projects in recent years to address the issue of river pollution and degradation example., Ganga and Sabarmati rejuvenation.
  • These projects are essential for maintaining the health of our planet's ecosystems and ensuring a sustainable future for generations to come.,Employment%20Guarantee%20(MGNREG)%20scheme.


Keywords: GS-III: Environment: Conservation
Daily Current Affairs


In News: Delhi High Court has passed an interim order restraining two private entities from using the ‘KHADI’ mark after the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) moved a trademark infringement lawsuit.

About Trademarks:

  • Trademark is a symbol, design, word or phrase that is identified with a business. When a trademark is registered, its owner can claim “exclusive rights” on its use.
  • A trademark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises.
  • The Trade Marks Registry was established in India in 1940 and presently it administers the Trade Marks Act, 1999 and the rules thereunder.
  • Objective of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 is to register trademarks applied for in the country and to provide for better protection of trade mark for goods and services and also to prevent fraudulent use of the mark.
  • A trademark is valid for 10 years, and can be renewed by the owner indefinitely every 10 years.
  • Violation of trademark:
    • Using a registered trademark without authorisation of the entity that owns the trademark is a violation or infringement of the trademark.
    • In such cases, courts determine whether this can cause confusion for consumers between the two.
  • According to KVIC, the right to use the ‘KHADI’ mark for textile products requires the person or organisation to be enlisted as an authorised user of the ‘KHADI’ trademarks for which it has to apply for recognition through the Khadi Institutions Registration and Certification Sewa.


Keywords: GS-3 Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)
Daily Current Affairs

Dabba Trading and its impact on economy

In News: National Stock Exchange (NSE) has issued a string of investigations and cautioned investors to not subscribe or invest in the illegal 'dabba trading', which provides assured returns to investors.

About Dabba Trading:

  • Dabba (box) trading refers to informal trading that takes place outside the purview of the stock exchanges and has been banned by SEBI.
  • It involves a parallel stock market where traders can speculate on the direction of share prices and stock indices without a trading account, demat account, or providing KYC details.
  • Traders bet on stock price movements without incurring a real transaction to take physical ownership of a particular stock as is done in an exchange.
  • Transactions are facilitated using cash and the mechanism is operated using unrecognised software terminals
  • ‘Dabba trading’ is recognised as an offence under Section 23(1) of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act (SCRA), 1956.

Impact on the Economy:

  • Since there are no proper records of income or gain, it helps dabba traders escape taxation resulting in loss to the government exchequer.
  • Dabba trading puts investors at high risk since none of the SEBI’s protection such as investor protection under the exchange's jurisdiction, exchange dispute resolution mechanism and investor grievance redressal mechanism remain available.
  • Since all activities are facilitated using cash, and without any auditable records, it could potentially encourage the growth of ‘black money’ alongside perpetuating a parallel economy.


Keywords: GS-3 Indian Economy- Capital Market
Daily Current Affairs

Increase in Radioactive Contamination in Scraps For Recycling: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

In News: Radioactive materials or contaminated devices are entering into the booming scraps recycling chain, posing a grave health hazard, according to the annual data on illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material released by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).


  • Radioactive materials or contaminated devices are being introduced into the rapidly growing scrap recycling chain, presenting a significant threat to public health.
  • According to the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB), which receives reports of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials from 143 member states and international agencies, the most recent data has been extracted.
  • Over the past decade, the average annual number of reported incidents of this nature has been approximately 131 incidents per year, as per the IAEA dataset.
  • Radioactive-laced waste products— including vehicles like ships — is being increasingly recycled without taking care of the hazard gains credence from the fact that during 1993-2022, more than half of incidents reported under this group were not from radioactive sources.
  • Only 10 percent of all such incidents involved enriched uranium, plutonium and plutonium-beryllium neutron Even for this, many incidents involved scrap metals with high enriched uranium landing up in scrapyards.
  • The most common source of such contamination is the feed material (in most cases, metal) from which the product had been manufactured.
  • Much feed material is often obtained from the metal recycling industry and, in the process of being melted down, can become contaminated with material from an undetected radioactive source such as cobalt-60.
  • The resulting contaminated metal, if used to manufacture household goods, could pose a potential health problem to unsuspecting consumers.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  • The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the deep fears and expectations generated by the discoveries and diverse uses of nuclear technology.
  • IAEA is widely known as the world’s “Atoms for Peace and Development” organization within the United Nations family, the IAEA is the international centre for cooperation in the nuclear field.
  • IAEA headquarter is located in the Vienna, Austria.

Objective and Function of IAEA

  • It is an independent international organization that reports annually to the United Nation General Assembly.
  • IAEA also reports to the UN Security Council in regards to instances of members’ non-compliance with safeguards and security obligations.
  • IAEA works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies.

Reports released by IAEA

  • Technical Cooperation Report
  • Nuclear Technology Review
  • Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) Report
  • Nuclear Security Report


Keywords: GS-3 Environment and Ecology
Daily Current Affairs

Tamil Nadu’s Cumbum grapes

Why in news? The Cumbum grapes recently earned the Geographical Indication tag or GI tag.


  • Cumbum Panneer Thratchai, also known as Cumbum grapes, is a variety of grapes grown in the Cumbum Valley located at the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu, India.
  • The grapes are medium to large in size, compact, and suitable for making wine, spirits, jams, canned grape juice, and raisins.
  • These grapes are Introduced in Tamil Nadu in 1832 by a French priest, these grapes are rich in vitamins, tartaric acid, and antioxidants, and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases.

Cumbum Valley

  • The Cumbum valley located at the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu is known as the ‘Grapes city of South India’ and cultivates the Panneer Thratchai. This variety which is also known as Muscat Hamburg constitutes almost 85% of the grape-growing areas in Tamil Nadu.


Keywords: GS-1 Geography, GI tag
Daily Current Affairs

Copernicus programme

Why in news? March 2023 saw variations on several meteorological fronts, according to the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S).

About Copernicus programme

  • Copernicus is the Earth observation component of the European Union Space Programme (started in 2014). It was launched by European Commission (EC) in partnership with European Space Agency (ESA).
  • It aims to provide accurate, timely and easily accessible information to improve the management of the environment, understand and mitigate the effects of climate change and ensure civil security.
  • It provide services related to Land management, Marine environment, Emergency response, Security, Climate change.
  • The C3S is a monthly climate bulletin of the European Commission to report the changes observed in global surface air temperature, sea ice cover and hydrological variables.


Keywords: GS-3 Environment and Ecology
Daily Current Affairs

Cellular Agriculture

Why in news? TissenBioFarm debuted a giant piece of cultivated meat at the opening of South Korea’s Cellular Agriculture Support Center in the North Gyeongsang Province.

About Cellular Agriculture

  • Cellular agriculture, also known as cell-based agriculture or lab-grown meat, is a technology that involves the production of animal products such as meat, milk, and eggs using cell cultures and tissue engineering techniques, rather than raising and slaughtering whole animals.
  • The process involves taking a small sample of animal cells and providing them with the necessary nutrients and conditions to grow and differentiate into the desired product.
  • This approach has the potential to provide a more sustainable and ethical way of producing animal products while reducing the environmental impact and ethical concerns associated with traditional animal agriculture.
  • Examples: Perfect Day, a start-up in California uses genetically-engineered fungi to produce milk proteins, such as whey protein, without the need for cows. TurtleTree Labs in Singapore is the first company to use stem cells from mammals to make milk in large bioreactors.,sustainable%20source%20of%20alternative%20proteins.

Keywords: GS-3 Environment and Ecology
Daily Current Affairs

Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) 2022

Why in news? According to the National Tiger Conservation Authority's (NTCA) fifth cycle of Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) for 2022, the Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) ranked first, Satpura and Bandipur came second, while Nagarhole was ranked third (92.42%) in the 2022 cycle of MEE.

About Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) 2022

  • MEE is defined as the assessment of how well NP&WLS are being managed—primarily, whether they are protecting their values and achieving the goals and objectives agreed upon.
  • The MEE evaluation was based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) framework and covered six assessment elements, including context, planning, input, process, output, and outcomes.
  • MEE of Protected Areas has emerged as a key tool that is increasingly being used by governments and international bodies to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the protected area management systems.
  • The assessment process of India’s National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries adopted from the IUCN WCPA (World Commission on Protected Areas) framework of MEE.
  • The ratings are assigned in four categories, as Poor – upto 40%; Fair - 41 to 59%; Good - 60 to 74%; Very Good – 75% and above.
  • A new framework for MEE of Marine Protected Areas has also been jointly prepared by the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) and MoEF&CC.
  • The MoEF&CC has also launched the Management Effectiveness Evaluation of Indian Zoos (MEE-ZOO) framework which proposes guidelines, criteria, and indicators for the evaluation of zoos of the country in a manner which is discrete, holistic, and independent.,the%202022%20cycle%20of%20MEE


Keywords: GS-3 Environment and Ecology
Daily Current Affairs

Balikatan" military exercises

Why in news? The United States and the Philippines have begun their largest-ever military drills, which will include a live-fire exercise on a sunken ship in the South China Sea.


  • The Balikatan exercise is an annual military training exercise conducted by the Philippines and the United States.
  • The exercise aims to enhance the interoperability and readiness of the armed forces of both countries in response to regional security challenges.
  • It involves various activities such as command post exercises, field training exercises, and humanitarian and civic assistance projects.
  • The Balikatan exercise started in 1981 and has since evolved to address emerging security threats and challenges in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • The exercise is conducted under the framework of the Mutual Defense Treaty between the Philippines and the United States, which aims to promote regional stability and security.
  • The Balikatan exercise also serves as a platform for promoting cultural exchange and strengthening the partnership and friendship between the two countries.,come%20amid%20rising%20regional%20tensions.&text=The%20United%20States%20and%20the,in%20the%20South%20China%20Sea


Keywords: GS-3 Science and Technology, Defence exercise
Daily Current Affairs

Gond Painting

Why in news? Recently, Madhya Pradesh's Gond painting gets GI tag, protecting and recognizing tribal artists and requiring committee approval for non-tribal artists to use the art.


  • Gond painting is a traditional form of Indian art that originated from the Gond tribe, which is one of the largest indigenous communities in India.
  • Painting is known for its vibrant colors, intricate patterns, and use of symbols and motifs that reflect the tribe's culture, beliefs, and way of life.
  • Gond painting is traditionally done on walls, floors, and other surfaces using natural pigments and materials such as cow dung, charcoal, and colored soils.
  • The artists use a technique called "dotting," where they create intricate designs by using small dots of paint to form patterns and shapes.
  • The themes of Gond paintings typically revolve around nature, animals, and mythology.
  • The paintings often depict animals such as birds, elephants, and tigers, which are considered sacred by the Gond tribe.
  • The artists also use symbols and motifs that represent fertility, prosperity, and good luck.


Keywords: GS-1 Art and Culture
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