Thursday, 13th October 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

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Amul to merge with five others to form a multi-state cooperative

●  

Uniform safety standards for testing of Electric Vehicles

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Post facto environmental clearances

2   Terms & Concepts

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Mahakal Lok Corridor Project - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Information Commission and RTI

●  

Interpol - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Tana Bhagat Sect - Edukemy Current Affairs

3   Editorial of the day

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Crimea Bridge Bombing Sparks Russian Retaliation

●  

Indo-Pacific Security Strategy: HT

4   Case Study of the Day

●  

Bharat Ratna Nanaji Deshmukh - Edukemy Current Affairs

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News Snapshot

Amul to merge with five others to form a multi-state cooperative


In news:

The Government has recently declared that Amul will be merged with five other cooperative societies to form a multi-state cooperative society (MSCS) at the 70th plenary session of North Eastern Council (NEC).

About Co-operatives

  • According to the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA), a cooperative is "an independent group of people joining voluntarily to achieve their common economic, social, and cultural needs and ambitions through a jointly owned and democratically controlled firm."

Constitutional Provisions

  • After Part IXA (Municipality), the Constitution (97th Amendment) Act, 2011 inserted a new Part IXB covering the cooperatives operating in India.
  • Article 19(1)(c) of Part III of the Constitution was amended to include the phrase "cooperatives" after the words "unions and associations."
  • Thus, it is now the fundamental right of the citizens to form cooperatives.
  • The Directive Principles of State Policy (Part IV) now includes a new Article 43B titled "Promotion of Cooperative Societies."

About Amul

  • Formed in 1946, Amul is an Indian dairy state government cooperative society, based at Anand, Gujarat.
  • The Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), a cooperative organization made up of 6 million Gujarati milk farmers, is in charge of running it.
  • It uses a three-tier model that is expertly managed.
    • Tier 1: At the district level, it collects milk from farmers.
    • Tier 2: It oversees district cooperative unions that manufacture and process milk and milk-related goods.
    • Tier 3: The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation then offers these goods under the Amul brand.

North East Council:

  • It is the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the North Eastern Region created by the parliament through NEC Act, 1971.
  • It consists of the eight States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura.

Multi-state cooperative society

  • MSCS are cooperative societies whose activities are not confined to one state and serve interests of individuals in more than one state.
  • Though ‘Cooperative Societies’ is a State Subject, MSCS are regulated by Centre under Multi-State Co-operative Societies Act, 2002.
  • Benefits of the Merger:
    1. Improved ability to cater rising domestic demand for milk and milk products.
    2. MSCS can act as the export house to help in product certification and export of products.
    3. MSCS will ensure the export of the products after its certification so that profit can go directly into the bank accounts of the farmers (Increased income for farmers) etc.
  • Issues faced by MSCS:
    1. Transparency issues as MSCS lacks proper checks and balances of multiple layers like State cooperatives.
    2. Accountability issues as the Central Registrar of MSCS can allow inspection of MSCS only in special conditions with prior intimation.

Content Source Link:

  • https://www.indiainfoline.com/article/news-top-story/amul-to-be-merged-with-five-other-cooperative-societies-122101000012_1.html,
  • https://www.businessinsider.in/india/news/amul-to-merge-with-five-others-to-form-a-multi-state-cooperative/articleshow/94750739.cms,

Image Source Link:

  • https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.geeksforgeeks.org%2Fcooperative-society-features-merits-demerits-and-types%2F&psig=AOvVaw2iaVDZfRujQANeC_aeHGyg&ust=1665573084473000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CA0QjhxqFwoTCKDo-LKF2PoCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAO,

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
News Snapshot

Uniform safety standards for testing of Electric Vehicles


In News

  • Amid concerns over recent fire-incidents in Electric Vehicles (EVs), the Government has been working on uniform safety standards and necessary testing infrastructure.

About the News:

  • Pune-based Automotive Research Association of India will set up the necessary infrastructure for testing, certification, and development of electric and hybrid vehicles.
  • Currently, there is no single Global EV standard.
  • The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) had earlier issued performance norms for lithium-ion battery packs and traction systems in line with broader ISO (International Organization for Standardization) norms.
  • Besides, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways released additional safety requirements for EV batteries under Central Motor Vehicles Rules of 1989 based on expert committee recommendations.

Significance

  • The government's increased emphasis on electric vehicles and other types of alternative fuels, together with its larger goal of lowering its crude import cost, are complemented by the drive for EV testing.
  • According to the Union Ministry for Road Transport and Highways, by 2030, all new vehicles sold in the nation would be electric.
  • Adherence to the universal standards would improve the performance, dependability, and safety of the products.
  • Additionally, it would make it significantly more difficult for amateur players to enter the field of production and guarantee that only serious players do.

Global Scenario:

  • There isn't a single EV standard applied globally. Safety rules in Japan, China, Europe, and North America encourage differing norms in four important areas: safety, charging connectors, charging topology, and communications related to charging.
  • India intends to update its testing standards in line with technological advancements, essentially adhering to the same idea.

About Electric Vehicles

  • Electric vehicles operate on an electric motor, instead of an internal-combustion engine that generates power by burning a mix of fuel and gas. Usually, it uses Lithium-ion batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride and Solid State are other main battery types.
  • Due to their minimal number of moving parts and commitment to the environment, EVs often have cheap operating expenses.
  • The cost of fuel for an EV in India is about 80 paisa per kilometer.

Content Source Link:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/india/to-set-uniform-safety-standards-testing-of-electric-vehicles-to-begin-from-april-1-8198181/,

 

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Keywords: GS paper 2 & 3, Government Policies & Interventions, GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT, Technology Missions, Scientific Innovations & Discoveries, infrastructure, Indigenization of Technology
News Snapshot

Post facto environmental clearances


In news

The Supreme Court has recently concluded that ex post facto (after being started) Environmental Clearances (EC) are acceptable.

  • The court has concluded in response to a claim that abio-medical treatment facility was set up and run without an EC and it raises concern over Environmental Degradation.

About Ex post facto Environmental Clearances

  • Ex post facto environmental clearance(EC) refers to allowing functioning of an industry or project which has started operating, without obtaining the green clearance and disclosing the probable environmental impacts of the project; and later compensating for any damages with fines.

  • The process of Environment Impact Assessment was first introduced in 1994, under the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986, and later superseded by the Environment Impact Assessment notification of 2006.
  • A bench of SC observed that the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986, did not absolutely prohibit the grant of ex post facto environmental clearance.
    • It should not be granted routinely, but in exceptional circumstancestaking into account all relevant environmental factors.

Interpretation by Supreme Court

  • 2017:  Common Cause vs Union of India: concept of an ex post facto or a retrospective EC is completely alien to environmental jurisprudence, and can be detrimental to the environment.
  • 2020: Alembic Pharmaceuticals Ltd v Rohit Prajapati: Court must take a balanced approach by holding the industries accountable for having operated without EC, without ordering a closure of operations; while permitting them to function by paying penalty on principle of ''Polluter pays''.
  • 2021: Electrosteel Steels Limited v Union Of India: Court held that it was within the powers of the government to allow a post-facto environmental clearance, as the law did not expressly prohibit it.
  • 2022: Pahwa plastics vs Dastak NGO: Court observed that Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, did not absolutely prohibit the grant of ex post facto environmental clearance.

Implications of granting Ex post facto Environmental Clearances:

  • This creates an inverse situation where a fine is used to compensate for environmental damage, rather than focusing on scientific information and analysis of possible risks to human health and environment before the project is done.
  • It removes the deterrent created by law in the welfare of the environment. Entities might first now begin their work, and then take the post facto route.
  • Ex post facto clearances also weaken the public consultation process, which is mandatory for an environment clearance.

Source:

  • Supreme Court has set a bad precedent by letting industry get retrospective environmental clearance
  • Ex post facto environmental clearance allowed in exceptional cases: SC
  • The Supreme Court is sending wrong signals on post facto environmental clearances

Image source:

  • https://www.pppinindia.gov.in/toolkit/images/gost-Environmental-Clearance.gif
  • https://ilearncana.com/details/ENVIRONMENT-IMPACT-ASSESSMENT-EIA-POLICY-2020/931

 

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Keywords: GS3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment: Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Clearance, ex post facto environmental clearances
Terms & Concepts

Mahakal Lok Corridor Project - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Recently, the Prime Minister inaugurated the first phase of the ‘Shri Mahakal Lok’ corridor in the city of Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh.
  • The project covers the Mahakaleshwar temple (dedicated to Lord Shiva) and its adjoining area in Ujjain district (MP).
  • The origin of Mahakal temple can be traced to the Pre-historic period.
  • Puranas narrate that it was first established by Prajapita Brahma. Kalidasa in Raghuvansam described this temple as ‘Niketana’. Also, in Meghadutam, Kalidasa gives a fascinating description of Mahakala temple.
  • The present five-storeyed structure was built by the Maratha general Ranoji Shinde in 1734, in the Bhumija, Chalukya and Maratha styles of architecture.
    • Bhumija style is one of the earliest traditional temple styles to be developed in Maharashtra.
    • The main feature of identification of such temples had been its star-shaped plan and the sikhara.
    • Upper components of the temple rested on the strong and well-designed pillars and pilasters.
  • Sculptural art of the temple includes sculptures of Nataraja, Ravananugraha etc.
  • It is the only jyotirlinga facing the south, while all the other jyotirlingas face east.

Sources:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-culture/mahakal-temple-in-ujjain-why-it-holds-special-significance-in-hinduism-8202228/
  • https://www.livemint.com/news/india/mahakal-lok-corridor-inaugurated-by-pm-modi-in-ujjain-details-here/amp-11665495943965.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahakaleshwar_Jyotirlinga

 

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Keywords: GS I:, Ancient and Medieval art and culture
Terms & Concepts

Information Commission and RTI


  • Context: Satark Nagrik Sangathan has compiled a report on the performance of information commissions across the country based on information accessed under the RTI Act.
  • Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005, empowers citizens to seek information from public authorities.
  • If the information sought is denied then the RTI applicant can file an appeal against the decision of the Public Information Officers (PIOs).
  • PIOs are officers designated by the public authorities in all administrative offices under it to provide information under the Act. ICs (at centre and state level) are final appellate authority under the RTI.

  • Key findings of the report:
    • Backlog: Nearly 3.15 lakh complaints or appeals are pending with the ICs.
    • Vacancies in ICs: In Jharkhand and Tripura all posts of ICs including that of the Chief are vacant.
    • Time required for disposal of an appeal/complaint: CIC would take 11 months, whereas many SICs may take more than 2 years.
    • Reluctant to impose penalties: ICs did not impose penalties on erring officials in 95% of the cases.
    • Opaque functioning: 69% of ICs have not published their annual report for 2020-21.
    • Sex ratio: Only 5% of the positions being occupied by women.

Source:

  • https://www.im4change.org/latest-news-updates/2-out-of-29-information-commissions-are-defunct-finds-a-report-by-satark-nagrik-sangathan.html

Image source:

  • https://www.slideshare.net/suman525/2-13349886

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: Polity: Information Commission, RTI Act
Terms & Concepts

Interpol - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Interpol has recently rejected India’s Red Corner request for Khalistan separatist.
  • Red Notice is a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action. They are issued for fugitives wanted either for prosecution or to serve a sentence.

  • Interpol is an inter-governmental organisation comprising 195 member countries.
  • It helps police forces in all these countries to better coordinate their actions to make the world a safer place.
  • It was established in 1923, is headquartered in Lyon, and is the world's largest international police organization.
  • The General Assembly is INTERPOL's supreme governing body, and each member state appoints a delegate to the General Assembly.

Source:

  • https://www.interpol.int/en/Who-we-are/What-is-INTERPOL

Image source:

  • https://www.interpol.int/en/Who-we-are/What-is-INTERPOL

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: International Relations, Governance
Terms & Concepts

Tana Bhagat Sect - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Recently, a number of Tana Bhagat sect tribals were arrested in connection with a ‘violent protest’ in Latehar district of Jharkhand.
  • Tana Bhag is an important sect of Oraon tribes of Jharkhand.
  • They are ardent followers of Gandhian philosophy and are known for the Tana bhagat Movement (1914-1919) - was a civil disobedience movement under the leadership of Jatra Oraon of Ranchi in the Chotanagpur region against the exploitative practices by Britishers and the feudal lords (diku).

  • Exploitation and atrocities were at its peak under the British regime, and under his leadership, thousands joined and extended support in the fight against the feudal lords, moneylenders and missionaries.
  • After his death, the sect merged with the Swadeshi movement of Mahatma Gandhi, which was also based on non-violence principle, and adopted the Tricolour with the spinning wheel as its emblem flag.
  • Lately, the sect has demands around land and traditions.
  • The fifth Schedule of the Constitution talks about preserving the “tribal autonomy, their culture and economic empowerment, to ensure social, economic and political justice, and preservation of peace and good governance”.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/india/30-tribals-held-for-violence-outside-jharkhand-court-8203397/lite/

Image source:

  • https://www.daijiworld.com/news/newsDisplay?newsID=953733

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1: History: Tribal Revolt, Tana Bhagat sect, Oraon Tribes
Editorial of the day

Crimea Bridge Bombing Sparks Russian Retaliation


Essence – The editorial discuses about the escalation of Russia-Ukraine war in light of recent bombing of Krech Strait Bridge by Ukraine. It mentions that the retaliation of Russia after the incident highlights its disregard to civilian life and property. It also points out the desperateness of Russia to capture the Ukrainian territory as it is facing setbacks at many fronts. It points out towards protraction of this war as there seem no probability of any party coming out as victor nor they are ready to come to the negotiation table in the near future. It considers this annexation by Russia as flagrant violation of international laws and norms. It projects the present situation worse than what was there during Cuba missile crisis.

Towards the end, it recommends both Russia and the west to come to the negotiation table to prevent nuclear apocalypse.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To know how volatile the situation has become due to spiralling Russia-Ukraine war.
  • To know why it is necessary to end this conflict.

Source:

  • Dangerous spiral: The Hindu Editorial on Crimea bridge bombing and Russia’s retaliation - The Hindu

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Keywords: GS2, International Relations.
Editorial of the day

Indo-Pacific Security Strategy: HT


Essence - The article explores the opportunities in the recent trilateral cooperation between France, the UAE, and India. The grouping reflects the rise of overlapping trilateral, quadrilateral, and multilateral groupings among littoral Eurasian nations. The trend underlines the power struggle in the world that seems to be concentrated around the Indo-Pacific region. The three nations look at the Indo-Pacific Ocean as the gateway to western economic cooperation and security.

The article calls for the active engagement of India in the grouping while taking into consideration the interests of other multilateral groupings it is part of. India has good relations with both France and UAE and cooperation with both countries have worked in its favour.

The article suggests that in the early stages of developing the trilateral format, the France-UAE-India trilateral must set an ambitious agenda that does not alienate other regional and global powers. It must also complement other forms already in place, such as the I2U2 and the France-India-Australia discussion.

Why should you read this Editorial?

  • The article is a good read to understand the significance of the trilateral grouping France-UAE-India.
  • The article is a must-read to understand the present cooperation between India, France, and UAE, and the evolution of India’s relations with France and the UAE.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-global/historic-deal-between-israel-lebanon-terms-significance-8203111/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2, India-France, India-UAE, International relations, Multilateral Groupings, Indo-Pacific
Case Study of the Day

Bharat Ratna Nanaji Deshmukh - Edukemy Current Affairs


Background:

The Prime Minister recently paid tributes to Bharat Ratna Nanaji Deshmukh on his birth anniversary.

About Nanaji Deshmukh

  • Nanaji Deshmukh was born on October 11, 1916.
  • He was among those who joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) at a very young age, devoting their whole life in service to the nation.
  • His contribution to the nation include:

A. Education:

  • He is believed to have established Saraswati Shishu Mandir (SSM) in 1950, which runs a chain of private schools in India and is an educational wing of RSS.
  • He is also responsible for setting up India's first rural university, Chitarkoot Gramodya Vishwavidyalaya.

B. Role in JP movement

  • He played an important role in the JP Movement, against Emergency in
  • The JP movement also known as Bihar Movement was a political movement initiated by students in the Indian state of Bihar in 1974 and led by the veteran Gandhian socialist Jayaprakash Narayan, popularly known as JP, against misrule and corruption in the state government.

C. Role in Politics

  • He won from a Lok Sabha constituency of UP in 1977, after revocation of Emergency.
  • He however refused to join the cabinet of Morarji Desai.
  • Soon after he quit public life and started working as a social worker.

D. Rural Development

  • Through the rural institute set up by him, he worked on alternative rural development models based on traditional knowledge in remote areas of UP & MP.

E. Reformist

  • He actively participated in the Bhoodan Movement started by Vinoba Bhave.
  • He also played an important role in carrying out a social restructuring programme in over 500 villages of MP & UP.
  • His efforts also resulted in reforms in agriculture, cottage industry, rural health and rural education.

F. He passed away on February 27, 2010, aged 95.

Thus, Nanaji was social reformer and politician from India, who worked in the fields of Education, health and rural self-reliance, and thus was awarded the Bharat Ratna by the Government of India posthumously.

Source:

  • Who was Bharat Ratna Nanaji Deshmukh? All you need to know

Image source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/india/bharat-ratna-nanaji-deshmukh-politician-who-held-no-political-office-shaped-bjp-5555696/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1: Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant personalities: Nanaji Deshmukh, Bharat Ratna
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