Friday, 9th September 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

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Battery Waste Management Rules 2022

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Bail for Women - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Hygiene in healthcare facilities

2   Terms & Concepts

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Legionellosis disease - Edukemy Current Affairs

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National Centre for Disease Control

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Startup SETU - Edukemy Current Affairs

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WEST: I-STEM - Edukemy Current Affairs

3   Editorial of the day

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Japan shifts security focus; India urged action

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Promote Precision Farming for Sustainable Output: IE

4   Case Study of the Day

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Woman Leads Village to Restore 2 Lakes, Aids 1000s

.... Show less Show more
News Snapshot

Battery Waste Management Rules 2022


In news

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has recently published the Battery Waste Management Rules, 2022  to ensure environmentally sound management of waste batteries.

About the Rules

  • The notification of these rules is a transformative step towards the implementation of promoting a Circular Economy in full earnest.
  • Application: These rules shall apply to Producers, dealers, consumers, and entities involved in the collection, segregation, transportation, refurbishment and recycling of Waste batteries;
    • The rules cover all types of batteries, viz. Electric Vehicle batteries, portable batteries, automotive batteries and industrial batteries.
  • Functions of Producer: The producer shall have the obligation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for the Battery that they introduce in the market to ensure the attainment of the recycling or refurbishing obligations.
    • EPR mandates that all waste batteries be collected and sent for recycling/refurbishment, and its prohibits disposal in landfills and incineration.
  • Functions of Consumer: It will be the responsibility of the consumer:
    • To discard Waste Batteries separately from other waste streams, especially from mixed waste, and domestic waste streams;
    • To ensure that Waste Battery are disposed off in an environment-friendly manner by giving them to an entity engaged in collection or refurbishment or recycling;
  • Functions of Public Waste Management Authorities: They are to hand over collected Waste Battery to the producers or agencies acting on their behalf or the entity engaged in refurbishment or recycling with a view to refurbishment or recycling of those Waste Battery or carry out their recycling or refurbishment themselves.
  • Centralised Online Portal: A Central Pollution Control Board shall establish an online system for the exchange of EPR certificates between producers and recyclers/refurbishers to fulfil the obligations of producers.
  • Prescribing the use of a certain amount of recycled materials in the making of new batteries will reduce the dependency on new raw materials and save natural resources.
  • Online registration & reporting, auditing, and committee for monitoring the implementation of rules and taking measures required for removal of difficulties are salient features of rules for ensuring effective implementation and compliance.

 

Source

Image source

Keywords: GS Paper 3: Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment: Battery Waste Management Rules, 2022
News Snapshot

Bail for Women - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News

  • In a case involving allegations of record-forging and fabrication in connection with the Gujarat riots charges in 2002, the Supreme Court has recently granted an activist interim release.
    • A case for interim bail is "evidently made out," according to a three-judge Special Bench led by the Chief Justice of India while taking into account the fact that the applicant is a woman who has previously undergone seven days of solitary interrogation.
  • The Chief Justice has also said that a woman is entitled to favourable treatment under Section 437 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC).

Bail Provision for Women in India:

  • Section 437 of CrPC's addresses bail in cases of offences that are not subject to bail.
  • According to the law, a person cannot be released on bail if:
    • there is probable cause to believe that they have committed a crime that carries a death or life sentence;
    • if they have previously been convicted of a crime that carries a death or life sentence; a sentence of seven years or more; or
    • if they have been convicted twice or more of other crimes that carry sentences of three to seven years.
  • It also has a provision that states that the court may still issue bail in certain circumstances "if such person is under the age of 16, a woman, or is sick or infirm."

 

Added protections for accused women

  • Anyone whom a police officer considers to be familiar with a case under investigation must appear when the officer requests their attendance (Section 160).
    • However, no woman shall be obliged to do so anywhere other than her residence.
  • The Law Commission argued that the word "place" is confusing and that it would be preferable to change it to "dwelling place" in its 84th and 135th Reports from 1980 and 1989, respectively.

 

What does the CrPC have to say about the arrest of a woman?

  • Without a court order or a warrant, a police officer may detain someone who committed a crime that is punishable by law (Section 41).
  • According to Section 46, the police officer may forcefully confine the suspect to complete the arrest if they refuse to submit to custody notwithstanding the police's commands or actions.
  • A clause was added to the CrPC in 2009 stating that, unless other circumstances demand it, only a female police officer may touch a woman who is being arrested.
  • A clause was introduced to Section 46 by a 2005 modification that forbade the arrest of a woman after dusk or before dawn.
  • In unusual cases, a female police officer may get a judicial magistrate's prior approval before making the arrest.

 

What is said about women who don't show up in public?

  • When they believe a person who needs to be arrested is there, the police have the right to try to enter any location.
  • When one of these locations is an apartment occupied by a woman (who is not the person being arrested) and the woman is one who ordinarily avoids the public eye, the police must first give her notice so that she has a chance to leave before they enter.
  • It further states that before they knock down the door and enter, they must provide her with every practical means of withdrawing.
  • Another exemption is that a woman who wants to file a defamation lawsuit but does not often appear in public can ask someone else to do so on her behalf.

Content Source link: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/explained-on-what-ground-was-teesta-setalvad-granted-interim-bail/article65845161.ece, https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/teesta-given-interim-bail-by-top-court-101662140457888.html,

Image Source link: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/interim-bail-due-to-peculiar-fact-says-supreme-court-on-teesta-setalvad-ruling-101662125568900.html

Keywords: GS paper II, judiciary, Government Policies & Interventions, Issues Related to Women
News Snapshot

Hygiene in healthcare facilities


In news

The joint monitoring programme report by the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has noted that half of the world’s healthcare facilities lack basic hygiene services, putting 3.85 billion people at an increased risk of infections.

 

About the report

  • The report was released during World Water Week held in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • The annual conference, which takes place from August 23 to September 1, examines fresh approaches to solving some of humanity’s most pressing problems, including food security, health, agriculture, technology, biodiversity and climate.

 

Key Findings of the Report:

  • About half of the world’s healthcare facilities lack basic hygiene services, as these facilities do not provide patients with water, soap, or alcohol-based hand rubs.
  • Of the healthcare facilities, only 51 percent of healthcare facilities met the requirements for basic hygiene services.
  • Around 68% of them provided facilities for handwashing with water and soap at restrooms and 65% had such amenities at points of care.
  • Furthermore, just one in 11 medical facilities worldwide has both.
  • Hygiene facilities and practices in health care settings are non-negotiable. Their improvement is essential to pandemic recovery, prevention and preparedness.
  • Furthermore, Hospitals and clinics without safe water and basic hygiene and sanitation services are a potential death trap for pregnant mothers, new-borns and children.
  • Also, Unhygienic hands and environment significantly influence disease transmission in healthcare facilities and the emergence of antibiotic resistance.
  • The lack of hygiene measures also causes Sepsis in new-borns, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the body’s response to an infection damages its own tissues.
  • Thus, Promoting access to handwashing with water and soap and cleaning is essential for providing high-quality health care.
  • Further, Hygiene in healthcare facilities can be secured by increasing investments in basic measures, which include safe water, clean toilets and safely managed healthcare waste.
  • Also, sensitisation of stakeholders - hospital staff, community, patients, health department & district administration, could also help.

 

Measures taken in India to improve hygiene in healthcare facilities

  • UNICEF works closely with the Government of India on increasing WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) in health care facilities.
  • UNICEF supports the capacity building of the state, district, and block-level stakeholders to share knowledge and information on the need to focus on WASH in healthcare facilities.
  • In 2015, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) with support from UNICEF instituted the KAYAKALP scheme, to recognize and reward the excellence of health facilities in promoting cleanliness, thereby improving the quality of health care services.
  • The Swacch Swasth Sarvatra (SSS) scheme, aims to optimize the benefits of Swacch Bharat Mission and the Kayakalp schemes, by motivating the blocks which have become Open defecation-free to ensure the nearby community health centers in becoming KAYAKALP compliant.

 

Source

Half of the world’s healthcare facilities lack basic hygiene services, and nearly 4 billion people at risk

WASH in health care facilities

Source

https://vikaspedia.in/health/sanitation-and-hygiene/swachhta_abhiyaan_guidelines/introduction

Keywords: GS Paper 2: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health: Hygiene, WASH, Health care facilities.
Terms & Concepts

Legionellosis disease - Edukemy Current Affairs


Context:

A mysterious pneumonia outbreak in Argentina has been identified as Legionellosis recently.

  • Legionellosis is a pneumonia-like illnessthat varies in severity from mild febrile illness to a serious and sometimes fatal form of pneumonia.
  • The causative agents of the disease are Legionella bacteriafrom water or potting mix.
  • The symptoms of the disease include fever, muscle and abdominal pain and shortness of breath.
  • The disease typically spreads via inhalation of contaminated aerosols from contaminated water,which could come from air conditioning cooling towers, evaporative condensers associated with air conditioning and industrial cooling, hot and cold-water systems, humidifiers and whirlpool spas.
  • The people who have comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, obesity, respiratory problems, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or those who follow poor habits like smoking are more prone to this condition.
  • There is no vaccine currently available for Legionnaires’ disease.

Source:

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/argentina-s-mystery-pneumonia-outbreak-finally-identified-as-legionellosis-disease-84753

Image source:

https://www.findatopdoc.com/Medical-Library/Diseases-and-Conditions/Legionnaires-Disease

Keywords: GS Paper 2: Governance: Health, GS Paper 3: Science and Technology: Legionellosis
Terms & Concepts

National Centre for Disease Control


Context: The Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare (MoHF) has laid the foundation stone for 6 new branches of NCDC.

  • The National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), formerly the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), originated as the Central Malaria Bureau.
  • It was established at Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh) in 1909.
  • NICD was transformed into the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) with a larger mandate of controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases in 2009.
  • It functions as the nodal agencyin the country for disease surveillance facilitating the prevention and control of communicable diseases.
  • It also acts as anational-level institute for training specialized manpower for public health, laboratory sciences and entomological services and is involved in various applied research activities.
  • Functions:
    • It Undertakes investigations of disease outbreaks all over the country.
    • Provides referral diagnostic services to individuals, community, medical colleges, research institutions and state health directorates.
    • It is Engaged in the generation and dissemination of knowledgein various areas like Epidemiology, Laboratories etc.
    • Applied integrated researchin various aspects of communicable and some aspects of non-communicable diseases
  • The Institute is under the administrative control of the Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • It is headquartered in Delhi.

 

Source:

https://epaper.thehindu.com/Home/ShareArticle?OrgId=GKIA8BFH5.1&imageview=0

Image source:

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20220216/The-emergence-of-infectious-diseases-from-the-germe28099s-eye-viewe2809d.aspx

Keywords: GS Paper 3: Science and Technology: National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)
Terms & Concepts

Startup SETU - Edukemy Current Affairs


Context: The Union Minister of Commerce and Industry recently launched the US Startup SETU in San Francisco, United States of America.

  • SETU or Supporting Entrepreneurs in Transformation and Upskillingis an Indian government initiative under the Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
  • The initiative would connect start-ups in India to US-based investors and start-up ecosystem leaders with mentorship and assistance in various areas including funding, market access and commercialization.
  • Objective:
    • Tobreak the geographical barriers between US mentors willing to invest in entrepreneurship and sunrise startups in India.
    • The interaction will be supported through the mentorship portal under the Startup India initiative MAARG, or the Mentorship, Advisory, Assistance, Resilience, and Growth program, which is a single-stop solution finder for startups in India.
  • Significance:
  • It is estimated that about 90% of the start-ups and more than half of the well-funded startups fail in their early days. Lack of experience in handling the business is a key issue, and founders require the right guidance for taking a decision and moral support.
  • As India becomes a leading start-up destination, the proper guidance at the right time is paramount.

 

Source:

https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1857352

Image Source:

https://www.startupsetu.com/

Keywords: GS Paper 3: Economy: Startup SETU, Startup India
Terms & Concepts

WEST: I-STEM - Edukemy Current Affairs


Context: A new Indian Science Technology and Engineering facilities Map (I-STEM) initiative called “Women in Engineering, Science, and Technology (WEST)” has been launched recently.

  • The WEST programme will cater to women with a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)background and empower them to contribute to the above ecosystem.
  • Women may join the WEST program and explore opportunities to become stakeholders in various domains and pursue careers in R&Dat various levels: technicians, technologists, scientists, and entrepreneurs.
  • dedicated team of womenwill ensure the successful implementation of the WEST initiative.
  • Significance of the initiative:
    • It will helpbring women back into S&T domains after a career break.
    • Crucial gaps in the R&D infrastructure of the country will be filled.
    • I-STEM shall provide a platform/forum for women researchers to deliberate on achievements, issues, and exchange ideas on taking the country forward through advances in science, technology, and innovation.
    • This will pave the way towards filling a “skills gap”, and putting publicly-funded equipment to good use.

 

Source:

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1857175#:~:text=Women%20in%20Engineering%2C%20Science%2C%20and%20Technology%20(WEST)%2C,Scientific%20Adviser%20(PSA)%20to%20the

Image source:

https://twitter.com/istem_iisc

Keywords: GS Paper 3: Science and Technology: I-STEM initiative
Editorial of the day

Japan shifts security focus; India urged action


Essence - The article is written against the backdrop of the 2+2 dialogue between India and Japan and calls for concrete actions by the two countries to turn their common interests in keeping the Indo-pacific ‘free and open’ into a strategic coalition. Both countries are scrambling to cope with China’s growing military capabilities and assertiveness in regional territorial disputes.  

Traditionally Japan has limited its spending on defence to just 1%, but now there are reports of its plans to increase defence spending to reinforce Japan’s defence capabilities within the next five years. It plans to increase its counterstrike capabilities to deter Chinese aggression. Japan is also aiming to create a stronger defence partnership in the Indo-Pacific.

Both India and Japan need to work on developing capabilities in deterring China, and this bureaucratic inertia in changing the adopted stances and strategies in geopolitical scenarios needs to be changed. The two countries need to inject substantive military content into their strategic partnership. 

 

Why should you read this editorial?

  • The article is a good read to understand the present geo-political scenario in the Indo-Pacific region and how the Chinese threat is a concern for both India and China.
  • The article also outlines the strategies that India and Japan should take to counter the Chinese threat in the Indo-Pacific.

 

Source:

https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/japan-is-recasting-its-national-security-vision-in-face-of-an-aggressive-china-india-must-inject-strategic-content-into-ties-during-22-dialogue-8133055/

Keywords: GS Paper 2, PSIR, International relations, India Japan Relations, Indo-Pacific
Editorial of the day

Promote Precision Farming for Sustainable Output: IE


Essence – The editorial discusses the issue of food security considering the rapidly rising population, depleting natural resources and degrading land-water-air. It points out towards population explosion and then presents the question whether shifting back to natural farming will be able to feed the most populous country on earth. It mentions some of the initiatives taken by various countries towards mainstreaming natural farming. It highlights the possibility of yield loss of up to 50 per cent which later recovers back. Towards the end, it recommends a shift towards adopting precision farming as it is the only way to get the most from the least. It mentions that current technological developments including – AI-ML, GIS, Drone, Sensors, etc. already boost precision farming. It also highlights that the exorbitant subsidies for water, electricity and fertilizer are the leading cause of irrational exploitation of nature’s wealth and suggests putting an end to it.

 

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To know about the leading cause of over exploitation of natural resources.
  • To know about the possible solution for it.

 

Source: 

https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/precision-farming-needs-to-be-promoted-to-get-more-output-with-less-exploitation-of-natural-resources-8131126/ 

Keywords: GS3, agriculture
Case Study of the Day

Woman Leads Village to Restore 2 Lakes, Aids 1000s


Background:

Asha S of Karnataka-based NGO Arohana has been working tirelessly for two decades, towards water conservation and protection.

About NGO Arohana

  • Asha S of Karnataka-based NGO Arohana, has been working in the Kolar district, where water scarcity is rampant, and has helped 1,350 households divert wastewater to agricultural fields, rejuvenated two lakes, and enabled rainwater harvesting in three government schools.
  • She notes that it is everyone’s duty to protect water and act responsibly, hence the need to educate people on the importance and scarcity of water, and the imperative to act now to save our future generations.
  • Asha, along with the support of several other women from the village, also worked on cleaning and desilting the feeder canals in the region.
    • This, in turn, helped increase the water level in the lake.
    • The groundwater table in the region also saw a significant increase in the level.
  • With the support of local organisations, she has also participated in planting close to 1,700 saplings.
  • Her aim is to install rainwater harvesting systems in every house, in the village and create awareness of improving the groundwater recharge methods.
  • Thus, given the crisis, India needs more volunteers like Asha, to create an impact at Ground level to conserve the scarce yet essential

Water scarcity in India

·         The country has 18% of the world’s population, but only 4% of its water resources, making it among the most water-stressed in the world.

·         As much as 71% of the earth’s surface is covered with water, still, in India, 25 million people lack access to a commodity that is so essential for their survival.

·         The report titled “Composite Water Management Index”, published by NITI Aayog in 2018, mentions that India is undergoing the worst water crisis in its history and nearly 600 million people are facing high to extreme water stress.

Quote

                “The earth, the air, the land, and the water are not an inheritance from our forefathers but on loan from our children. So we have to handover to them at least as it was handed over to us.” –  Gandhi

 

Source

 

World Water Day 2022: How India is addressing its water needs

In Water-Scarce District, Woman Led her Village to Revive 2 Lakes, Help 1000s of Homes

Image source

https://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/scrollstorage/1434661280-1057_India-Water-tool-blog-graphics-01.png

Keywords: GS Paper 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment: Water Scarcity, Water Stress, NGO, Lake Rejuvenation.
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