10 Jul to 24 Jul, 2023

Table of contents

1   Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice

a  

Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ PRACTICE

2   Feature Article

a  

STATE OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION 2023

3   News in Brief

a  

Rockies, Alps, Himalayas: More rain, less snow in Northern hemisphere mountains as temperatures rise

b  

Huge gravity hole in the middle of Indian Ocean

4   Key Terms

a  

Climate Finance

b  

Critical Minerals

c  

Green Credit Programme

d  

Monocotyledon

e  

Data Carbon ladder

5   Case Study of The Week

a  

Namakkal's Water Management

6   Places in the News

a  

Map

.... Show less Show more
Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice

Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ PRACTICE


Q1. Consider the following statements regarding Global trend in forced displacement 2022:

  1. The report was presented by International Refugee organisation in collaboration with UN Refugee Agency
  2. The main driver of displacement in 2022 was the ethnic conflicts, causing one of the largest displacement since World War II.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q2. With reference to Indian Ocean Dipole ( IOD ) , consider the following statements:

  1. IOD is said to be positive when the western side of the Indian Ocean, near the Somalia coast, becomes warmer than the eastern Indian Ocean.
  2. IOD is said to be negative when the western side of the Indian Ocean, near the Somalia coast, becomes cooler than the eastern Indian Ocean.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q3. Consider the following pairs:

         Places.    :      Nearby location

  1. Kedarnath   :  On the way of Sonprayag
  2. Badrinath    :  On the way of Joshimath
  3. Yamunotri   :  On the way of Rudraprayag

Which of the above mentioned pairs are correct?

  1. One pair
  2. Two pairs
  3. Three pairs
  4. None

Q4. Consider the following statements regarding Bald Eagle:

  1. It breeds in Russia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia during the winter season.
  2. The bird has moved from Least Concern’ to ‘Endangered’ under IUCN Red List.

 Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q5. Consider the following:

  1. Antimony and copper
  2. Erbium and Rhodium
  3. Potash and Barite

Which of the above mentioned pairs are considered as Critical minerals in India ?

  1. One pair
  2. Two pairs
  3. Three pairs
  4. None

Q6. With reference to Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure , consider the following:

  1. It is a global partnership of national governments, United Nations  and  private sector,  on promoting the resilience of infrastructure systems to climate risks.
  2. It is anchored on the four priorities for action set out in the Sendai Framework.

 Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q7. With reference to Green Credit Programme , consider the following statements:

  1. The ‘Green Credit’ means a singular unit of an incentive provided for a specified activity, delivering a positive impact on the environment.
  2. It was first announced in the 2023 -24 Union Budget with a view to leverage a competitive market-based approach and incentivize voluntary environmental actions of various stakeholders.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q8. Consider the following statements regarding Debrigarh wild life sanctuary :

  1. It is located in the Kandhmal district of Odisha.
  2. It also forms the catchment area of the Jonk River. 
  3. The sanctuary is bound on the east and north by the huge Hirakud reservoir.

Which of the above mentioned statements are correct ?

  1. Only one statement is correct
  2. Only two statements are correct
  3. Only third statement is correct .
  4. All three statements are correct.

Q9.India witnessed significant advancements in its biodiversity knowledge in the year 2022 with the addition of numerous animal and plant species to its faunal and floral databases. A significant discovery was the Sela macaque (Macaca selai), a new macaque species found in  which among the following place?

  1. Kerala
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Arunachal Pradesh
  4. Assam

Q10. With reference to’ Global Environment Facility’, which of the following statements is / are correct?

  1. It serves as financial mechanism for ‘ Convention on Biological Diversity ‘ and ‘ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ‘
  2. It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level.
  3. It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment.
  4. Both (a) and (b)

Q11. Consider the following statements regarding Solar radiation management ( SRM )  :

  1. Both Stratospheric Aerosol Injection and Marine Cloud Brightening are methods of Solar radiation management.
  2. SRM has unintended side effects on regional or global climate systems, such as altering precipitation patterns.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q12. Consider the following statements regarding Community Forest Resource (CFR) rights:

  1. The CFR rights are acknowledged under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act.
  2. These rights provide for recognition of the right to “protect, regenerate the community forest but not to formulate rules for forest use without consulting State government
  3. Chhattisgarh is the first state to recognise community Forest resource rights in Kanger Ghati National Park

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 2
  4. Only 2 and 3

Q13. With reference to Meta Population management , consider the following statements:

  1. This model look at dynamics of population size and carrying capacity
  2. This model focuses on extinction-recolonization dynamics.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q14. Consider the following statements regarding Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve :

  1. This elephant reserve is included with Simlipal National Park, located in Odisha.
  2. The main feature of reserve is the Hadgarh reservoir , adjoining with Baula hills.
  3. The reserve is on the side of Salandi river.

Which of the above mentioned statements are correct?

  1. One statement
  2. Two statements
  3. Three statements
  4. None

Q15. Why is there a great concern about the ‘ micro beads ‘ that are released into the environment?

  1. They are considered harmful to marine ecosystems.
  2. They are considered to cause skin cancer in children.
  3. They are small enough to be absorbed by crop plants in irrigated fields.
  4. They are often found to be used as food adulterants

Keywords: KOMOS
Feature Article

STATE OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION 2023


Why in news ?

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2023 has been prepared by the FAO Agrifood Economics Division in collaboration with the Statistics Division of the Economic and Social Development stream and a team of technical experts from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO).

Background :

The global assessment of the state of food security and nutrition in 2022 is a snapshot of the world still recovering from a global pandemic and now grappling with the consequences of the war in Ukraine, which has rattled food and energy markets. Encouraging signs of economic recovery from the pandemic and projections of a decline in poverty and hunger have been tempered by rising food and energy prices.

About :

Food security and nutrition are crucial aspects of global well-being and development. They refer to the availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability of food and the nutritional status of individuals and populations.

Urbanization and Food Insecurity

  1. Changing Dietary Patterns:  Urbanization often brings changes in dietary preferences and consumption patterns. As people move from rural to urban areas, their diets may shift towards more processed and calorie-dense foods, high in sugars, unhealthy fats, and salt. This transition is influenced by factors like increased availability of convenience foods, aggressive marketing by food industries, and changing lifestyles.
  2. Fragmentation of Food Supply Chains: As cities expand, they often become more complex, leading to the fragmentation of food supply chains. This can result in increased transportation distances, delays, and higher costs, affecting the affordability and accessibility of nutritious food, particularly for low-income urban populations.
  3. Socioeconomic Disparities: Urbanization can exacerbate socioeconomic disparities, leading to unequal access to healthy diets. Low-income populations in urban areas may face financial constraints that limit their ability to afford nutritious food. Moreover, urban food environments often have price differentials, with healthier food options being relatively more expensive compared to less nutritious alternatives. 

Climate change and Food Insecurity

  1. Crop Production: Climate change affects agricultural productivity by altering temperature and precipitation patterns. Rising temperatures can lead to heat stress, reduced crop yields, and changes in planting and harvesting seasons.
  2. Pests and Diseases: Climate change influences the distribution and prevalence of pests, diseases, and invasive species that can harm crops and livestock. This increases the risk of crop and livestock losses, further threatening food security.
  3. Displacement and Migration: Climate change-induced events, such as droughts, floods, and storms, can lead to forced displacement and migration. Communities affected by these events often face challenges in accessing food and other basic necessities.

Conflict , Political Instability and Food Insecurity  

  1. Restricted Access to Agricultural Inputs and Markets: Conflict and political instability can restrict farmers' access to essential agricultural inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. Markets may be disrupted, preventing farmers from accessing necessary supplies and selling their produce. Trade restrictions, road blockades, and insecurity can impede the movement of goods, including food, exacerbating food insecurity.
  2. Disrupted Markets and Inflation: Conflict disrupts market systems, leading to price volatility and inflation. Trade routes may be disrupted, making it challenging to import and distribute food. Disruptions in supply chains and market systems can lead to significant price increases, making food unaffordable for many vulnerable populations, particularly those living in poverty.
  3. Disrupted Humanitarian Assistance: Conflict and political instability can hamper the delivery of humanitarian assistance, including food aid. Insecurity, limited access to affected areas, and logistical challenges can hinder the timely and effective delivery of food assistance to populations in need.

Global Trade , Market Dynamics and Food Insecurity:

  1. Price Volatility: Fluctuations due to global trade and market dynamics in commodity prices, driven by factors such as weather conditions, supply and demand imbalances, and speculation, can significantly impact food security.
  2. Export-Oriented Agriculture: Some countries prioritize export-oriented agriculture, focusing on producing crops for the global market rather than for domestic consumption. When export-oriented agriculture takes precedence, it can disrupt local food systems and contribute to food insecurity, especially if there is a lack of diversification in agricultural production.
  3. Trade Liberalization and Market Distortions: Removal of trade barriers without adequate safeguards can expose vulnerable domestic food producers to unfair competition from highly subsidized foreign imports. This can lead to a decline in domestic agricultural production, loss of livelihoods, and reduced food availability.

Food Insecurity in Covid 19 pandemic and Russia Ukraine war

COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Disruptions in the food supply chain resulted in labor shortages, transportation disruptions, and reduced access to inputs, leading to disruptions in agricultural production, processing, and distribution.
  • School closures during the pandemic disrupted school feeding programs, depriving millions of children of nutritious meals they relied on. This had adverse effects on their nutrition and overall well-being.
  • Export restrictions imposed by some countries like Russia  to secure domestic food supply further strained global food markets.

Russia Ukraine war

  • The conflict between Russia and Ukraine led to significant displacement of people from conflict-affected regions. Displaced populations face challenges in accessing food and income-generating opportunities, leading to heightened food insecurity.
  • The war resulted in the destruction of agricultural infrastructure, including farms, storage facilities, and irrigation systems.
  • The conflict disrupted trade flows and market systems, making it difficult to transport and distribute food.

                 CASE STUDY : FOOD INSECURITY AND SHORTAGE IN SOUTH SUDAN, 2017

 For South Sudan, a triangle of misery confronts families as people struggle with conflict, poverty and the effects of climate change. Causes of malnutrition in South Sudan include mass displacement, increased Inflation, deep economic recessions, unemployment, climate change and eroded finances for social protection and health.  Over 4 million people – 1 in 3 – have been forced to flee their homes due to the food crisis. Nearly 2.5 million have fled to neighboring countries. There were 1 million South Sudanese refugees in Uganda, making up about half of the country’s total refugee population.

CONSEQUENCES OF FOOD INSECURITY AND NUTRITION

  • Malnutrition and Health Issues: Food insecurity often leads to inadequate access to nutritious and diverse food, resulting in malnutrition. This can lead to communicable diseases like diarrhea, measles , bowel syndrome and intestinal failure.
  • Economic Consequences: Food insecurity reduces productivity , limits ability to work, trapped people in poverty and hinder economic opportunities.
  • Social and Political Instability: In times of severe food insecurity, social unrest can arise as populations protest against food shortages, price hikes, or unequal distribution of resources. Eg. Pakistan

Competition for scarce resources, including food and water, can exacerbate existing tensions and lead to social upheaval. Eg. Syria unrest.

  • Intergenerational Effects: Malnourished mothers are more likely to give birth to undernourished children, continuing the cycle of poor nutrition and its associated consequences. 

GLOBAL INITIATIVES TO ADDRESS FOOD INSECURITY

  • United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The SDGs, adopted by UN member states in 2015, include Goal 2: "Zero Hunger," which aims to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
  • Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP): The GAFSP is a public-private partnership that provides financial support to low-income countries for agriculture and food security programs.
  • Zero Hunger Challenge: Zero Hunger Challenge calls for an end to hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity. It promotes sustainable agriculture and resilient food systems to achieve the goal of zero hunger.
  • Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN): An international organization that works to improve nutrition and public health by partnering with businesses, governments, and civil society.

Initiatives to ensure food security in India :

  • NFSA act 2013: To provide subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of the country’s people. It includes the Midday Meal Scheme, Integrated Child Development Services scheme and the Public Distribution System.
  • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): It is the most visible symbol of the country’s commitment to its children and nursing mothers, as a response to breaking the malnutrition food cycle, morbidity, reduced learning capacity, and mortality on the other.
  • The Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM): Introduced in 2010 in 14 main states for the production of oilseeds, maize and oil palm to serve as a tool for crop diversification.
  • Poshan Abhiyaan : Poshan Abhiyaan, also known as the National Nutrition Mission (NNM), was launched to reduce the level of under-nutrition and also enhance the nutritional status of children in the country.

WAY FORWARD

  • Sustainable Agricultural Practices: Promote climate-smart agriculture such as agroforestry, encourage organic farming practices that minimize the use of synthetic inputs, conserve soil health, and promote biodiversity.
  • Social Safety Nets and Nutrition Programs: Implement social protection programs, including cash transfers and food assistance, to ensure vulnerable populations have access to sufficient and nutritious food.
  • Fortification of government distributed food: Boost the nutritional value of the Government’s Midday Meal school feeding programme, rice fortification with iron to tackle anemia.
  • Enhancing Market Access and Trade: Reduce trade barriers and promote fair trade practices to facilitate the movement of food across borders and ensure equitable access to markets.
  • Research, Innovation, and Technology: Promote the use of digital technologies, such as remote sensing, precision agriculture, and mobile applications, to improve farming practices, data collection, and market access.

Where to use?

Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Food and nutrition problems, Food security

Source :

 

https://www.fao.org/statistics/events/detail-events/en/c/1642435/

https://data.unicef.org/resources/sofi-2023/

Keywords: Kosmos
News in Brief

Rockies, Alps, Himalayas: More rain, less snow in Northern hemisphere mountains as temperatures rise


Why in news ? : The switch from snowfall to rainfall could increase the risk of disasters such as floods, landslides, and soil erosion.

About:

  • According to new study , The Himalayas and other mountains across the Northern Hemisphere are likely to see 15 % more rain for every 1-degree Celsius rise in temperature due to climate change.
  • Climate change could cause a shift in snowfall to rainfall in mountain regions across the Northern Hemisphere, amplifying rainfall extremes, increase the risk of disasters such as floods, landslides, and soil erosion.

Areas in the darkest blue are 8 times more likely to experience an extreme rainfall event (compared to 1950-1979) 

  • Data from 1950-2019 already shows that this transition from snowfall to rainfall has already been set in motion in the mountain regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
  • It will continue to increase at a rate of 15 per cent for every 1 degree Celsius rise in temperature. For 2 degrees and 3 degrees rise, the world would see a 30 per cent and 45 per cent increase in rain, respectively.
  • Findings revealed that Himalayas and the North American Pacific Mountain ranges, including the Cascades, Sierra Nevada, and coastal ranges from Canada to Southern California are more threatened than the Rockies or the Alps.
    • In fact, our data shows that the Himalayas are likely to see higher rates of increase than other mountainous regions.
    • The higher risk might be due to changes in atmospheric dynamics.
  • The North American Pacific Mountain range, for example, see a significant portion of snowfall at temperatures just below zero degrees Celsius. A change in air temperature will shift this snowfall to rainfall.
  • The research team did not consider mountain regions in Southern Hemisphere due to a paucity of data from the pre-satellite era (before 1979).
  • Reports from International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) found that the Hindu Kush Himalayas have seen a 65 per cent faster loss of glacier mass.
  • Report quoted a study that predicted a decline in snowfall by 30-50 per cent in the Indus Basin, 50-60 per cent in the Ganges, and 50-70 per cent in the Brahmaputra between 2070 and 2100 compared to the average snowfall between 1971 and 2000.

Where to use ?

Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Global Climatic change

Source :

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/rockies-alps-himalayas-more-rain-less-snow-in-northern-hemisphere-mountains-as-temperatures-rise-says-report-90308#:~:text=Published%3A%20Wednesday%2028%20June%202023&text=The%20Himalayas%20and%20other%20mountains,according%20to%20a%20new%20study. 

Keywords: Kosmos
News in Brief

Huge gravity hole in the middle of Indian Ocean


Why in news ?

Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore have identified the cause of an over three million square kilometres-wide 'gravity hole' in the Indian Ocean.
About:

  • According to scientist, huge gravity hole in the middle of Indian Ocean is not a physical hole but an area in Indian Ocean where gravity of Earth is lower than average.
  • The gravity hole, known as the Indian Ocean geoid low was possibly due to plumes of molten rock which was rising from the remains of an ancient hotbed.

Gravity varies across Earth

  • Dense continent can have more gravitational force than a zone where the crust is thinner. But, the variation in gravity in the Indian Ocean is contrasting ,

Movement of tectonic plates

  • Geophysicist discovered that the possible reason for the gravity hole is the plumes of magma.
  • The phenomena might have originated 120 million years ago when the supercontinent Gondwana land separated.
  • As the Indian plate separated from the African plate, it smashed into the European plate and the ocean called Tethys was squeezed between the continental plates.
  • Some parts of these plates are still melting back into the deep Earth's interior and generating low-intensity magma and creating a gravity hole.

Where to use ?

Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Bottom topography of Indian Ocean

Source:

https://www.livemint.com/news/india/scientists-reveal-the-reason-behind-huge-gravity-hole-in-middle-of-indian-ocean-read-here-11688743171485.html 

 

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Climate Finance


Climate Finance : It refers to local, national, or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation and adaptation actions that will address climate change.

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Critical Minerals


Critical Minerals: Critical minerals are those minerals that are essential for economic development and national security, the lack of availability of these minerals or concentration of extraction or processing in a few geographical locations may lead to supply chain vulnerabilities and even disruption of supplies.

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Green Credit Programme


Green Credit Programme : It means a singular unit of an incentive provided for a specified activity, delivering a positive impact on the environment. The Green Credit Programme is a mechanism that complements the domestic Carbon Market.

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Monocotyledon


Monocotyledon : Monocotyledons commonly referred to as monocots, are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Data Carbon ladder


Data Carbon ladder : It is a first tool that can calculate carbon emissions caused by digital data, especially by companies that want to offset their carbon footprint. Data carbon ladder can help businesses measure the carbon dioxide output of their digital data.

Keywords: Kosmos
Case Study of The Week

Namakkal's Water Management


  • Tamil Nadu’s Namakkal district became one of the best district in India in terms of groundwater availability.The district’s comprehensive approach, involving community participation, rainwater harvesting, sustainable agriculture, efficient water management systems and robust policies, has yielded tangible results.
  • The district also focussed on creating artificial recharge structures. The district implemented widespread rainwater harvesting systems across residential and public spaces.Rooftop collection systems, percolation tanks and check dams were constructed to capture rainwater and replenish the groundwater table. 

Where to use ?

Paper I ( Geography Optional ) : Regional Planning

Paper II ( Geography Optional) : Resources

 

Source :

 

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/water/tamil-nadu-s-namakkal-has-some-solutions-for-india-s-rising-water-woes-90331

Keywords: Kosmos
Places in the News

Map


  1. Debrigarh wild life Sanctuary : It is located in the Bargarh district of Odisha, near the city of Sambalpur and adjacent to the Hirakud Dam. Debrigarh joins Nalabana Bird Sanctuary in Chilika Lake as an exceptional example of wildlife sanctuaries without permanent human settlements.  (Approx. Bargarh)
  2. Namakkal : It is a special grade municipality in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the first ISO certified municipality in Asia for environmental management, specifically the provision and maintenance of water supply, solid waste and sewage management, town planning, lighting and other social services.  Namakkal is known as the Egg City due to its large egg production and transport city. (Approx. Salem)
  3. Porpanaikotta : It is a village in Pudukottai district of Tamil Nadu. Recently, gold stud, a bone point and a carnelian bead have been unearthed by archaeologists at Porpanaikottai. (Approx. Pudukottai)
  4. Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary : It is situated in northwestern Madhya Pradesh, with one its boundaries running along the border of Rajasthan. River Chambal flows through the sanctuary, dividing it into two parts. The vegetation in sanctuary is characterised by Northern tropical dry deciduous forest, Northern tropical dry mixed deciduous forest and Dry deciduous scrub. (Approx. Mandsaur)
  5. Chorla Ghat : Chorla Ghat is an Indian nature destination, located on the intersection of the borders of the states of Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra. It lies to the north-east of Panaji, Goa and nearly 55 kilometres from Belgaum in  (Approx. Nachinola)

Keywords: Kosmos
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