Friday, 26th May 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


Economic abuse of women

2   Daily Current Affairs


Unified Accreditation for Higher Institutions


Telangana- Andhra Pradesh Water Dispute


3rd Forum for India-Pacific Island Cooperation (Fipic) Summit


Axolotls and Organ Renegration


Jaisamand wildlife sanctury


Juna Khatiya Site


Baralacha La Pass


International Pathogen Surveillance Network (IPSN)


Immunity for President


Green Shipping


Mount Etna

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Editorial of the day

Economic abuse of women

Exam View: Why women don’t leave abusive homes?; Provisions by the Indian government; Case study of the United Kingdom.

Context: Apart from legal and policy interventions, greater awareness and education among women are key to combating economic abuse. Economic considerations play an important role in women acquiescing to abusive relationships.

Decoding the editorial: Why women don’t leave abusive homes?

  • Economic abuse:
    • Apart from psychological, and emotional reasons and coercive control that perpetrators often exert, economic, financial and material barriers are crucial considerations for survivors trying to leave abusive situations.
  • Dowry and stridhan:
    • Specific to the Indian context, economic abuse also brings up related issues such as dowry and stridhan.
    • Courts have held that deprivation of economic or financial resources or stridhan amounts to domestic violence under the PWDV Act.
  • Socially accepted economic norms:
    • Prohibiting women from working outside the home and accessing the job market, or

    • Insisting that women quit their jobs after getting married, or
    • The husband or the father-in-law controlling the salary earned by the wife or daughter-in-law respectively, and
    • Complete decision-making power over the family’s finances resting with men.

Provisions in India

  • Constitutional
    • Article 39(a) mentions that the State shall direct its policy towards securing to all citizens men and women, equally, the right to means of livelihood.
    • The Constitution imposes a fundamental duty on every citizen through Articles 51 (A)(e) to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (PWDV Act)
    • Economic abuse, as per this law, is the deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the aggrieved person is entitled under any law.
    • Further, the disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables or other property in which the aggrieved woman has an interest is also included under the meaning of economic abuse.
    • Under section 18 of the Act, a protection order can be passed in favour of the aggrieved woman prohibiting the alienation of any assets, operating bank lockers or bank accounts, regardless of single or joint ownership, without the leave of the Magistrate. This also includes the aggrieved woman’s stridhan or any other property held either jointly or separately by both parties.

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) and the Direct Benefit Transfer scheme
    • An increasing number of women have access to a bank account and banking services for the first time due to these schemes. About 56 percent of PMJDY accounts are owned by women according to data from the Ministry of Finance, as of August 2022.
    • Appropriate training and support from the banking industry that helps banking professionals recognise signs of financial abuse and assist victims would go a long way in providing much-needed support to women looking to leave abusive situations.
  • National Policy for the Empowerment of Women
    • It is meant to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women through a process of change in societal attitudes towards them, to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and to ensure active participation of women in all spheres of life and activities.

Case study of the United Kingdom

  • Economic abuse has been recognised as a form of domestic violence in the United Kingdom (UK) under the Domestic Abuse Act, 2021.
  • In 2021, UK Finance, the industry body for the banking and finance industry in the country, released its 2021 Financial Abuse Code, which laid down principles designed to provide guidance on how to support victim-survivors of financial and economic abuse.
  • Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), the British conduct regulator for the financial services industry provides guidance on the fair treatment of vulnerable customers, which recognises domestic abuse (including economic control) as a life event that is associated with being a driver of vulnerability.
  • These are tools and systems that support survivors apart from the law and ought to be considered in India as well.

Changing notions about masculine gender roles alongside social attitudes with respect to men’s control of the family’s financial resources is critical to bring about change at a larger social level. Greater awareness and education among women are key to combating economic abuse.


Keywords: GS Paper-1: Issues related to women, GS Paper-2: Government Policies and Interventions.
Daily Current Affairs

Unified Accreditation for Higher Institutions

In News: The central government report titled 'Transformative Reforms for Strengthening Periodic Assessment & Accreditation of All Higher Educational Institutions in India' has put forth several recommendations to reform the assessment & accreditation system of higher education institutions (HEI).

Highlights of the Report:

  • National Education Policy (NEP) envisages a completely new system of accreditation through National Accreditation Council (NAC) and envisions it as one of the four verticals of the proposed Higher Education Commission of India.
  • The report suggested a more simplified system, instead of the present 8-point grading system of the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) to an adapted Binary Accreditation System viz. Accredited, Awaiting Accreditation and Not Accredited system.
  • The report suggested bringing the IITs under the umbrella of a unified accreditation process, transitioning to a binary accreditation system, focusing on outcomes, establishing a new body for data validation and verification.
  • IITs can utilise crowdsourcing for data verification, implement single-point data entry through APIs, impose penalties for incorrect submissions, and provide mentoring to institutions that fall below the set standards.
  • It recommended streamlining and synergizing the efforts of multiple accreditation agencies such as NAAC, the National Board of Accreditation (NBA), and the National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF).
  • The report noted that reforms have been proposed with an intent of creating a credible, objective, and rationalised system for approval, accreditation, and ranking of HEIs, with a verifiable and secured centralised database; technology-driven modern systems that could replace/minimise manual involvement.


Keywords: GS-2 Education and Human Resources
Daily Current Affairs

Telangana- Andhra Pradesh Water Dispute

In News: The dispute over the water share of Krishna river between Andhra Pradesh (A.P.) and Telangana remains unresolved, even nine years after the bifurcation of the combined State.

About Telangana-Andhra Pradesh Water Dispute

  • Before formation of Andhra Pradesh (AP), four senior leaders from different regions of AP, signed an agreement with provisions to protect the needs and interests of Telangana with respect to the utilisation of water resources.
  • In 1969, the Bachawat Tribunal (KWDT-I) was constituted to settle the dispute around water share among the riparian States of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Tribunal allocated 811 tmcft dependable water to AP and AP government later apportioned it in the 512:299 tmcft ratio between Andhra and Telangana, respectively,
  • After bifurcation, there was no mention of water shares in the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, since the KWDT-I Award had not made any region-wise allocation.
  • At a meeting convened by the then Ministry of Water Resources in 2015, the two States agreed for sharing water in 34:66 (Telangana: A.P.) ratio as an ad hoc arrangement which was to be reviewed every year.
  • Telangana has been arguing for 70% share of 811 tmcft, as per the basin parameters, however AP has also been staking a claim for a higher share of water to protect the interests of command areas already developed.
  • The centre convened two meetings of the Apex Council consisting of Union Minister and Chief Ministers of both the states in 2016 and 2020 without resolving the issue.



Keywords: GS-2 Interstate Relations and Water Distribution
Daily Current Affairs

3rd Forum for India-Pacific Island Cooperation (Fipic) Summit

In News: The third India-Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC) Summit concludes in Papua New Guinea.

About FIPIC Summit:

  • The Forum for India-Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC) was established by India as part of its Act East Policy.
  • The inaugural FIPIC Summit was convened by India in Fiji in 2014 while the 3rd edition of the Summit has recently concluded in Papua New Guinea.
  • It aims to promote India's involvement with the 14 Pacific Island nations and ensure that it aligns with its Act East Policy and South-South Cooperation.
  • The FIPIC Summit provides a forum for discussions on various areas of collaboration, including developmental aid and partnerships.
  • The initiative includes projects in areas such as SME development, solar energy, desalination, healthcare, emergency services, and yoga centers.
  • The forum also facilitates discussions on regional and global issues of mutual interest, including climate change, sustainable development, and maritime security.
  • Over the years, the FIPIC Summit has played a crucial role in strengthening India's strategic engagement with Pacific Island countries and deepening diplomatic ties in the Indo-Pacific region.

Keywords: GS-2: IR
Daily Current Affairs

Axolotls and Organ Renegration

In News: Scientists study the tragedy of the axolotl mutant and its mystery gene

About Axolotls and Organ Renegration:

  • The axolotl is a species of salamander (lizard-like amphibians) originally found in Lake Xochimilco, near Mexico City.
  • Even though they are amphibians, axolotls remain aquatic throughout their lives and are now almost extinct in the wild.
  • They are known for their exceptional ability to regenerate organs and can regrow not only limbs but also complex organs such as the heart, spinal cord, and eyes.
  • Axolotls possess cells called blastemal cells, which are responsible for initiating the regeneration process.
  • When an organ is damaged or lost, these blastemal cells are activated and undergo cell division to form new tissue.
  • The regenerative process involves the reorganization of cells and the growth of new blood vessels, nerves, and other structures.
  • Unlike in humans, axolotls can regenerate without scarring, resulting in the restoration of both form and function.
  • Research on axolotls' regenerative abilities offers insights into potential applications for human tissue regeneration and eventually human organ regeneration.
  • Axolotls' regenerative abilities have the potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine, organ transplantation and regenerative therapies.

Keywords: GS-3: Medical Science
Daily Current Affairs

Jaisamand wildlife sanctury

In News: Chief Minister of Rajasthan inaugurates 'Jungle Safari' at Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary

About Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India spanning over an area of 162 square kilometers.
  • The sanctuary surrounds the picturesque Dhebar Lake, also known as Jaisamand Lake and the sanctuary is predominantly covered by teak forests.
  • Dhebar Lake, is Asia's second-largest artificial lake and harbours Lake Marble Dam, which is a significant heritage monument in India.
  • The lake was created in the 17th century by Rana Jai Singh of Udaipur through the construction of a marble dam across the Gomati River.
  • The sanctuary is home to various wildlife species, including leopards, sloth bears, chinkaras, and wild boars.
  • It is a haven for bird enthusiasts as it hosts a wide variety of bird species, including migratory birds and is a popular destination for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts.


Keywords: GS-3: Protected Areas
Daily Current Affairs

Juna Khatiya Site

Why in news? Recently, A shell bangle, pottery fragments, stone knives, and even human skeletal remains were discovered in a 16-hectare stretch on the borders of Khatiya village in Gujarat’s Kutch district.


  • Juna Khatiya is an Early Harappan burial site located in Lakhpat Taluka of Kachchh district in Gujarat.
  • Since 2018, archaeologists have discovered 500 graves at the site.
  • The cemetery is believed to be 5,000 years old and belongs to the 'pre-urban' phase of the Harappan
  • Site contains biggest Early Harappan cemetery documented in India so far.
  • Other Harappan sites in Gujarat: Lothal, Surkotada, Dholavira etc.
  • Major Findings
    • Burial structures are made of dressed sandstone and majority of them are rectangular in plan followed by oval or circular ones.
    • Painting on Reserved Slip Ware jar is peculiar feature noticed.
    • Another distinctive feature includes beakers and other smaller vessels, found within larger vessels.

Harappan Civilisation:

  • The Harappan civilisation, one of the oldest in the world, flourished along the banks of the river Indus from 5,000 BC to 1,000 BC.
  • The 2,500-year-long period from 5,000 BC to 2,600 BC is known as the 'pre-urban' Harappan phase, while between 2,600 BC and 1,900 BC is the 'urban' Harappan phase.


Keywords: General Studies –1 Art & Culture
Daily Current Affairs

Baralacha La Pass

Why in news? Recently, Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has rescued 76 tourists stranded at Baralacha La Pass in Lahaul and Spiti district.


  • Baralacha La Pass is a high mountain pass located along the Leh-Manali highway that connects Leh district in Ladakh and Lahaul district in Himachal Pradesh.
  • It is situated in the Zanskar range.
  • The two headwaters of the Chenab River, Chandra, and Bhaga, originate near the Baralacha
    • The Bhaga River originates from Surya taal lake or Lake of the Sun, a name given to deep tarn situated on the summit of Baralacha La Pass.
  • The pass also acts as a water-divide between the Bhaga River and the Yunam river.


Keywords: General Studies –1 Geography
Daily Current Affairs

International Pathogen Surveillance Network (IPSN)

Why in news? Recently, World Health Organization (WHO) launched the International Pathogen Surveillance Network (IPSN).


  • International Pathogen Surveillance Network (IPSN) is a public health network to prevent and detect infectious disease threats before they become epidemics or pandemics.
  • IPSN will provide a platform for connecting countries and regions, improving systems for collecting and analysing samples.
  • IPSN will rely on pathogen genomics to analyse the genetic code of viruses, bacteria and other disease-causing organisms.
  • By strengthening the pathogen genomic surveillance ecosystem, the IPSN enables faster detection of new pathogens and the enhanced tracking of the spread and evolution of diseases.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Health
Daily Current Affairs

Immunity for President

Why in news? Recently, Supreme Court has held that the government cannot claim immunity from the application of law to a contract merely because one of the parties to it is the President of India.


  • Judgment came in a petition filed against the Union government regarding appointment of an arbitrator that has been considered as contrary to provisions under Arbitration Act, 1996.
  • Government contended that contract was entered into in name of President and thus enjoys immunity.
  • Supreme Court (SC) said that Article 299 of the Constitution (contracts made by the Union or State in the name of the President or Governor) does not enable the government to break the statutory law.

Article 299 of Indian Constitution

  • All contracts made in the exercise of the executive power of the Union or of a State shall be expressed to be made by the President, or by the Governor of the State, as the case may be, and all such contracts and all assurances of property made in the exercise of that power shall be executed on behalf of the President or the Governor by such persons and in such manner as he may direct or authorize.
  • Neither the President nor the Governor shall be personally liable in respect of any contract or assurance made or executed for the purposes of this Constitution, or for the purposes of any enactment relating to the Government of India heretofore in force, nor shall any person making or executing any such contract or assurance on behalf of any of them be personally liable in respect thereof.


Keywords: General Studies –2 Indian Polity
Daily Current Affairs

Green Shipping

Why in news? Recently, Union minister of ports, shipping & waterways (MoPSW) announced that MoPSW will offer 30% financial support to promote green shipping.


  • Green shipping promotes cleaner practices to enforce emission control, efficient port management, and equipment management.
  • It aims to preserve global environment from GHGs, and environmental pollutants generated by ships.
  • MoPSW made announcements focusing green shipping and digitisation of ports:
    • 30% financial support for promotion of Green Shipping;
    • Single Window Portal to facilitate and monitor river and sea cruise;
    • Some ports will be developed as Green Hydrogen Hubs and as smart ports.
  • The move aims to bolster sustainable practices and propel India toward a green maritime sector.


Keywords: General Studies – 2 Government Policies & Interventions, General Studies – 3 Growth & Development, infrastructure
Daily Current Affairs

Mount Etna

Why in news? Europe’s most active volcano Mount Etna erupted recently.


  • Mount Etna is the highest Mediterranean island mountain and the most active stratovolcano or Composite volcano in the world.
  • It is located on the island of Sicily, Italy.
  • It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate.
  • It is the tallest active volcano in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Etna has also produced pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, and mudflows, but the lava flows are the most immediately hazardous type of activity, especially to the city of Catania.

Composite volcano

  • Cone-shaped volcanoes built from many layers of lava, pumice, ash, and tephra.
  • Due to multiple layers of viscous material, rather than fluid lava, composite volcanoes tend to form tall peaks rather than rounded cones.
  • So far, Mars is the only place in the solar system besides Earth known to have stratovolcanoes.


Keywords: General Studies –1 Geography
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