Wednesday, 8th November 2023

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs

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Worker Productivity and Economic Growth

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Aquaculture Crop Insurance - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

National Security Strategy - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Direct Listing on Foreign Exchanges

●  

Critical Evaluation of Elephant Corridor Report 2023

●  

Rainfall Deficiency in Southern Peninsular India

●  

Devas- ISRO’s Antrix Corporation Deal

●  

Zika Virus - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Krishi 24/7 - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Kamakhya Temple - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Daily Editorial Analysis

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India's Lead in Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance

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Daily Current Affairs

Worker Productivity and Economic Growth


In News 

Narayan Murthi has ignited a discussion about the relationship between worker productivity and economic growth by encouraging young Indians to consider working 70 hours a week. 

About Worker Productivity 

  • Worker productivity vs. Labor productivity: The key distinction is that "worker productivity" relates to mental activities, while "labor productivity" mainly pertains to physical tasks. 
  • Measuring productivity: It's typically calculated as output value per unit of labor (time) cost at a micro level and labor-output ratio or change in Net Domestic Product (NDP) per worker at a macro level (assuming an 8-hour workday). 
  • Measuring intellectual worker productivity: Evaluating output value can be complex in sectors involving intellectual work, so worker income is often used as a proxy, but this can complicate assessing the link between longer hours and higher productivity. 
  • Skill's role in productivity: Productivity isn't just about time; it's about skill. Investing in education, training, and health can make workers more efficient and valuable, potentially enhancing their quality of life. 
  • Economic growth and wages: The economy can still grow, even if wages don't increase, as long as workers become more skilled and productive. Working fewer hours may not necessarily reduce output; it can enhance the workforce's overall quality and efficiency. 

Is there a correlation between the productivity of workers and the overall growth of the economy? 

  • Complex relationship between productivity and economic outcomes  
    • Increasing productivity in any sector can impact economic growth and value added, but this connection is intricate. 
  • India's GDP growth from 1980 to 2015  
    • India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew significantly during this period, surging from around USD 200 billion in 1980 to over USD 2,000 billion in 2015. 
    • Despite robust GDP growth, the benefits were not evenly distributed across society. 
  • Income distribution changes (1980-2015)  
    • Middle-income group's share in national income decreased from 48% to 29%. 
    • Low-income group's share dropped from 23% to 14%. 
    • Top 10% income group saw their share rise from 30% to 58%, indicating a widening income gap in the country. 
    • The unequal distribution of prosperity among income groups is not primarily explained by productivity but is influenced by factors such as inadequate labor laws, the transfer of wealth through inheritance, and excessively high executive salaries. 

The Path Ahead 

  • India's unique circumstances: Making direct comparisons with other countries would result in unreliable analytical conclusions and misguided policy recommendations. 
  • Incomparable nations: Japan and Germany, for instance, differ significantly in the size and quality of their workforce, technological paths, and socio-cultural and political frameworks. 
  • Prioritizing social investments: To achieve a more sustainable and favorable outcome, it's crucial to emphasize boosting social investments and tapping into domestic consumption potential, all while adopting a human-centric approach when assessing development achievements. 

Source: TH 

Keywords: GS- 2 Issues Relating to Development, Government Policies & Interventions, GS- 3 Industrial Policy, Inclusive Growth
Daily Current Affairs

Aquaculture Crop Insurance - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News 

The Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying has addressed technical hurdles in the Aquaculture Crop Insurance scheme for Shrimp and Fish farming, part of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY). 

About Aquaculture 

  • Aquaculture encompasses the controlled cultivation of aquatic organisms in various water environments, including natural bodies of water, artificial ponds, and land-based closed systems. 
  • Its purposes include: 
    • Providing food for human consumption. 
    • Rehabilitating threatened and endangered species. 
    • Restoring habitats. 
    • Enhancing wild populations. 
    • Producing baitfish. 
    • Rearing fish for zoos and aquariums.

Reasons for Aquaculture Insurance Demand 

  • Aquaculture is exposed to a range of risks, including diseases, adverse weather, water quality problems, and natural disasters. These risks can result in substantial financial losses for aquaculture operators. Insurance serves as a means to handle and alleviate these risks by offering financial compensation in the event of such adverse occurrences. 
  • Insurance acts as a shield for substantial investments made in aquaculture infrastructure, ensuring that the financial resources dedicated to the operation are shielded from unforeseen circumstances. 
  • The availability of aquaculture insurance can bolster the confidence of investors and farmers in the industry, motivating individuals to invest in aquaculture and expand their operations. 
  • Insurance can encourage the sustainability of aquaculture operations by providing a mechanism to recover from unexpected setbacks. In turn, this can promote responsible and sustainable practices within aquaculture, reducing risks and insurance premiums. 

What obstacles or difficulties are associated with the execution of the Aquaculture Crop Insurance Scheme? 

  • Accurate, current data is crucial for assessing risks and setting appropriate insurance premiums. 
    • Gathering such data for aquaculture is complicated due to environmental and biological complexities. 
  • Some fishers and farmers may lack a full understanding of insurance. Raising awareness and providing education about insurance benefits and procedures is crucial for successful implementation. 
  • Risk of high-risk individuals dominating the insurance scheme, causing unsustainable premium levels. Balancing participant diversity in terms of risk levels is a challenge. 
  • Managing the insurance scheme, including timely claims processing and premium payments, can be operationally intricate. 

Government Initiatives 

  • PMMSY (Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana) 
  • Blue Revolution Scheme 
  • National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) 
  • National Mission on Protein Supplements (NMPS) 
  • National Scheme of Welfare of Fishermen 

The Path Ahead 

The Aquaculture Crop Insurance scheme, part of PMSSY, seeks to mitigate risks for fishers and aquaculture farmers, encourage investments, and bolster food security. Nevertheless, it encounters issues linked to data, awareness, adverse selection, and administration. 

To make this scheme successful and sustainable, the engagement of key stakeholders and the establishment of a governing framework are pivotal. Such a governing structure is crucial to guarantee the effective execution of the Aquaculture Crop Insurance scheme for shrimp and fish farming. 

UPSC Previous Year Questions 

Mains (2018) 

Q. Defining the blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India.

Mains (2017) 

Q. How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers?

 Source: PIB 

Keywords: GS- 3Economics of Animal-Rearing, Food Security, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

National Security Strategy - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News 

After extensive discussions, India has initiated the formulation of a National Security Strategy, with the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) now gathering inputs from various central ministries and departments. 

About National Security Strategy and Its Need 

  • National Security Strategy (NSS) Overview 
    • Comprehensive document outlining security objectives and means for their attainment. 
    • Dynamic and regularly updated to address evolving challenges. 
  • Scope of NSS 
    • Addresses a broad spectrum of modern challenges, including both traditional and newer, interconnected threats. 
    • Encompasses military, financial, economic, food, energy, information, infrastructure, supply chain, and environmental security. 
  • Role in India 
    • Provides a holistic view of India's national security landscape. 
    • Guides defense and security reforms, essential for safeguarding the nation's interests. 
  • India's Need for NSS 
    • Ongoing discussions about the necessity of an NSS in India. 
    • Lack of a coordinated whole-of-government effort and undisclosed national security objectives have hindered its formulation and implementation. 
  • Urgency in India 
    • Growing complexity of emerging threats and geopolitical uncertainties necessitates the development of an NSS. 
  • Calls for Revision and Military Reforms 
    • Recognition of the outdated nature of current political direction for the Armed Forces by former Army Chief. 
    • Emphasis on the need for revisions and significant military reforms to be guided by a comprehensive NSS. 
    • Absence of an NSS likened to pursuing military reforms without a clear roadmap. 

Nations with National Security Strategies 

  • Countries with advanced military and security capabilities typically maintain National Security Strategies, periodically revising them.  
  • Notably, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Russia have all published their national security strategies.  
  • In China, a closely integrated Comprehensive National Security strategy aligns with its governance structure.  
  • Pakistan, likewise, has recently introduced its National Security Policy for 2022-2026, outlining its key national security goals and areas of focus. 

The Way Ahead 

  • National Security Strategy in the 21st century should define assets to be protected and identify potential adversaries using unconventional tactics to create confusion. 
  • New security priorities require support for innovation and technology in areas like hydrogen fuel cells, seawater desalination, thorium for nuclear tech, anti-computer viruses, and immunity-boosting medicines. 
  • The new strategy should anticipate threats from multiple dimensions and employ limited pre-emptive strikes as a deterrence tactic. 
  • India must address China's cyber capability as a new threat and adapt its strategy accordingly. 
  • Allocate a separate budget for cybersecurity. 
  • Establish a central body of cyber experts to counter state-sponsored hackers. 
  • Utilize India's software development talent pool for career opportunities. 
  • Bootstrap state-level cybersecurity capabilities with central funding. 

UPSC Previous Year Questions 

Prelims (2014) 

Q. In the Constitution of India, promotion of international peace and security is included in the 

(a) Preamble to the Constitution  
(b) Directive Principles of State Policy  
(c) Fundamental Duties  
(d) Ninth Schedule  

Ans: (b)  

Source: IE 

Keywords: GS – 3 Role of External State & Non-State Actors, Challenges to Internal Security Through Communication Networks, Cyber Security, Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas
Daily Current Affairs

Direct Listing on Foreign Exchanges


 In News 

Certain Indian companies have received government approval to conduct direct listings on international stock exchanges, enabling them to tap into global capital markets. 

Listing By Indian Companies on Foreign Stock Exchanges: Comparing Methods 

  • Direct Listing vs. IPO 

Direct listing allows a company to list shares on foreign exchanges without raising capital, unlike IPOs where shares are sold to investors to generate funds. 

  • Direct Listing vs. DR Route 

In a direct listing, shares are directly listed on foreign exchanges, whereas the DR route involves issuing shares to a custodian bank, which then issues negotiable certificates (DRs) to foreign investors. 

  • DRs in Foreign Exchanges 

DRs represent a company's underlying shares and are traded on foreign exchanges, offering foreign investors access to the company's shares. 

  • Benefits of Direct Listing 

Direct listing provides access to a broader investor base, enhances visibility and brand value, and improves corporate governance and compliance standards. 

  • Current Listing Methods for Indian Companies 
    • Indian companies typically list on foreign exchanges through depository receipts, such as ADRs and GDRs. 
    • Indian custodians hold the shares, issuing DRs to foreign investors. 
    • Between 2008 and 2018, 109 companies raised over Rs 51,000 crore via ADRs/GDRs. 
    • However, since 2018, Indian companies have not pursued overseas listings using this method. 

UPSC Previous Year Questions 

Prelims (2019) 

QWhich of the following is issued by registered foreign portfolio investors to overseas investors who want to be part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves directly?

(a) Certificate of Deposit 
(b) Commercial Paper 
(c) Promissory Note 
(d) Participatory Note 

Ans: (d) 

Prelims (2020) 

Q. With reference to the Indian economy, consider the following statements: 

  1. ‘Commercial Paper’ is a short-term unsecured promissory note. 
  2. ‘Certificate of Deposit’ is a long-term instrument issued by the Reserve Bank of India to a corporation. 
  3. ‘Call Money’ is a short-term finance used for interbank transactions. 
  4. ‘Zero-Coupon Bonds’ are the interest bearing short-term bonds issued by the Scheduled Commercial Banks to corporations. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 4 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 2, 3 and 4 only 

Ans: (c) 

Source: IE 

Keywords: GS-3 Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Critical Evaluation of Elephant Corridor Report 2023


In News 

Numerous inconsistencies have been uncovered in the "Elephant Corridors of India, 2023" report released by the central government. 

Significant Discrepancies Identified in the 2023 Elephant Corridors of India Report 

  • Critics claim that the original purpose of corridors is being diluted by labeling any elephant movement area as a corridor. 
    • This has resulted in landscapes and habitats being classified as corridors in the report, causing a surge in the number of elephant corridors. 
  • Critics argue that in South Bengal, many regions where elephants move are mainly dominated by agriculture. 
    • The report suggests connecting these areas to other elephant landscapes, deviating from the corridor's original intent. 
    • Expansive corridors may heighten human-elephant conflicts. 
  • Critics contend that expanding elephant ranges has increased instances of elephant deaths due to electrocution and falling into wells. 
  • Directives from Project Elephant instructed states on elephant corridors, specifying adherence to the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 for forest areas. 
    • For areas with revenue and private lands, compliance with the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 as eco-sensitive areas was advised, potentially restricting red-category industries. 

Key Highlights of the report 

  • Elephant corridors are land strips facilitating elephant movement between friendly habitats. 
  • Key Findings from Elephant Corridors of India, 2023 Report 
    • 62 new corridors have emerged, marking a 40% increase since 2010, totaling 150 corridors nationwide. 
    • West Bengal leads with 26 elephant corridors, making up 17% of the total. 
    • The East central region contributes 35% (52 corridors), while the North East region is the second-largest with 32% (48 corridors). 
    • Southern India has 32 elephant corridors, representing 21% of the total. 
    • Northern India has the fewest, with 18 corridors, amounting to 12%. 
    • Elephant ranges have expanded in Vidarbha, Maharashtra, and southern Maharashtra bordering Karnataka. 
    • Increased presence noted in areas like Madhya Pradesh's Sanjay Tiger Reserves and Bandhavgarh, as well as extended ranges in northern Andhra Pradesh, facilitating movement from Odisha. 

UPSC Previous Year Questions 

Prelims (2020) 

Q. With reference to Indian elephants, consider the following statements: 

  1. The leader of an elephant group is a female. 
  2. The maximum gestation period can be 22 months. 
  3. An elephant can normally go on calving till the age of 40 years only. 
  4. Among the States in India, the highest elephant population is in Kerala. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

(a) 1 and 2 only  
(b) 2 and 4 only  
(c) 3 only  
(d) 1, 3 and 4 only 

Ans: (a) 

Source: DTE 

Keywords: GS- 2 Government Policies & Interventions GS- 3 Conservation, Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Rainfall Deficiency in Southern Peninsular India


In News 

The India Meteorological Department's analysis of 123 years of rainfall records in Southern peninsular India revealed it experienced its sixth driest October in meteorological history. 

Influential Factors Contributing to Reduced Rainfall in Southern Peninsular India 

  • The Southern Peninsular region, comprising Kerala, Mahe, South Interior Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Karaikal, Puducherry, coastal Andhra Pradesh, Yanam, and Rayalaseema, received a mere 74.9mm of rain in October, representing a deficit of over 60% from the normal levels. 
  • The initiation of the northeast monsoon coincided with the formation of Cyclone Hamoon, causing the diversion of moisture away from southern peninsular India. 
    • This shift in wind patterns weakened the onset of the northeast monsoon. 
  • The year 2023 is characterized by the presence of El Nino in combination with a positive phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). 
  • Such conditions result in reduced rainfall in northern Tamil Nadu and adjacent areas. 
  • Conversely, the southernmost regions of Tamil Nadu and Kerala experience more favorable rainfall levels in October. 

UPSC Previous Year Questions 

Prelims (2017) 

Q. With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct? 

  1. IOD phenomenon is characterized by a difference in sea surface temperature between tropical Western Indian Ocean and tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. 
  2. An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’s impact on the monsoon. 

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only  
(c) Both 1 and 2  
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 

Ans: (b) 

Source: IE 

Keywords: GS-3 Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Devas- ISRO’s Antrix Corporation Deal


In News 

The District Court of The Hague in the Netherlands has dismissed India's plea to annul a $111 million compensation award to foreign investors in Devas Multimedia. 

The Devas-Antrix Deal: A Case Overview 

  • 2005 Satellite Deal 
    • Antrix Corporation, ISRO's commercial arm, entered a satellite deal with Devas Multimedia, a Bengaluru startup. 
    • The agreement involved leasing the S-band on ISRO satellites, GSAT-6 and GSAT-6A, for 12 years to provide digital multimedia services. 
  • Cancellation of Deal 
    • In 2011, the Indian government abruptly cancelled the deal, citing national security reasons. 
    • The decision was made amid the 2G scam and allegations of undervaluing the communication spectrum. 
  • Legal Battles and Compensation 
    • Devas Multimedia's foreign investors pursued compensation through international tribunals. 
    • In 2015, the ICC arbitration tribunal awarded Devas Multimedia $1.2 billion in compensation. 
    • Deutsche Telekom received $101 million from the Permanent Court of Arbitration in Geneva. 
    • In 2020, three Mauritius-based investors were granted $111 million by UNCITRAL. 
  • Indian Government's Challenge 
    • In 2022, India challenged the compensation awards, citing a Supreme Court of India order upholding Devas Multimedia's liquidation on fraud charges. 
    • Indian authorities are investigating money laundering and corruption cases against Devas and its officials. 
  • The Hague District Court's Decision 
    • The district court in The Hague rejected India's request to nullify the compensation awards. 
    • It ruled that earlier legal proceedings had addressed and dismissed charges of deceit, fraud, and corruption. 
    • The Supreme Court of India's judgment was considered to hold no independent significance. 

About the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 

  • The ICC is the world's largest business organization focused on promoting international trade and responsible business conduct. 
  • It has been facilitating resolutions in international commercial and business disputes to support global trade and investment since 1923. 
  • The ICC is headquartered in Paris, France. 

Source: IE 

Keywords: GS- 2 Effect of Policies & Politics of Countries on India's Interests
Daily Current Affairs

Zika Virus - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News 

The Karnataka State Health Department has issued an alert after detecting the Zika virus in mosquito samples from the village of Talakayalabetta. 

What is Zika Virus? 

  • The Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, particularly Aedes aegypti. 
  • It can also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, through sexual contact, blood transfusion, and blood products. 
  • The Zika virus possesses an RNA genome, making it highly prone to accumulating mutations. 
  • Genomic studies have identified two lineages of the Zika virus: African and Asian. 

History 

  • Discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda from infected monkeys, with the first human cases recorded in 1952 in Uganda and Tanzania. 
  • Since 2007, outbreaks have occurred across Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific. 
  • Notable outbreaks have been reported in Indian states like Kerala and Karnataka in recent years. 

Symptoms 

  • Zika virus infections are often asymptomatic; when symptoms are present, they typically include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, and headache lasting 2-7 days. 

Association with Other Conditions 

  • Linked with conditions such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, neuropathy, and myelitis in both adults and children. 
  • Interaction between Zika and dengue viruses significantly affects disease severity, complicating vaccine development and public health management. 

UPSC Previous Year Questions 

Prelims (2017) 

Q. Consider the following statements: 

  1. In tropical regions, Zika virus disease is transmitted by the same mosquito that transmits dengue. 
  2. Sexual transmission of Zika virus disease is possible. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

(a) 1 only  
(b) 2 only  
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 

Ans: (c) 

Source: HT 

Keywords: GS-3 Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Krishi 24/7 - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News 

The Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (DA&FW), in partnership with the Wadhwani Institute for Artificial Intelligence (Wadhwani AI), has created Krishi 24/7, the inaugural AI-driven solution designed for automated monitoring and analysis of agricultural news. 

Krishi 24/7: Empowering Timely Decision-Making with AI 

  • In response to the demand for an effective system to discover and handle pertinent agricultural news, the introduction of Krishi 24/7 is a pivotal development.  
  • This tool conducts comprehensive scans of news articles in various languages and provides translations into English.  
  • It further extracts critical data elements from these articles, including headlines, crop details, event types, dates, locations, severity assessments, summaries, and source links.  
  • This ensures that the ministry receives timely updates on relevant web-published events, facilitating informed decision-making. 

Source: PIB 

Keywords: GS-3 Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Kamakhya Temple - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News 

On November 3, King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk of Bhutan commenced his inaugural three-day tour of Assam, starting with a visit to the renowned Kamakhya Temple situated atop the Nilachal Hills in Guwahati. 

About Kamakhya Temple 

  • Situated on Nilachal Hill along the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River in Guwahati. 
  • Revered as a prominent center for Tantric practices. 
  • Recognized as one of India's oldest Shakti Peethas among the 51. 
  • The temple's architecture combines traditional Nagara (North Indian) and Saracenic (Mughal) styles, forming the distinctive Nilachala Style. 
  • It is the sole temple in Assam with a fully developed ground plan comprising five chambers: garbhagriha (sanctuary), antarala (vestibule), Jagan Mohan (principal chamber), bhogmandir (ritual chamber), and natmandir (opera hall for traditional dance and music associated with sukti temples). 
  • Each chamber boasts distinct architectural features, including a modified Saracenic dome in the main temple, a two-roofed design in the antarala, five domes resembling the main temple in the bhogmandir (pancharatna), and a shell-roof with apsidal end in the natmandir, reminiscent of some temporary namghars (prayer halls) in Assam. 
  • This temple hosts the annual Ambubachi Mela to commemorate the yearly menstruation of Goddess Kamakhya. 

Source: TH 

Keywords: GS-3 Environment
Daily Editorial Analysis

India's Lead in Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance


Context:  

This article emphasizes the necessity for immediate measures to combat AMR, particularly in low- and middle-income nations where the prevalence of infectious diseases is significant, and access to effective antimicrobials is restricted. 

About Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) 

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites change over time, rendering medicines ineffective, leading to more challenging infections and a higher risk of disease transmission, severe illness, and death. 

  • Causes of AMR 
    • Resistance in bacteria can develop naturally through genetic mutation or transmission of resistance genes from one species to another. 
    • AMR can also arise spontaneously due to random mutations or the spread of resistant genes via horizontal gene transfer. 
  • Main causes of AMR 
    • Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials 
    • Lack of access to clean water and sanitation 
    • Inadequate infection prevention and control measures 
    • Insufficient awareness of AMR 
  • Health Concerns 
    • A 2021 Lancet report revealed that 4.95 million deaths were associated with bacterial AMR, with 1.27 million directly attributed to it. 
    • The scale of AMR's impact is comparable to diseases like HIV and malaria. 
    • Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have the highest death rates, indicating their vulnerability to AMR. 
  • Main drivers of AMR 
    • Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials 
    • Lack of access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals 

Initiatives by India to combat AMR 

  • India's National Action Plan (NAP) for Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), released in April 2017, aims to increase awareness, enhance surveillance, promote research, and improve infection prevention and control. 
  • The Delhi Declaration on AMR, involving inter-ministerial consensus and signed by ministers of concerned ministries, seeks to address AMR with a mission mode approach, engaging research institutes, civil society, industry, small- and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting public-private partnerships. 
  • The Antibiotic Stewardship Program (AMSP), initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), is being piloted in 20 tertiary care hospitals across India to regulate the use of antibiotics in hospital wards and ICUs. 
  • The Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has banned 40 inappropriate fixed dose combinations (FDCs) based on recommendations from the ICMR. 
  • Colistin, a growth promoter in animal feed, has been banned through collaborative efforts by the ICMR, Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fisheries, and the DCGI. 
  • A One Health approach is being implemented, encouraging interdisciplinary collaboration at the human-animal-environmental interface, focusing on priority areas such as zoonotic diseases, food safety, and antibiotic resistance. 
  • The Integrated One Health Surveillance Network for AMR project, conducted by the ICMR in collaboration with the Indian Council of Agriculture Research, assesses the readiness of Indian Veterinary laboratories to participate in an integrated AMR surveillance network. 

Way Forward 

  • Develop regional action plans in coordination with G20 nations to combat AMR, including strategies for surveillance, research, and control. 
  • Establish dedicated international funding to support AMR research, creation of new antibiotics, treatments, and technologies. 
  • Promote patent reforms to encourage innovation and affordability in new antibiotics, considering models like the Medicines Patent Pool. 
  • Prioritize the implementation of National Action Plans (NAPs) for AMR at the country level, with specific strategies. 
  • Expand monitoring networks to gather data, understand the extent of AMR, and develop innovative interventions. 
  • Utilize initiatives like Free Diagnostic Services and Kayakalp to strengthen AMR containment with improved healthcare services and strict protocols. 
  • Educate citizens about antibiotic dangers, promote responsible antibiotic use, reducing unnecessary prescriptions and misuse. 
  • Engage academia for understanding the environmental dimensions, technology development, and healthcare professional training. CSOs can raise awareness and advocate for policy changes. 
  • Learn from countries like Indonesia, Australia, Brazil, the UK, and the US with successful AMR strategies. 

Source: IE 

Keywords: GS-3 GS- 2 Health
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