Wednesday, 7th December 2022

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs

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World Bank revises India's GDP growth to 6.9% FY23

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G7’s oil price cap - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Imports Rise, Gold Smuggling: Study Correlation

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India to be ‘voice of Global South’

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International Civil Aviation Day

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Ocean Energy Wave Converter - Edukemy Current Affairs

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No first-use policy - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Yuan Wang 5 - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Bharat Stage (BS) NORMS - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)

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Vizhinjam port project - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Cheetah/ international cheetah day

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Global wage report 2023 - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Agri Investment Portal - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Daily Editorial Analysis

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The AIIMS attack underscores cybersecurity need: HT

3   Case Study of the Day

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Solid Waste Management: Landfills

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Daily Current Affairs

World Bank revises India's GDP growth to 6.9% FY23


In News:

  • World Bank updates India's GDP growth forecast for Financial Year 2023

About the News:

  • World Bank has recently released a report on “India Development Update” highlighting India’s remarkable resilience to the deteriorating external environment, and strong macroeconomic fundamentals.
  • The report has revised its 2022-23 GDP forecast upward to 6.9 per cent considering a strong outturn in the Indian economy for the 2022-23 financial year.
  • The Indian economy has shown strong GDP growth due to robust domestic demand resulting in India becoming one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world.
  • The report has however cautioned against the present challenging external environment which is expected to affect India’s economic outlook through different channels.

Major findings of the report:

  • Lower investments: Private investment in India is constrained by several factors including past leverages, credit availability, market demand, and policy certainty.
  • Bank credit: The banking sector is experiencing high balance sheet stress since the period of exuberant bank credit growth during 2004–08 which resulted in the evergreening of loans.
  • Exports: The external export growth of Indian commodities is constrained by both domestic and external reasons with the declining market share of India in world trade.

  • Leveraging external conditions: At present, the real external conditions are more supportive of growth, as the global economy is poised to grow faster and global trade volumes are increasing.
  • Upward projection: The GDP growth forecast for India has been buoyant since the economy was showing higher resilience to global shocks.
  • Economy insulated: India’s economy is relatively insulated from global spill overs compared to other emerging markets because India has a large domestic market and is relatively less exposed to international trade flows.
  • Improved FDI inflows: India’s current account deficit is adequately financed by improving foreign direct investment inflows and a solid cushion of foreign exchange reserves with India having one of the largest holdings of international reserves in the world.
  • Better regulations: Prudent regulatory measures by Indian government have played a key role in developing resilience in the economy.
  • Better policies: Increased reliance on market borrowings has improved the transparency and credibility of fiscal policy and the government has diversified the investor base for government securities.
  • Credible targeting: The introduction of a formal inflation targeting framework during the past decade has been an important step in lending credibility to macroeconomic policy both fiscal and monetary decisions.
  • Optimist outlook: Indian economy is likely to recover from the impact of demonetization and the GST, and growth should revert slowly to a level consistent with its proximate factors—that is, to about 7.5 per cent a year.

What more can be done?

  • About: World Bank has suggested measures for India which can help in reaching growth rates exceeding 8 per cent.
  • Addressing fundamentals: Continued reform with the widening of their scope aimed at resolving issues related to credit and investment, enhancing the competitiveness of India’s exporting sector.
  • Sustained indices: Government should take steps to maintain macroeconomic stability, providing solutions to the cleaning up of banks’ balance sheets, realizing GST’s growth and fiscal dividend, and regaining momentum on the unfinished structural reform agenda.
  • Global integration: Accelerating the growth rate will also require the continued amalgamation of the Indian economy with the global economy.
  • Leveraging demographic dividend: For India to achieve middle-class status by 2047, growth rates must be sustained above 8 per cent for multiple decades which will require moving to a more resource-efficient growth path, making growth more inclusive and enhancing the effectiveness of the Indian public sector.

Source:

https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/world-bank-revises-upwards-indias-gdp-growth-forecast-to-69-for-fy23/article66230075.ece

 

Original report: 

https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/814101517840592525/pdf/India-development-update-Indias-growth-story.pdf

 

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Keywords: General studies III: Economy, World Bank reports, India Development Update
Daily Current Affairs

G7’s oil price cap - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News:

  • G7 expected to impose a price cap on Russian crude oil shipments

About the News:

  • Recently, European Union together with G7 and Australia has proposed a plan to impose a price cap on Russian crude oil shipments.
  • The decision is expected to surge oil prices on the global oil benchmarks – Brent and West Texas Intermediate crude.
  • The step is essentially aimed at preventing firms in signatory nations from extending shipping, insurance, brokering and other services to Russian crude oil shipments that are sold at any value above the designated per-barrel price which is $60 at present.

Major issues:

  • Complex issue: The decision has been marred by delays owing to the composites of the proposal and the internal wrangling with the groupings for arriving at a figure.
  • Conundrum: Price cap seeks to balance two contrasting objectives, cutting Russia’s oil and gas earnings and simultaneously avoiding crimping the global supply of oil that could stoke runaway inflation further.
  • Fear of inflation: While a ban is intended to squeeze Russia, any shortage of oil supply into the global oil market could potentially spike prices impacting consumers in the EU and the US, alongside those in the rest of the world.
  • Unrealistic figure: The price cap of $60 is way above Russia’s cost of production of its main crude variants such as the Urals, which is thought to be in the region of $20-$44 a barrel giving it a commercial reason to pump crude and offer it to customers that are willing to buy it.
  • Logistical hurdles: The shipping industry is ineffective to misrepresent or obscure the origin of its cargo making the capping ineffective.
  • In-effective: Exemptions for some of the Russian production complexes such as the Sakhalin-2 project which is funded by Japan will result in Russian barrels still floating into the market un-capped.
  • Vague market: For the price cap to work, service providers will have to ask clients for proof of purchase from Russia-linked crude at a cap-compliant price which is difficult to establish.
  • Potential alternatives: Russia can potentially use non-European shipping channels to countries such as China, Turkey, Indonesia and India to bypass the price cap remit.

Impact on India:

  • Sovereign stand: Despite the global pressure post the United States-led sanctions on Russia post its invasion of Ukraine, India has decided to remain non-committal on any such pricing cap
  • National interest: India has affirmed its fundamental obligation to ensure the best possible access on the most advantageous terms for the Indian consumer against international markets and thus has continued to purchase from Moscow at cheap prices.
  • Favourable conditions: Higher import of discounted Russian crude has led to a manifold increase in imports of Russian crude oil to 20 per cent of its total requirement from less than 1 per cent of before the Russia-Ukraine war.
  • Distributed sources: Indian imports are well spread to cushion against any price cap with two of its top suppliers viz., Iraq and Saudi Arabia constituting around 21 and 16 per cent

Impact on Russia:

  • Economic impact: Export revenues in Russia have dipped due to an easing of global oil prices and lower gas sales due to Russia’s decision to cut flows into Europe through the sabotaged Nord Stream 1 pipeline.
  • Huge volume: Owing to previous demand obligations, Moscow’s current account surplus is projected to be above $250 billion which is second only to China’s.
  • Ineffective price: The price cap at $60 will not really impact earnings for Russia since the crude prices are comfortable and stable at present.

Source:

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-economics/g7-russia-oil-price-cap-explained-8308305/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Economy, GS Paper 2: International Relations
Daily Current Affairs

Imports Rise, Gold Smuggling: Study Correlation


Why in news?

  • Recently, the Union Finance Minister has asked Customs officials to map the relation between rising gold importand the smuggling of the yellow metal.
    • The Union Minister for Finance also released the “Smuggling in India Report 2021-22” at the 65th Founding Day of the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, which analyses trends such as Smuggling of Gold, Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, wildlife etc., Commercial Frauds and International enforcement operations & cooperation.

About Directorate of Revenue Intelligence

  • It is India’s apex anti-smuggling agency, working under the Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Additionally, DRI has also been designated as the lead agency for Anti-Smuggling National Coordination Centre (SCord).
  • Constituted on: 4th December, 1957.
  • Headquarter: New Delhi.
  • It has 12 zonal units, 35 regional units and 15 sub-regional units
  • Functions:
    • Detecting and curbing smuggling of contraband, including drug trafficking and illicit international trade in wildlife and environmentally sensitive items,
    • Combating commercial frauds related to international trade and evasion of Customs duty.

Key Points from the Report

India’s official gold imports

  • India being a negligible producer of gold, the huge demand for gold in the country is met through imports. India imports gold dore bar as well as refined gold.
  • Gold imports through official channels worth Rs 3.44 lakh crore were reported in 2021-22, up from Rs 2.54 lakh crore in 2020-21 and Rs 1.99 lakh crore in 2019-20.

Second Largest Consumer

  • According to the World Gold Council, India is the world’s second-biggest gold consumer after China, imports about 900 tonnes of gold a year.
  • India’s gold imports were worth $34.62 billion in 2020-21 and rose 33.34 per cent to $46.14 billion during 2021-22.

Major Hubs

  • 37% of all the gold seized in FY22 was from Myanmar. 20 per cent of it originated from West Asia.
  • In total, 73% of smuggled gold caught was brought in through Myanmar and Bangladesh.

Impact of Pandemic

  • During the pandemic, due to the widespread disruption to air traffic, there was a rise in the instances of gold smuggling by land routes (road or rail).
  • Increased surveillance at international airports has forced the change of route from West Asia by air to land route, i.e. through the China- Myanmar-India borders.

Key reasons for gold smuggling in India

  • Huge Demand for Metal
  • High Import Duty
  • Stability of its value
  • High liquidity

Porous Borders

  • Two flagged routes for smuggling of gold from Myanmar into India are Muse-Mandalay-Kalewa-Tedim-Zokhawthar and Muse-Mandalay-Kalewa-Tamu-Namphalong-Moreh.
  • The former route is connected to Mizoram in India, whereas the latter route opens to Manipur in India.
  • Muse is located in the Shan State of North Eastern Myanmar and Ruili is located in Dehong Dai Prefecture of Yunnan Province. Ruili is also known as China’s gateway to Myanmar.

Methods

  • It is concealed through fuel tanks, dashboard, AC filters, seats, wheel axle, chassis cavity and spare tyres besides specially built cavities in the vehicles

Impact

  • Facilitates money laundering
  • Helps in the growth of mafia groups
  • Results in the drain of India's foreign exchange

Recommendations

  • There is a need for greater access to a bilateral agreement with foreign countries as technology has enabled to do things which earlier was not possible
  • DRI, CBIC and Revenue department must also start a workshop with the cooperation of Intelligence agencies for better cooperation, get actionable intelligence to crack the smugglers
  • The Customs authorities must do better mapping and take the help of artificial intelligence to understand the smuggling cycle.
  • The revenue intelligence officers must increase their engagement with their international counterparts to book ‘big handlers’ working behind the scene and ensure that smugglers do not outsmart authorities.
  • Revenue intelligence officers should strive to bring each case to its logical conclusion at the earliest possible time, adding that smugglers would certainly leave a trail that should be used to reach the main handlers who are actually behind the operation.

Content Source Link:

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-economics/correlation-rise-imports-gold-smuggling-data-8309629/lite/

https://theprint.in/economy/gold-smuggling-leads-to-growth-of-mafia-groups-is-a-heavy-drain-on-indias-forex-dri-report/1249963/

Image Source Link:

https://theprint.in/economy/gold-smuggling-leads-to-growth-of-mafia-groups-is-a-heavy-drain-on-indias-forex-dri-report/1249963/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, Indian Economy, Smuggling
Daily Current Affairs

India to be ‘voice of Global South’


In news

As India assumed the presidency of the G20 group of countries, for 2022 to 2023, Indian External Affairs Minister said that India would be the “voice of the Global South, which is otherwise under-represented in such forums”.

About the classification in the International Political system

  • For a long time in the study of international political systems, the method of categorising countries into broad categories for easier analysis has existed.
  • ‘Global North’ refers loosely to countries like the US, Canada, Europe, Russia, Australia and New Zealand, while ‘Global South’ includes countries in Asia, Africa and South America.
  • The concepts of ‘East’ and ‘West’ is one example of this:
    • With Western countries generally signifying greater levels of economic development and prosperity among their people, and Eastern countries are considered as being in the process of that transition.
  • Another similar categorisation is of First World, Second World and Third World countries, referring to countries associated with the Cold war-era alliances of the US, the USSR, and non-aligned countries, respectively.
  • Further, the World Systems approach emphasises on the interconnected perspective of looking at world politics, according to which there are three major zones of production:
    • Core zones reap profits, being the owners of cutting-edge technologies – countries like the US or Japan
    • Peripheral zones engage in less sophisticated production, that is more labour-intensive.
    • Semi-peripheral are those countries like India and Brazil, which are in the middle.

Criticisms against Classification

  • In the post-Cold War world, the First World/Third World classification was no longer feasible, because when the Communist USSR disintegrated in 1991, most countries had no choice but to ally at some level with the capitalist US.
  • Also, the idea that some countries were ‘developed’ while others were not was thought to be too wide a classification, inadequate for accurately discussing concerns.

Relevance of Global South-North classification

  • The terms Global North and South are arguably more accurate in grouping like countries together, measuring similarly in terms of wealth, indicators of education and healthcare, etc.
  • Another commonality between the South countries is that most have a history of colonisation, largely at the hands of European powers.
  • India referring to Global South at G20, points to the region’s historical exclusion from prominent international organisations – such as from the permanent membership of the United Nations.
    • Hence, the idea that the South can together advocate for common causes has come up.

About G20

  • The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union (EU), founded in 1999.
  • G20 works to address major issues related to the global economy, such as international financial stability, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development.
  • India has assumed the G20 presidency in 2022.   

Source:

For India’s G20 presidency, three priorities, five pillars

Govt says India to be ‘voice of Global South’: What the term means

 

 

Image source:

https://i.redd.it/rtv7e1h2xej81.jpg

https://www.vectorstock.com/royalty-free-vector/map-group-twenty-vector-24740778

 

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Keywords: GS2: Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests: G20, Global South
Daily Current Affairs

International Civil Aviation Day


  • Context: Every year, December 7 is celebrated as International Civil Aviation Day.
  • Historical Background

    1. International Civil Aviation Day was first celebrated in 1994. As part of ICAO's 50th-anniversary celebrations, it was established in 1994.
    2. 1996 was the year when the UN General Assembly formally recognised December 7 as International Civil Aviation Day.
  1.  
  • Every year, this day is celebrated to
    1. promote awareness of the importance of international civil aviation organisations in international air travel.
    2. raise awareness of the importance of international civil aviation to the economic and social development of countries
    3. Awareness of the unique role of ICAO in helping nations cooperate and build a global rapid transit network for the benefit of all mankind.
  • Safety standards in international aviation are maintained by the ICAO, an autonomous UN body.
  • The theme for the year 2022 is, “Advancing Innovation for Global Aviation Development” which will remain the same until the year 2023.

Convention on International Civil Aviation (or Chicago Convention)

It established the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel.


Source:

https://www.indiatoday.in/amp/information/story/international-civil-aviation-day-2022-theme-history-and-all-you-need-to-know-2306241-2022-12-07

https://www.un.org/en/observances/civil-aviation-day

Image source: https:

//www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/international-civil-aviation-day-social-and-economic-benefits-of-the-global-flight-network-101638853716819.html

 

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Keywords: GS III: Economy, Infrastructure development
Daily Current Affairs

Ocean Energy Wave Converter - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Recently IIT Madras researchers have developed and deployed Sindhuja I, a device that generates electricity from the oscillation of waves in the Sea.
  • Key Highlights

  1. It is deployed off the coast of Tamil Nadu near Tuticorin.
  2. It consists of a floating buoy, a spar and an electrical module. The buoy moves up and down as the waves oscillate up and down.
  • There is a hole at the centre of this buoy that will allow the spar to pass through it. The spar is fixed to the seafloor. When the buoy moves, the waves produce a relative motion between both which produces power.
  1. The device uses a technology called a “point absorber wave energy converter”.
  2. It will not only reduce the dependence of Tamil Nadu on fossil fuel-based energy generation but also be a positive step towards fulfilment of SDGs.
  • Sea waves
  1. They are the most powerful energy carriers in renewable energy sources, as they show large energy resources in all geographical areas.
  2. Scientists believe that the waves in the ocean are capable of generating 2 Terawatt (TW) per year all over the world.

Source:

https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/iit-madras-wave-energy-generator-8307268/lite/

 

https://www.britannica.com/science/wave-power

 

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Keywords: GS III: Science and Technology, Achievements of Indian Org
Daily Current Affairs

No first-use policy - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Recently, China reiterated its ‘No First Use Policy’.

Key Highlights

  1. No First Use” is a commitment to never use nuclear weapons first under any circumstances, whether as a preemptive attack or first strike, or in response to non-nuclear attack of any kind.
  2. China is the only nuclear-armed country to have an unconditional NFU policy.
  • India maintains a policy of NFU with exceptions for a response to chemical or biological attacks.
  1. France, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States maintain policies that permit the first use of nuclear weapons in a conflict.
  • Indian context:
    Nuclear programme of India was initiated under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. However, Nehru was against nuclear proliferation.
  • The five nuclear powers (US, USSR, UK, France, and China) tried to impose the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world after China conducted the nuclear tests (1964.)

Source:

https://thehill.com/policy/international/3763606-china-reiterates-no-1st-use-policy-in-wake-of-us-report/

https://www.globalzero.org/no-first-use-faqs/

 

 

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Keywords: GS II: IR, nuclear weapons and associated policies
Daily Current Affairs

Yuan Wang 5 - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Recently, China’s Yuan Wang 5 arrived at Sri Lanka’s Hambantota Port from Sunda strait, off Indonesia.
  • Hambantota Port is situated in Sri Lanka’s southern coast and is a deep water natural port.

  • The port is strategically important as links the Middle East and East Asia and accounts for a big chunk of India shipping freight which passes through this Sri Lankan port.
  • It is both domestic and transshipment handling port.
  •  
  • Under China’s debt trap policy, Hambantota port (developed by Chinese Merchants Port Holding and the Sri Lankan govt) has been leased to China for 99 years.
  • This means that there can be permanent presence of the Chinese Navy in the IOR which is not healthy.

 

  • YUAN WANG 5
    1. It is a Research/Survey Vessel that was built in 2007 (15 years ago).
    2. Its appearance coincides with a planned Indian long-range missile test.
  • Concerns for India:
    1. Chinese presence is increasing in the IOR, raising security concerns in the region.
    2. Several countries including Bangladesh, Nepal and Maldives by signing large infrastructure projects with China which in turn can threaten the IOR balance.

 

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/chinese-spy-ship-yuan-wang-5-re-enters-indian-ocean/article66231546.ece/amp/

Image source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2213624X20301541

 

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Keywords: GS II: International Relations, IOR and Strategic Ports
Daily Current Affairs

Bharat Stage (BS) NORMS - Edukemy Current Affairs


About

  • The Bharat Stage (BS) are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from motor vehicles.
  • The Environment Ministry is responsible for deciding the fuel standard in the country. The Central Pollution Control Board implements these standards.
  • The BS regulations are based on the European emission standards.

https://www.hindustantimes.com/car-bike/ban-on-bs-iii-bs-iv-vehicles-in-delhi-are-you-exempted-what-is-the-fine-for-violating-rule-101668341280682-amp.html

 

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Keywords: General Studies – 3 Environment and Ecology, Pollution
Daily Current Affairs

Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA)


Why in news? Recently, MHA said 117 international agencies excluded from the FCRA ambit; can contribute funds.

About

  • Enacted during the Emergency in 1976 in an atmosphere of apprehension that foreign powers were interfering in India’s affairs by pumping in funds through independent organisations.
  • The law sought to regulate foreign donations to individuals and associations so that they functioned “in a manner consistent with the values of a sovereign democratic republic”.

Amendments

  • It was amended in 2010 to “consolidate the law” on the utilisation of foreign funds, and “to prohibit” their use for “any activities detrimental to the national interest”
  • The law was amended again by the current government in 2020, giving the government tighter control and scrutiny over the receipt and utilisation of foreign funds by NGOs.

 

https://wap.business-standard.com/article-amp/current-affairs/117-international-agencies-excluded-from-fcra-ambit-can-contribute-funds-122120500668_1.html

 

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Keywords: General Studies – 3, Indian Economy
Daily Current Affairs

Vizhinjam port project - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Adani Group approached the Kerala High Court requesting the security cover of central forces in its port construction site in Vizhinjam.

About

  • It is being built under a Public Private Partnership (PPP) model with Adani Ports Private Limited at Vizhinjam near Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
  • The port is to have 30 berths, and will be able to handle giant “megamax” container ships.
  • The port is expected to compete with Colombo, Singapore, and Dubai for a share of trans-shipment traffic.
  • The port’s advantages are availability of a 20m contour within one nautical mile from the coast and minimal littoral drift along the coast.

 

 

https://www.livemint.com/news/india/vizhinjam-port-protest-adani-group-demanded-deployment-of-central-forces-not-the-state-clarifies-kerala-minister-11670121684694.html

 

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Keywords: General Studies – 3, Indian Economy, Infrastructure development
Daily Current Affairs

Cheetah/ international cheetah day


Why in news? Recently World Cheetah Day was celebrated.

About:

  • It is the fastest terrestrial animal on earth. The cheetah is the only large carnivore that got completely wiped out from India, mainly due to over-hunting and habitat loss.
  • The Cheetah habitat in India historically is from Jammu to Tamil Nadu, very widespread and they were found in any habitat dry forests, grasslands, scrub forest, etc.
  • Central India, particularly the Gwalior region, had cheetahs for a very long time.
  • The reintroduction of cheetahs in India is being done under Project Cheetah, which is the world's first intercontinental large wild carnivore translocation project.

 

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/world-cheetah-day-2022-social-media-fuels-illegal-trade-in-the-species-85347

 

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Keywords: General Studies – 3 Environment and Ecology, protection of animals
Daily Current Affairs

Global wage report 2023 - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, International Labour Organisation released Global Wage Report 2022-2023.

About

  • The Impact of inflation and COVID-19 on wages and purchasing power” was released recently by the International Labour Organization (ILO).
  • Global wages declined in 2022 for the first time since the 2008 global financial crisis due to increasing living expenses.
  • The severe inflation crisis and global economic slowdown – caused partly because of the war in Ukraine and the global energy crisis – are causing a decline in real monthly wages in many countries.
  • Monthly wages have declined by 0.9 per cent in real terms in the first half of 2022. This is the first negative growth of real global wages in the 21st century.

 

https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/explained-the-lingering-crisis-of-labour-post-pandemic/article66227964.ece/amp/

 

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Keywords: General Studies – 3 Indian Economy, Labour and Employment
Daily Current Affairs

Agri Investment Portal - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Union Agriculture Minister inaugurates the Agriculture Investment Portal

About

Launched by: Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare

  • The portal is a one-stop solution for all investors who are looking to invest in India in agriculture and allied sectors.
  • The portal highlights the steps for ease of doing business in India, the market entry strategies and the regulatory frameworks that are involved in setting up the operations.

Objectives

  • Boost investments in the agriculture sector of India
  • To ease the hand-holding process for the investors
  • Tap the potential of all the sub-sectors in Agriculture

 

https://newsonair.com/2022/12/06/union-minister-narendra-singh-tomar-inaugurates-the-agriculture-investment-portal/

 

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Keywords: General Studies – 1 Geography, General Studies – 3 Indian Agriculture
Daily Editorial Analysis

The AIIMS attack underscores cybersecurity need: HT


Exam View: Cyber security, WannaCry, Ransomware, Trojan Horses, Clickjacking, Denial of Service (DOS) Attack, Man in Middle Attack, Zero Day Vulnerability, Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C), Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), Major Types of Cyber Threats, Challenges Related to India’s CyberSpace.

IN News: AIIMS came to a near-halt in November after a massive cyber-attack derailed everyday work, appointments and registration, billing, patient care information and lab reports. The attack corrupted files and data on the main and backup servers of the mega-hospital.

The cyber revolution has finally come of age. Bit by bit the world is getting wired into a global village. Everything from media to medicine from data to dating is being radically transformed thanks to the Internet which has truly become the techno mania of our time.

The revolution is already threatening to overwhelm the 'haves' - those who enjoy unhindered access to the information superhighway. There is a growing fear that it is stripping our capacity to cope with antiquating our laws transforming our mores redefining our priorities reordering our work-places and invading our privacy

A surge in cyber risks has grown more worrisome as India's internet base expands, with over 900 internet users anticipated by 2025. With the development of digital technology, cybercrimes are becoming more sophisticated as well.

Recent Cyber Attacks in India                                  

  • In November 2022, A ransomware attack recently hit AIIMS Delhi. The personal data of millions of patients in the top premier medical institute is at risk after a ransomware attack on its servers.
  • In February 2022, Air India experienced a major cyberattack that compromised approximately 4.5 million customer records. Passport, ticket, and some credit card information were compromised.
  • In 2021, A high-profile India-based payment company, Juspay, suffered a data breach impacting 35 million customers. This breach is very noteworthy because Juspay handles payments for online marketplaces, including Amazon and other big players.
  • In October 2020 Mumbai, had malware inserted that flowed through its electricity grid precipitating a power outage.
  • In 2020, approximately 82% of Indian companies suffered ransomware attacks.
  • In May 2017, the top five cities in India (Kolkata, Delhi, Bhubaneswar, Pune and Mumbai) got impacted due to the WannaCry ransomware attack.
 

Types of Cyber Threats:

  • Zero Day Vulnerability: A zero-day vulnerability is a flaw in the machine/network’s operating system or application software which has not been fixed by the developer and can be exploited by a hacker who is aware of it.
  • Denial of Service (DOS) Attack: The deliberate act of overloading a particular service like website from multiple computers and routes with the aim of disrupting that service.
  • Cryptojacking: The term Cryptojacking is closely related to cryptocurrency. Cryptojacking takes place when attackers access someone else’s computer for mining cryptocurrency.
  • Trojan Horses: A Trojan horse attack uses a malicious program that is hidden inside a seemingly legitimate one.
  • Ransomware: This type of malware hijacks computer data and then demands payment (usually in bitcoins) in order to restore it.
  • Clickjacking: Act of tempting internet users to click links containing malicious software or unknowingly share private information on social media sites.
  • Man in Middle Attack: In this kind of attack, the messages between two parties are intercepted during transit.

Challenges related to Cyber Security:

Issue with data localisation: Having foreign-sourced hardware and software, or having terabytes of data parked on servers outside India, pose a threat to our national cyberspace.

Quantum Cyber-attack: China’s quantum advances expand the spectre of quantum cyberattacks against India’s digital infrastructure, which already faces a barrage of attacks from Chinese state-sponsored hackers.

Rapid digitalisation adding Vulnerability: India's digital economy has flourished because of citizens' digital integration, but it has also created a vulnerability to data theft. The government expected to remove all impediments to “data flows” across various sectors. This narrative resulted in tech-industries paying only lip service to data protection.

Proxy Cyber Attacks: Artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of producing autonomous lethal weapon systems that can kill and destroy lives and targets without the involvement of humans. National security is also compromised by the vulnerability to illegal activities such as fake digital currency and intellectual property thefts through use of the latest cyber technologies.

The magnitude of the cybersecurity debt incurred by the State has grown so much in the last decade that the prevalent reality today is: Data is the new ransom. Suspending some low-level analysts is not even putting a band-aid on a gaping wound. It is spraying holy water and chanting “law, terrorism, foreign power” on a breach tsunami and hoping it will stop on its own.

With several non-state actors engaging in hybrid warfare and distorting day-to-day practices, including examinations, these pose legal, ethical and real dilemmas. Left unchecked, the world may have to confront a new kind of Wild West, before states find a common denominator for regulating cyber space and lay down proper rules and practices to prevent anarchy and chaos.

 

https://www.hindustantimes.com/opinion/the-aiims-attack-shows-the-importance-of-a-robust-cybersecurity-framework-101670163109241.html

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: Internal Security, cyber security
Case Study of the Day

Solid Waste Management: Landfills


In news

The Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry's dashboard was published recently, according to which five states account for more than half of the 1,080 “legacy landfill sites” for which authorities are yet to propose remediation plans under the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0.

About Landfill and SWM

  • Landfills are sites designed to store garbage, and Old waste at landfill sites that have remained dumped for more than three months are considered “legacy” dump sites.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban has the target of creating “garbage-free cities” and 100% remediation of all legacy landfills by the end of the mission’s five-year cycle.
  • The following best practices can be adopted, as highlighted in NITI Aayog's report Titled ‘Waste-wise Cities: Best practices in municipal solid waste management.
    • “Zero-landfill model” of development as adopted in Chhattisgarh’s Ambikapur, Maharashtra’s Chandrapur and Kerala’s Taliparamba, which is based on resource recovery and principles of circular economy, that are socially, environmentally, and economically sound.
      • It is a holistic and multi-stakeholder approach that ensures that waste is segregated at the source itself, recyclables are extracted and channelized to the recycling industries for various gainful applications, and biodegradable waste is treated in a decentralised manner
    • Transporting and processing the sanitary waste separately in the local Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facility (CBWTF), as done in city of Karad in Maharashtra.
    • Cues could be taken from Bengaluru, which is using ‘Radio Frequency Identification’ for garbage collection.

Source:

These 3 Indian cities have managed to solve the problem of landfills. Here’s how they did it

 

Image Source:

https://indianexpress.com/article/india/over-50-landfill-sites-in-5-states-no-remedial-plans-8310034/lite/

 

Click the link below to attempt the daily MCQs and the Mains based questions.

 

Keywords: GS2: Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation: Land Fill, Solid waste management, Swachh Bharat Mission
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