Thursday, 27th April 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day

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Third-gen web is about public good

2   Daily Current Affairs

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Governor’s Power over State Bills

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National Health Account (Nha) Estimates, 2019- 2020

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Gandhi Sagar wildlife Sanctuary

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International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

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Savitribai Phule: Legacy & Scholarship

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Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna-Gramin (PMAY-G)

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Global unicorn index 2023 (GUI 2023)

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Jagadguru Adi Shankaracharya - Edukemy Current Affairs

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India’s First Water Metro - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Ramanujacharya - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Zero Shadow Day - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Uric Acid - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Editorial of the day

Third-gen web is about public good


Exam View: Digital Public Infrastructure, Differences between Web3 and Web 3.0, Features of Web3, Significance of third generation web to India, Way forward

Context: India’s major digital public infrastructure push and the large-scale deployment of Internet of Things in rural development projects offer major possibilities for deploying Web 3 in rural areas.

Digital Public Infrastructure:

  • India's digital public infrastructure, which includes the Aadhar, Unified Payments Interface (UPI) in other words, digital payments and Digilocker (an online storage platform), are collectively known as 'India Stack'.
  • It has been developed through collaboration between different entities, including governments, regulators, private sector, volunteers, startups, and academic institutions.
  • Third generation web is the next version of the internet, which is a decentralised internet that runs on a public blockchain, which is also used for cryptocurrency transactions. However there is a difference between Web3 and Web 3.0.

Difference between Web3 and Web 3.0:

Web3

Web 3.0

Web3 is decentralised, privacy-oriented, blockchain-driven and crypto-asset friendly and seeks to transform the manner in which data is generated, monetized, shared and circulated.

Web 3.0 refers to a ‘semantic web,’ which is powered by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and has the ability to recombine information available and generate new content and knowledge resources that are more authentic and creative.

Web3, puts a strong emphasis on security and empowerment by returning control of data and identity to users.

Web 3.0, focuses on efficiency and intelligence by reusing and linking data across websites.

Web3 users can store their data in a cryptocurrency wallet, which they can access using their private keys.

Semantic web uses a central place called the solid pod to store all user data, enabling users to handle third-party access to their data.

Web3 uses blockchain technology.

Web 3.0, certain data interchange technologies like RDF, SPARQL, OWL, and does not use blockchain technology.

Data in web3 is difficult to modify or delete since it is scattered across multiple nodes;

Data in web3.0 can be changed effortlessly

Features of Web3:

  • The core idea behind Web3, is to fight against the current centralised dominance and power of the giants, and return the power of ownership back to the users through a decentralised ecosystem by implementation of blockchain.
  • Web3 has file-sharing systems such as the Interplanetary File System which are cryptographically protected, more secure and capable of functioning off the Internet and off blockchains.
  • Web3 assigns a strategic role to non- custodial wallets that function as digital passports for users to access blockchain-enabled transaction platforms.
  • Web3 seeks to replace micro-economic organisations with decentralised autonomous organisations (DAOs). At a more macro level, it seeks to create a distributed economic system.
  • Web3 systems also seeks to generate fungible digital assets to reward local providers of data storage capacity for their services.

Significance of third generation web to India:

  • Intellectual Property rights (IPR) protection: India’s handicraft industry is renowned for design-related innovations and many of which are not IPR protected. Digital tokens minted by Web 3 would enable handcraft enterprises to secure their innovations.
  • Dissemination of grassroots innovations through Web 3-based instruction tools, from master artisans to fellow members which would improve the economic fortunes of craftsmen and artisan communities
  • India’s major digital public infrastructure push and the large-scale deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) in rural development projects offer major possibilities for deploying Web 3 in rural areas.
  • Use of Community data: There has been the rapid rise of community data. For instance, the Atal Bhujal Yojana is an important source of data on groundwater utilisation practices and aquifer contamination. Its utility remains unexplored due to lack of data analytics capabilities and can be overcome by Web3.

Way Forward:

  • The primary challenge in Web3 is the inability of data analytics capabilities to catch up with the pace of data generation in rural areas. India has a rapidly expanding pool of data analytics and web design talent.
  • This can be resolved through providing incentives for decentralised analytics and tokenizing them to attract a talent pool for the benefit of rural communities.

 

https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-third-gen-web-is-about-public-good/article66782193.ece

 

Keywords: GS-3 Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology
Daily Current Affairs

Governor’s Power over State Bills


In News: The Supreme Court in its observation to a petition filed by the State of Telangana, has sent a strong message that Governors should return Bills they do not agree to as soon as possible and not sit over them indefinitely.

About the News:

  • The SC made an observation as a part of judicial order in a petition filed by the State of Telangana complaining that the Governor has kept pending several important Bills sent.
  • Similar cases of gubernatorial procrastination and delays have been observed in states like Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Delhi, Punjab, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal etc. has also been observed.
  • The non-decision/indecision on the part of the governor on a bill passed by the Assembly has led states to file petitions against the governors.
  • Recently, the TN Assembly too passed a resolution urging the President of India to fix a timeline for assent to be given to bills passed by the Assembly.

Constitutional Provisions pertaining to the issue:

  • Article 200 gives governors the power to either grant assent to a bill, withhold assent or reserve the bill for the president’s consideration in certain cases.
    • The governor may return the bill (if it is not a Money Bill) requesting the House/Houses to reconsider the bill.
    • If such a bill is passed again by the House/Houses with/without amendment and presented to the governor for assent, the governor shall not withhold assent.
    • It states that the governor must “as soon as possible” after the presentation of the bill for assent return the bill for reconsideration to the House/Houses of the state legislature.
  • Article 355 of the Constitution says that it shall be the duty of the Union to ensure that the government of every State is carried on in accordance with the Constitution.
    • This provision justifies the “invasion of the provincial field” by the Union government and the proclamation of the President’s rule (under Article 356) in a State.
  • Article 154 of the Constitution, says that the governor can exercise his/her executive powers only on the advice of the Council of Ministers, thus the governor can withhold assent to a bill only on ministerial advice.

Supreme Court ruling pertaining to the issue:

  • Under Article 361, the Governor has complete immunity from court proceedings for any act done in the exercise of their powers.
  • However, in the constitution bench of SC in Rameshwar Prasad vs Union of India, the court held that immunity under Article 361(1) does not take away the power of the Court to examine the validity of the action including on the ground of malafides.

Issues related to pending Bills:

  • Affects effective functioning of the government due to delays in governor’s failure in decision making on bills passed by the legislature.
  • Hampers implementation of policies and legislations: Governor’s indecisiveness causes delays in implementation of policies and laws, having consequences over public welfare.
  • Dent to democratic process: Politically motivated delays by the governor, who is appointed by the centre undermines the legitimacy of democratically chosen government.
  • Poor clarity over constitutional provisions regarding governor’s power to withhold decision cause confusion and loss of public faith over legislature.

Source: 

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/if-they-dont-agree-governors-should-send-back-bills-as-soon-as-possible-says-sc/article66773944.

Keywords: GS-2 Role of Governor, Federalism
Daily Current Affairs

National Health Account (Nha) Estimates, 2019- 2020


In News: Government releases National Health Accounts Estimates for India (2019-20)

About NHA Estimates:

  • The National Health Accounts (NHA) Estimates for India for 2019-20 have been released by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare(MoH&FW).
  • It is the seventh in the series of reports released annually and clearly show that government expenditure for healthcare continues to be the priority.
  • The report highlights the positive trend towards ensuring financial protection and Universal Health Coverage for citizens.

Major Findings

  • Share of Out-of-Pocket Expenditure in Total Health Expenditure:
    • The share of Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (OOPE) in total Health Expenditure (THE) declined from 62.6% in 2014-15 to 47.1% in 2019-20.
  • Share of Government Health Expenditure in GDP:
    • The share of Government Health Expenditure (GHE) in the overall GDP of the country has increased from 1.13% in 2014-15 to 1.35% in 2019-20.
    • Per capita Government spending on healthcare doubled from Rs. 1,108 to Rs. 2,014 between 2014-15 to 2019-20.
  • Share of Government Health Expenditure in Total Health Expenditure:
    • The share of Government Health Expenditure (GHE) in Total Health Expenditure (THE) increased from 29% in 2014-15 to 41.4% in 2019-20.
    • The government spending on health increased by 12% between 2018-19 and 2019-20, which is more than double the growth rate between 2017-18 and 2018-19, which was at 5%.

  • Focus on Primary Healthcare:
    • The share of primary healthcare in Current Government Health Expenditure (CGHE) has increased from 51.3% in 2014-15 to 55.9% in 2019-20.
    • The report highlights the increased public spending in primary healthcare, which is in line with National Health Policy 2017 where it states that two-thirds of public health spending must be in Primary Health systems.
    • The government has prioritized primary healthcare as it is the fundamental base on which secondary and tertiary services can be supported efficiently.
  • Private Health Insurance:
    • Private health insurance share is also going up, which shows a sign of maturity for a country in terms of insurance arena as those who can afford, will afford it from private players too.
    • This complements the government system of primary, secondary and tertiary care.

Universal health coverage (UHC) in India:

  • UHC aims to ensure that every citizen has access to affordable and quality healthcare services without facing financial hardships.
  • It is a part of India's National Health Policy, which envisions the provision of comprehensive and integrated health services to all citizens.

Major schemes under the UHC framework:

  • Ayushman Bharat: Also known as Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), it was launched in 2018 to provide free healthcare services to over 50 crore beneficiaries across India.
    • It has two components - Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) and Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs).
    • PMJAY provides cashless and paperless access to secondary and tertiary care services, including pre and post-hospitalization expenses, for up to INR 5 lakh per family per year.
    • HWCs aim to provide comprehensive primary healthcare services, including preventive, promotive, and curative care.
  • Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY): Under the scheme health insurance coverage to poor and vulnerable families, including below the poverty line (BPL) families, street vendors, and construction workers.
    • It covers hospitalization expenses of up to INR 30,000 per annum for a family of up to five members.
  • Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA): The scheme provides free antenatal care services to pregnant women, including routine check-ups, diagnostic tests, and counseling.
  • National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS): It aims to provide health insurance coverage to all citizens and is currently in the planning phase.

 

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1919582

 

Keywords: GS-II & III: Governance, Important health Indices
Daily Current Affairs

Gandhi Sagar wildlife Sanctuary


In News: Madhya Pradesh will develop the Gandhisagar Sanctuary as a second home for cheetahs within six months to retain the state’s tag as the “Cheetah State”.

About Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Mandsaur and Neemuch districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh, India, with one of its boundaries running along the border of Rajasthan.
  • It is named after the Gandhi Sagar Dam, which was constructed on the Chambal River.
  • The wildlife sanctuary was established in 1974 and spans an area of approximately 368 square kilometers.
  • River Chambal flows through the sanctuary, dividing it into two parts.
  • The vegetation in the sanctuary is mainly dry deciduous forest, mixed with grasslands and riverine forests.
  • Flora: The principal tree species found here are Khair, Salai, Kardhai, Dhawda, Tendu and Palash.
  • Fauna: Some of the prominent mammal species found in the sanctuary include tiger, leopard, chinkara, sambar, nilgai, wild boar, and sloth bear.

The sanctuary has many places of historical, archeological and religious importance such as Chaurasigarh, Chaturbhujnath temple, Bhadkaji rock paintings, Narsinghjhar Hinglajgarh fort, Taxakeshwar temple.

 

https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/bhopal-news/madhya-pradesh-to-develop-gandhisagar-sanctuary-as-second-home-for-cheetahs-within-6-months-cm-chouhan-cheetahstate-wildlifeconservation-101682151167038.html

 

Keywords: GS –3 Environment, GS-1 Geographical Location
Daily Current Affairs

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)


In News: The International Fund of Agricultural Development (IFAD) will set up a new framework to facilitate cooperation between small agricultural producers in developing nations and businesses in Japan and elsewhere. 

About IFAD:

  • IFAD is a specialized agency of the United Nations that focuses on eradicating rural poverty in developing countries through sustainable agricultural and rural development. It was established in 1977.
  • It is headquartered in
  • IFAD has 177 Member States including India. The IFAD works with rural people allowing them to enhance their food security, improve nutrition and raise their incomes.
  • IFAD operates in low-income and middle-income countries, primarily in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Near East. It provides grants and low-interest loans to finance projects that are developed in close collaboration with local communities, governments, and other development partners.
  • IFAD also advocates for policies and practices that are conducive to rural development and promotes knowledge sharing and innovation in agriculture and rural development.
  • IFAD aims to Empower rural communities, Enhance food security, Reduce poverty and inequality, and contribute to sustainable development and environmental sustainability.

Source:

https://theprint.in/world/ifad-to-help-business-work-for-farms-in-developing-nations/1533490/

 

Keywords: GS –3 Agriculture
Daily Current Affairs

Savitribai Phule: Legacy & Scholarship


In News: The recent announcement by a UK college of a scholarship named after Savitribai Phule has put the spotlight on the significant legacy of the educationist and social reformer.

About Savitribai Phule (1831-1897)

  • Savitribai was born to a peasant family on January 3, 1831, in Naigaon, a small village in present-day Maharashtra, India.
  • Savitribai Phule was a pioneering social reformer, educator, poet, and women's rights activist in 19th-century India.

Major Contributions

Education:

  • In 1848, Jyotirao and Savitribai established the first girls' school in Bhide Wada, Pune.
  • Savitribai served as the school's first teacher and played a pivotal role in breaking social norms by encouraging girls from all castes, including lower castes and untouchables, to attend school.
  • They opened more such schools for girls, Shudras, and Ati-Shudras (the backward castes and Dalits, respectively) in Pune.

Social reformer: 

  • She actively campaigned against social evils such as caste discrimination, child marriage, and sati. Savitribai Phule also advocated inter-caste marriages, and widow remarriage.
  • She also started the Mahila Seva Mandal to raise awareness about women’s rights.
  • She also opened Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha to cater to pregnant widows and sexual assault survivors.
  • In 1873, the Phule's set up the Satyashodhak and also initiated the first Satyashodhak marriage—a marriage without a dowry, Brahmin priests or Brahminical rituals in 1873.

 

Source:

https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/savitribai-phule-legacy-honour-8570151/

 

Keywords: GS –1 Modern India History, Socio-cultural Reform Movements, IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES
Daily Current Affairs

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna-Gramin (PMAY-G)


Context: Recently, the Bihar government has served notices to over 2.21 lakh beneficiaries for not completing the construction of their houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna-Gramin (PMAY-G).

About Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna-Gramin (PMAY-G)

  • PMAY-G aims to provide a pucca house with basic amenities to all rural families, who are homeless or living in kutcha or dilapidated houses by the end of March 2022 (Now by the end of March 2024).
  • Its objective is to offer aid in the form of complete grants to individuals living in rural areas and classified as Below the Poverty Line (BPL), for the construction of new houses or the renovation of existing unserviceable kutcha houses.
  • The minimum area or size of the housing units offered under this scheme increased from 20 square meter to 25 square meter.

Beneficiaries under PMAY-G

  • People belonging to SCs/STs
  • Freed bonded labourers and non-SC/ST categories
  • Widows or next-of-kin of defence personnel killed in action
  • Ex-servicemen and retired members of the paramilitary forces
  • Disabled persons and minorities.

Beneficiaries Selection Process: Beneficiaries will be selected by a  three-stage validation

  • Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011
  • Gram Sabha,
  • Geo-tagging.

Cost Sharing between Central and State government:

  • The cost of unit assistance is shared between Central and State Governments in the ratio of 60:40 in plain areas and 90:10 for North Eastern and hilly states.
  • The unit assistance has been increased from Rs. 70,000 to Rs. 1.20 lakh in plain and from Rs. 75,000 to Rs. 1.30 lakh in hilly states.

Monitoring of Scheme

  • The programme implementation is to be monitored not only electronically (Using AwaasSoft and Awaas App), but also through community participation (Social Audit), Member of Parliament (DISHA Committee), Central and State Government officials, National Level Monitors, etc.

Implementing Ministry

  • Ministry of Rural Development

 

https://epaper.thehindu.com/ccidist-ws/th/th_delhi/issues/33397/OPS/GO6B51BDK.1+G2BB51KR7.1.html

 

Keywords: GS-3 Economic development, GS-2 Government policies and Intervention
Daily Current Affairs

Global unicorn index 2023 (GUI 2023)


Context: According to the Global Unicorn Index 2023 by Hurun, Swiggy, Dream11 and BYJU'S are India's top unicorns.

About Global Unicorn Index 2023:

  • Global Unicorn Index 2023 is released by Hurun Research Institute.
  • India ranked 3rd in the list of countries with the most number of Unicorns as per Global Unicorn Index.
  • The report, indicates that India (68 unicorns) continues to be the world's third-largest country with the highest number of unicorns, following the USA (666) and China (316).
  • BYJU’s is the top-most unicorn in India, followed by Swiggy and Dream11 (both at $8 billion).
  • Unicorns are privately held, venture-capital-backed startups that have reached a value of $1 billion.
  • The valuation of unicorns is not expressly linked to their current financial performance, but is largely based on their growth potential as perceived by investors and venture capitalists who have taken part in various funding rounds.

 

Source:

https://www.livemint.com/news/india/huruns-global-unicorn-index-2023-labels-swiggy-dream11-as-india-s-top-unicorns-11681874961980.html

 

Keywords: GS –3 Employment, GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Daily Current Affairs

Jagadguru Adi Shankaracharya - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Prime Minister has paid tributes to Jagadguru Adi Shankaracharya on his birth anniversary.

About:

  • He was born in 788 CE in Kaladi, Kerala, and passed away in 820 CE.
  • He is considered to be the founder of the Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy, which emphasizes the ultimate unity and oneness of all existence.
  • He wrote many commentaries on the Vedic canon (Upanishads, Brahma Sutras and Bhagavad Gita) in Sanskrit.
  • He was a devotee of Shiva.
  • He was opposed to Buddhist philosophers.
  • He argued that the ultimate reality is Brahman, and that the universe is an illusion (Maya)
  • He emphasized the importance of renunciation and meditation to realize the ultimate reality.
  • Major Work:
    • Brahmasutrabhasya (Bhashya or commentary on the Brahma Sutra).
    • Bhajagovinda Stotra.
    • Nirvana Shatakam.
    • Prakaran Granths.
  • He was responsible for reviving Hinduism in India to a great extent when Buddhism was gaining popularity.
  • He established four Mathas in the four corners of India at Shingeri, Puri, Dwaraka and Badrinath– for propagation of Sanathana Dharma.
  • Shankaracharya was also a social reformer and worked to eliminate caste-based discrimination and promote social equality.

 

https://www.pmindia.gov.in/en/news_updates/pm-pays-tributes-to-jagadguru-adi-shankaracharya-on-his-birth-anniversary/?comment=disable

 

Keywords: General Studies – 1 Medieval Indian History
Daily Current Affairs

India’s First Water Metro - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Prime Minister inaugurated the first phase of the Kochi Water Metro (India’s First Water Metro).

About:

  • The Kochi Water Metro is a project being implemented by Kochi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (KMRL) with the assistance of a German funding agency, Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau.
  • It includes boats that are hybrid, battery-powered, air-conditioned and disabled-friendly among other features.
  • The water metro will operate on water bodies like any other ferry or traditional boat service, but with modern facilities, enhanced safety and security measures.
  • Kochi Water metro has been envisaged as a feeder service of the Kochi metro rail, which has been operational since 2017.
  • The water metro boat service will operate in the backwaters of Kochi, connecting 10 nearby islands with the mainland of Kochi, the commercial hub of Kerala.
  • The project is envisaged with 38 jetties, and 78 boats, covering a distance of 76 km.
  • The non-polluting, battery-powered boats are noise-free and produce low waves, unlike traditional ferries.
  • Boat re-charging facilities have been provided in all terminals.
  • These boats can go up to a speed of eight nautical miles per hour and feature aluminium-catamaran hulls.
  • Each boat can carry 100 passengers with a seating capacity of 50.

 

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/pm-modi-inaugurates-kochi-water-metro-what-is-this-public-boat-service-8574754/

 

Keywords: General Studies –2 Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Ramanujacharya - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Prime Minister has paid tributes to Sri Ramanujacharya on his birth anniversary and on his Jayanti.

About:

  • He was born in 1017 CE in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, and passed away in 1137 CE.
  • He was instrumental in reviving the Vishishtadvaita subschool of Vedanta philosophy, which posits non-dualism of the qualified whole.
  • He argued that Brahman is the ultimate reality, but also that the universe is real and a manifestation of Brahman.
  • He emphasized devotion (bhakti) to achieve union with the divine.
  • He also emphasized the importance of the Bhagavad Gita and the Divya Prabandham.
  • Ramanujacharya wrote nine scriptures known as the navaratnas and composed numerous commentaries on Vedic scriptures, including the Vedanta Sutras and the Bhagavad-Gita.
  • His teachings emphasized the need for harmony with nature and compassion, humility, equality, and mutual respect among all people.
  • His teachings have had a significant impact on the development of the Bhakti movement and South Indian culture. He is widely regarded as a saint and his legacy continues to inspire devotion to Vishnu.
  • He advocated the concept of “vasudhaiva kutumbakam,” which translates to “all the universe is one family.”
  • Because of his work to promote social equality, the 213-feet tall statue of Ramanujacharya in Hyderabad is known as the Statue of Equality.

 

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/religion/festivals/ramanujacharya-jayanti-2023-date-history-celebration-and-significance/articleshow/99725019.cms

 

Keywords: General Studies –1 Medieval Indian History
Daily Current Affairs

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Scientists have fabricated monolayers of pure myelin basic protein (MBP).

About:

  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS).
  • In MS, the immune system attacks and damages the myelin sheath, a protective covering that surrounds the nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, causing a range of symptoms.
  • Symptoms:
    • Muscle weakness and Numbness
    • Bladder Problems, Bowel problems, Fatigue, Dizziness, and damaged nerve fibers in the spinal cord.
      • Since symptoms are common, people don’t often recognise the disease early and often takes many years for someone to be diagnosed, as it is impossible to determine a specific cause or trigger.
  • Causes: The exact cause of the disease is unknown, but it could be a combination of:
    • Genetic factors: Susceptibility may pass down in the genes.
    • Smoking and Stress
    • Vitamin D and B12 deficiency

Myelin Basic Protein (MBP):

  • MBP is a major protein component of the myelin sheath, a protective membrane that wraps around the axon of nerve cells and acts as a model protein in studying diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS).

 

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1918523#:~:text=Scientists%20have%20fabricated%20monolayers%20of,like%20multiple%20sclerosis%20(MS

 

Keywords: General Studies – 2 Health
Daily Current Affairs

Zero Shadow Day - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Bengaluru and all places along 13° North Latitude experienced a Zero Shadow Day, when vertical objects appear to cast no shadow.

About:

  • It is a sub-solar point where the sun is directly overhead at a particular latitude.
  • When the sun is at the zenith (the highest point in the sky) its rays will be hitting a particular point exactly perpendicular to the surface.
  • This will make the shadow of a person exactly under him, making it look like there are no shadows.
  • For every point on Earth between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, there are two Zero Shadow Day a year.
  • One falls during Uttarayan when Sun moves northwards, and other is during Dakshinayan when Sun moves southward.
  • Uttarayan and Dakshinayan happen because Earth’s rotation axis is tilted at an angle of roughly 23.5° to the axis of revolution around the Sun.
  • It lasts for a small part of a second, but the effect can be seen for a minute to a minute-and-a-half.

 

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-sci-tech/bengaluru-zero-shadow-day-what-is-it-why-does-it-happen-8575725

 

Keywords: General Studies –1 Geography
Daily Current Affairs

Uric Acid - Edukemy Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, Scientists at Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST) under Department of Biotechnology fabricated a bio electronic device to detect uric acid to be used in wearables and point of care diagnoses.

About:

  • Uric acid is one of the most important antioxidants that maintain blood pressure stability and reduce oxidative stress in living beings.
  • Uric Acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.
  • It is formed when the body breaks down substances called purines.
    • Purines are normally produced in the body and are also found in some foods and drinks.
  • It is produced as a waste product in the human body mainly in the liver.
  • Usually, kidneys are involved in filtering the uric acid and excreting out through urine.
  • The usual range of uric acid in blood ranges from 0.14 to 0.4 mmol dm-3 and for urine, 1.5 to 4.5 mmol dm-3.
  • However, the fluctuation of uric acid levels due to the lack of balancing between the production and excretion causes several diseases like hyperuricemia, which in turn may lead to gout disease, type 2 diabetes, increase risk of cardiovascular diseases, Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, hypertension, and renal disorders.

 

https://swarajyamag.com/science/indian-scientists-fabricate-bio-electronic-uric-acid-detecting-device-that-can-be-used-for-wearable-sensors

 

Keywords: General Studies –2 Health, Scientific Innovations & Discoveries
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UPSC Daily Current Affairs focuses on learning current events on a daily basis. An aspirant needs to study regular and updated information about current events, news, and relevant topics that are important for UPSC aspirants. It covers national and international affairs, government policies, socio-economic issues, science and technology advancements, and more.

UPSC Daily Current Affairs provides aspirants with a concise and comprehensive overview of the latest happenings and developments across various fields. It helps aspirants stay updated with current affairs and provides them with valuable insights and analysis, which are essential for answering questions in the UPSC examinations. It enhances their knowledge, analytical skills, and ability to connect current affairs with the UPSC syllabus.

UPSC Daily Current Affairs covers a wide range of topics, including politics, economics, science and technology, environment, social issues, governance, international relations, and more. It offers news summaries, in-depth analyses, editorials, opinion pieces, and relevant study materials. It also provides practice questions and quizzes to help aspirants test their understanding of current affairs.

Edukemy's UPSC Daily Current Affairs can be accessed through:

  • UPSC Daily Current Affairs can be accessed through Current Affairs tab at the top of the Main Page of Edukemy. 
  • Edukemy Mobile app: The Daily Current Affairs can also be access through Edukemy Mobile App. 
  • Social media: Follow Edukemy’s official social media accounts or pages that provide UPSC Daily Current Affairs updates, including Facebook, Twitter, or Telegram channels.

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