Friday, 17th March 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


India’s criminal justice systems

2   Daily Current Affairs


Rising Concerns over Freshwater Shortages


Ocean—Services, Modelling, Application, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)


Bar Council of India (BCI) Allows Foreign Lawyers to Practice in India


SVB Bank Failure


National Policy on Older Persons in India


Procedure for Inclusion of Communities in Scheduled Tribes List


Justice Deepak Verma Committee


Nanakshahi Sammat 555




McMohan Line

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Editorial of the day

India’s criminal justice systems

Exam View: About Criminal Justice System (CJS), role of CCTNS in CJS, Weaknesses of police system, Reasons for variation among states

In News: Several cases of employment fraud and scams of similar nature have come to surface in different states of India like Tamil Nadu, Punjab etc. This has raised questions over the efficacy of the criminal justice system in India.

About Criminal Justice System:

The Criminal Justice System (CJS) encompasses a series of institutions, agencies, and processes established by the government to curb crime in the nation. In India Article 21 guarantees the right to speedy justice as a fundamental right.

What is the role of CCTNS in CJS?

Crime and Criminal Tracking Network Systems (CCTNS) is a project initiated in 2009 which aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level. Significance of CCTNS are:

  • Interconnected police stations: CCTNS would interconnect about 17000 Police Stations and additional 5000 offices of supervisory police officers across the country and digitise data related to FIR registration, investigation and charge sheets in all Police Stations.
  • Automation of routine police activities: CCTNS would automate Police functions and create mechanisms to provide public services like registration of online complaints, ascertaining the status of cases registered at the police station, verification of persons etc.
  • Provides platform for Interoperable Criminal Justice System (ICJS): CCTNS is continuation of initiatives like Crime and Criminals Information System (CCIS) and Common Integrated Police Application (CIPA) and also facilitates ICJS.
  • Prerequisite for annual ranking of police stations: The short-listing for a state (UT) is done on the basis of usage of CCTNS in the police station.

Weaknesses of police system in CJS:

  • Poor investigation rates: For IPC (Indian Penal Code) crimes, investigation rates are around 65% for India. There also exists interstate variability in investigation rates.
  • Interstate variation in Charge sheeting rates: For IPC crimes, the all-India average is just over 72%. But it can vary from over 90% in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, and West Bengal, to less than 40% in Assam.
  • India has one of the lowest police-population ratios, of 131.1 officers per 1,00,000 population (against the UN norms of 222). Corruption is also an endemic problem.
  • Lack of cooperation and coordination among police departmental and poor interstate cooperation. Irregular updation of databases and lack of standardised data makes investigation difficult.
  • Non uniform CCTNS usage: Pragati dashboard monitors different aspects of CCTNS such as infrastructure, manpower and use of the database which shows that despite 97% of police stations being connected to CCTNS, only 77% stations of West Bengal are connected. No legacy data has migrated in Bihar.

Reasons for variation among states

  • Understaffing: Unavailability of skilled manpower poses the biggest challenge to efficient CJS and its tools.
  • Police and prison in concurrent lists result in non-uniform policy and models for their functioning.
  • Failed attempts for police reforms like model prison manual and model Police Acts (Bills).

There is a need to develop synergy between the states in various aspects of governance such as the policing system, prisons and justice delivery to stride forward towards the principle of one country,  “one police” and “one prison”.




Keywords: GS-2 Governance, judiciary
Daily Current Affairs

Rising Concerns over Freshwater Shortages

In News: A global study published by GlobeScan and released by an NGO Circle of Blue, which enumerated 30,000 people from 31 countries to analyse attitudes to water shortages, showed that 58% of people were seriously concerned about freshwater shortages.

Key Highlights of the Report:

  • Increase in concern: Concerns about freshwater shortages have increased from 49% in 2014 to 61% in 2022. Fears about climate change have also increased from 45% in 2014 to 65% in 2022.
  • Differential Perception: People in Argentina, Vietnam, Colombia, Germany and Peru reported largest increases in concerns about water shortages whereas people in China, Hong Kong, Japan and South Korea did not consider freshwater shortages a “very serious” issue.
  • Extent of impact: 30% of people globally claimed to have been “greatly” personally affected by freshwater shortages, while a global majority (56 per cent) feel moderately personally affected.
  • Rural urban divide: Globally, people in urban areas (32%) are more likely to be greatly affected by a lack of freshwater than those in rural (28%) or towns and suburban areas (26%).
  • Significance of the report: A rare convergence between public opinion and ground realities of freshwater availability challenges provides an opportunity for governments and NGOs to help sensitise people and businesses and look for sustainable alternatives.

Reasons for Freshwater crisis:

  • Population growth: Human population has doubled in past 50 years, putting pressure on the already limited freshwater resources (2.5% of earth’s water).
  • Agriculture uses 70% of the world’s accessible freshwater, but some 60% of this is wasted due to leaky irrigation systems, inefficient application methods and cultivation of water guzzling crops.
  • Pollution: affects the available freshwater resources. Its sources are pesticides & fertilisers washed away from farms, untreated human wastewater, and industrial waste etc. Groundwater is polluted through leaching of chemicals in underground aquifers.
  • Inequity in access of freshwater where a majority of poor people are able to access only a small share of freshwater resources.
  • Climate Change: The rising temperatures have reduced water levels in many rivers. It has further made the rainfall erratic in nature making rain-fed agriculture unviable.
  • Lack of water data: There is limited data collection over availability of water. Furthermore, lack of regional, seasonal and per capita data on water availability hinders effective policy formulation to tackle the water crises.

Measures to ensure tackle water crisis:

  • Identifying new water resources and improving the efficiency of water resources
  • Planning for urban scarcity by identifying available resources to reduce the risk of cities running out of water.
  • Changing behaviours and sensitising masses about the value of water and the importance of its protection.
  • Planning national water needs by working with key stakeholders at national and sub-national levels to understand the water requirements for domestic use and for health and sanitation.



Keywords: GS-1 Distribution of key natural resources across the world, GS-3 Conservation of resources
Daily Current Affairs

Ocean—Services, Modelling, Application, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)

Why in news? Recently, government allocated an amount of Rs. 2177 crore for implementation of ‘Ocean Services, Modelling, Application, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)’ Scheme during a period of 5 years i.e. 2021-22 to 2025-26.


  • It aims at stepping up ocean research and setting up early warning weather systems.
  • It addresses ocean development activities such as services, technology, resources, observations, and science and provides necessary scientific and technological background required for implementation of various aspects of Blue Economy.


  • To generate and regularly update information on Marine Living Resources.
  • To periodically monitor levels of seawater pollutants for health assessment of coastal waters of India.
  • To develop shoreline, change maps for assessment of coastal erosion due to natural and anthropogenic activities.
  • To develop a wide range of state-of-the-art ocean observation systems for the acquisition of real-time data from the seas around India and to cater to the testing and sea trial activities of ocean technology.
  • Establishment of Ballast water treatment
  • To carry out exploration of Polymetallic Nodules (MPN) from water depth of 5500 m.
  • Exploration of polymetallic sulphides near Rodrigues Triple junction (convergence of Central Indian Ridge, the Southeast Indian Ridge, and the Southwest Indian Ridge) in 10000 sq. km of area allotted to India in International waters by International Seabed Authority.
  • Submission of India's claim over continental shelf extending beyond the EEZ supported by scientific data, and the Topographic survey of EEZ of India.

Steps taken by govt to achieve objectives:

  • Various ocean observational platforms including Argo floats, XBT/XCTDs, Wave Rider Buoys, Automatic Weather Stations, Drifters, Moored Buoys, Tide Gauges, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, were deployed.
  • Operational services on Tsunami Early Warnings, Storm Surges, Potential Fishing Zones, Ocean State Forecast, Harmful Algal Blooms, Coral Reefs, Multi Hazard Vulnerability, Coastal Vulnerability Indices, High Wave Alerts, Oil Spill, Search and Rescue operations etc were generated using the data and models operational in house and was provided on day-to-day basis to various stake holders and end users.

Implementing Ministry: Ministry of earth sciences


Keywords: General Studies – 1 and 3 Geography and Economy
Daily Current Affairs

Bar Council of India (BCI) Allows Foreign Lawyers to Practice in India

In News: As per a recent notification issued by the Bar Council of India (BCI), foreign lawyers and law firms can now practice in India but will not be allowed to appear in court.


  • The BCI regulates legal practice and legal education in India and has notified the Rules for Registration and Regulation of Foreign Lawyers and Foreign Law Firms in India, 2022.
  • Foreign lawyers and law firms can register with BCI to practice in India if they are entitled to practise law in their home countries.
  • They cannot practise Indian law, appear before any courts, tribunals or other statutory or regulatory authorities.
  • They can practise transactional work/corporate work such as joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions, intellectual property matters, drafting of contracts and other related matters on a reciprocal basis.
  • They cannot be involved or permitted to do any work pertaining to the conveyancing of property, title investigation or other similar works.
  • The step has been taken by BCI to address concerns about the flow of Foreign Direct Investment in the country and make India a hub of International Commercial Arbitration.




Keywords: GS-II: Polity: Important acts, notifications
Daily Current Affairs

SVB Bank Failure

In News: India start-ups have recently seen panic over deposits, funding cloud after the collapse of Silicon Valley Bank (SVB)


  • Silicon Valley Bank is the biggest customer of the tech industry, with a large number of Indian start-ups having accounts at the bank, especially in the SaaS sector.
  • SVB had traditionally been the default banking partner for most start-ups because of its legacy in technology and experience of banking high-growth and high-burn companies.

Key Points:

  • SVB had been an important lender to several Indian start-ups, including Paytm, Bluestone, and Carwale.
  • A majority of the founders whose start-ups were incubated by the US-based technology start-up accelerator YCombinator (YC) had more than $250,000 with SVB.
  • Crisis at the bank began after it sold substantially all of its available-for-sale securities at a $1.8-billion loss, mostly in the form of US Treasury securities.
  • SVB had received a massive volume of deposits during the 2020-2021 tech boom and invested the proceeds into long-term Treasury bonds while interest rates were low.
  • Post collapse, depositors with funds exceeding insurance caps will receive receivership certificates for their uninsured balances, meaning businesses with big deposits stuck in the bank are unlikely to get their money out soon.


Keywords: GS-3 Economy
Daily Current Affairs

National Policy on Older Persons in India

In News: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has recently implemented a central sector scheme of Integrated Programme for Senior Citizens (IPSRC).


  • The National Policy on Older Persons (NPOP): It was announced in 1999 to ensure the well-being of older persons.
    • The Policy envisages State support to ensure financial and food security, health care, shelter and other needs of older persons.
    • It aims to ensure equitable share in the development, protection against abuse and exploitation, and availability of services to improve the quality of their lives.
  • Central Sector Scheme of Integrated Programme for Senior Citizens (IPSrC): Grants in aid are given for running and maintenance of Senior Citizens Homes (Old Age Homes)/ Continuous Care Homes, Mobile Medicare Units, etc.
  • Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY): Aids and assistive living devices are provided to senior citizens belonging to BPL category
    • It is also available to those senior citizens who earn less than 15000/- per month and suffer from age-related disabilities such as low vision, hearing impairment, loss of teeth, and loco-motor disabilities.
  • National Helpline for Senior Citizen (14567)- Elderline: It has been set up to address the grievances of the elders.
    • It has been launched across the country and offers services to the senior citizens through a toll-free number 14567.
  • State Action Plan for Senior Citizens (SAPSrC): Each State/UT is expected to plan and strategize taking into account their local considerations and frame their own State Action Plans for the welfare of their senior citizens.
  • SAGE: It aims to promote out-of-the-box and innovative solutions for the commonly faced problems.
    • Innovative start-ups will be identified and encouraged for developing products, processes, and services for the welfare of the elderly under this initiative.
  • Umbrella Scheme of Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana: It includes awareness generation/sensitization programmes with school/college students for strengthening inter-generational bonding.
    • It will be providing information and educational material to individuals, families, and groups for better understanding of the ageing process.,the%20quality%20of%20their%20lives


Keywords: GS-II: Government schemes for weaker section
Daily Current Affairs

Procedure for Inclusion of Communities in Scheduled Tribes List

Why in news? Recently, the Tribal Affairs Ministry insisted once again that the current procedure for inclusion of communities in the Scheduled Tribes list was “adequate”.


The process to include tribes in the ST list begins with the recommendation from the respective State governments, which are then sent to the Tribal Affairs Ministry, which reviews and sends them to the Registrar General of India for approval.

This is followed by the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes’ approval before the list is sent to the Cabinet to bring in the appropriate amendment to Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950.

The criteria given by Lokur Committee include:

  • Primitive traits
  • Distinct culture
  • Geographical isolation
  • Shyness of contact with the community at large

In 2014 a government task force formed which criticized the inclusion criteria and procedure for being outdated and contradictory to affirmative action stating that it leads to exclusion and delays in inclusion of communities. The proposal to amend it, after being in the pipeline for nearly eight years, was put on hold.,General%20of%20India%20(ORGI


Keywords: General Studies – 2 Polity and Governance
Daily Current Affairs

Justice Deepak Verma Committee

Why in news? Recently, the high-powered committee, led by a former judge, is tasked with the procurement or welfare of wild animals by any rescue or rehabilitation centre or zoo.


  • The high powered committee chaired by justice Deepak Verma initially constituted to oversee the transfer of captive wild elephants from the north-eastern States and its ambit was restricted to Tripura and Gujarat.
  • The jurisdiction has been expanded to cater to all wild animals in need of rehabilitation or rescue anywhere in India.

Powers of the committee:

  • The Committee may consider the request for approval, dispute, or grievance, concerning transfer or import into India or procurement or welfare of wild animals by any rescue or rehabilitation centre or zoo.
  • State and Central authorities should report the seizure of wild animals or abandonment of captive wild animals to the committee.
  • The committee shall be at liberty to recommend the transfer of ownership of captive animals or of seized wild animals to any willing rescue centre or zoo for their welfare, care, and rehabilitation.


Keywords: General Studies – 3, Environment and ecology
Daily Current Affairs

Nanakshahi Sammat 555

Why in news? Recently, Prime Minister has greeted the Sikh community around the world on the commencement of Nanakshahi Sammat 555.


  • Nanakshahi Sammat is a calendar system that was introduced by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) in 2003.
  • It is named after the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak Dev Ji to mark his 500th birth anniversary. It is a tropical solar calendar used in Sikhism.
  • The reference epoch of the Nanak Shahi calendar is the birth of Guru Nanak Dev, corresponding to the year 1469 CE.
  • It is based on the “Barah Maha” (Twelve Months), a composition composed by the Sikh gurus reflecting the changes in nature conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the year.
  • The year begins with the month of Chet, with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March.
  • This year’s Nanakshahi calendar has been dedicated to the 200th anniversary of the martyrdom of Akali Baba Phula Singh, the 300th anniversary of the birth of Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarh and the 100th anniversary of the Jaito front.


Keywords: General Studies – 1 Culture
Daily Current Affairs


Why in news? Recently, seven people, including an unborn baby, have been killed in a shooting at a Jehovah's Witness meeting hall in the German city of Hamburg.


  • Germany shares its 3,767-kilometre land border with Denmark to the north; the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France to the west; Switzerland and Austria to the south; and the Czech Republic and Poland to the east.
  • The largest rivers in Germany are Danube River. Rhine River. Elbe River. Rhine River flows northward from Switzerland and is celebrated in visual art, literature, folklore, and song.
  • Highest mountains in Germany are the Zugspitze (2,962 m), Hochwanner (2,746 m) and Watzmann (Middle Peak, 2,713 m).


Keywords: General Studies – 1, Geography
Daily Current Affairs

McMohan Line

Why in news? Recently, US recognised McMahon Line as international boundary between China and Arunachal Pradesh.


  • The McMahon Line was drawn during the Simla Convention of 1914, officially described as the Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet. The line was determined by Sir Henry McMahon, then Foreign Secretary in the Government of British India.
  • The McMahon Line serves as the de facto boundary between China and India in the Eastern Sector. It specifically represents the boundary between Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet, from Bhutan in the west to Myanmar in the east.
  • China has historically disputed the boundary and claims the state of Arunachal Pradesh as part of the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR).

Shimla Treaty

  • According to the Shimla Treaty, the McMahon Line is the clear boundary line between India and China. On behalf of India, the British rulers considered Tawang of Arunachal Pradesh and the southern part of Tibet as part of India and which was also agreed by the Tibetans. Due to this, the Tawang region of Arunachal Pradesh became part of India.


Keywords: General Studies – 1 Geography
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