24 Jun to 10 Jul, 2023

Table of contents

1   Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice

a  

Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ PRACTICE

2   Feature Article

a  

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS

3   News in Brief

a  

Oceans cool the planet by releasing short-lived halogens

b  

Tectonic deformation in northern Haryana plains south of Himalayas

4   Key Terms

a  

Miyawaki

b  

Black gold

c  

Macrophyte

d  

Biosurfactants

e  

Pulsating mechanism

5   Places in the News

a  

MAP

6   Case Study of The Week

a  

Impact of Brick kiln emissions on soil quality of Bangladesh (Ashulia brick kiln cluster)

.... Show less Show more
Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice

Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ PRACTICE


Q1. Consider the following statements regarding  Mayon volcano:

  1. It was a dormant volcano, which has recently become active in Philippines.
  2. It is the world’s most perfect volcanic cone because of symmetry of its shape.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q2. World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought is observed every year . Which of the following is the theme for current year:

  1. Rising up from drought together.
  2. Her Land. Her Rights
  3. Our Land. Our Home. Our Future
  4. Protect Earth. Restore Land. Engage People

Q3. With reference to Miyawaki plantation consider the following statements:

  1. In Miyawaki forest the seedlings are planted at very high densities.
  2. Mostly timber trees are preferred and the natural distribution of tree types is reduced.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q4. Consider the following statements regarding Alligator Gar fish:

  1. It is one of the biggest freshwater fish in Bay of Bengal.
  2. These are found in some parts of India such as Bhopal and Kerala.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q5. Consider the following statements regarding Bonn Climate meet:

  1. Global Stocktake (GST) should take place after every five years, starting from 2023.
  2. Progress was made in operationalizing the Santiago Network on loss and damage

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q6. Betelgeuse, sometimes, recently in news is associated with which among the following:

  1. Supergiant star
  2. Asteroid
  3. Meteoroid
  4. Constellation

Q7. Consider the following statements regarding Greenwashing:

  1. Greenwashing is when companies sell products or services based on legitimate environmental positives.
  2. Greenwashing is considered an unfair trade practice but  is not regulated by the Consumer Protection Act, of 2019.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q8. Regarding “carbon credits”, which one of the following statements is not correct?

  1. The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol
  2. Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gasses below their emission quota
  3. The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of carbon dioxide emission
  4. Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by the United Nations Environment Programme.

Q9.    Consider the following  pairs:

        Places        :    Geographical Features

  1. Yucatan      :      Peninsula
  2. Stanley       :      Mountains
  3. Nullarbor     :     Plains

Which of the above mentioned pairs are correct?

  1. One pair
  2. Two pairs
  3. Three pairs
  4. None of the pairs

Q10. With reference to Star Rating Registration process of Coal and Lignite Mines , consider the following statements:

  1. Star Rating policy aims to evaluate mines based on environmental parameters but not on adoption of technologies.
  2. The ratings awarded range from Five Star to NO Star, by a committee set up by Ministry of Environment and Ministry of coal and mines.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q11. Consider the following statements regarding Sea weeds:

  1. Sea weeds are macrophytic which means they live in water or moist land surfaces.
  2. Sea weeds use light to fix atmospheric carbon dissolved in water.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q12. Consider the following statements regarding Biosurfactants:

  1. It is an advanced oxidation process (AOP) utilized in the treatment plant.
  2. They are used in the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) to aid in the removal of dyes from the wastewater.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q13. In the context of solving pollution problems, what is/are the advantage / advantages of bioremediation technique?

  1. It is a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation process that occurs in nature.
  2. Any contaminant with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead can be readily and completely treated by bioremediation using microorganisms.
  3. Genetic engineering can be used to create microorganisms specifically designed for bioremediation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q14. Consider the following pairs:

         Dams               :    Rivers

  1. Kalasa Banduri   :    Mahadayi
  2. Ranganadi         :     Brahmaputra
  3. Gangapur          :     Ganga

Which of the above mentioned pairs are correct?

  1. One pair
  2. Two pairs
  3. Three pairs
  4. None pairs

Q15. With reference to Wildlife Protection Act 1972, consider the following statements:

  1. It empowered the government to declare any land covered with trees as a government forest and make rules to manage it.
  2. The National Board for Wildlife serves as an apex body for the review of all wildlife-related matters constituted under this act.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Keywords: Kosmos
Feature Article

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS


Why in news ? : The University of California Los Angeles, and Columbia University investigate the effects of climate change on extreme weather events

Background :

The climate and the mean temperature at the Earth's surface depend on the balance between incoming (short wave) solar energy and outgoing energy (infrared radiation) emitted from the Earth's surface. Greenhouse gases trap some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and keep the planet warmer than it would be otherwise.

All these increases are clearly caused by human activities connected in large part with burning fossil fuels, land use, and industrial processes.

Extreme weather events across the world that were unusual

  • Polar Vortex in the United States (2014 and 2019): The polar vortex, a large pocket of extremely cold air, descended into the United States, causing record-breaking low temperatures and heavy snowfall in regions not accustomed to such conditions, including parts of the Midwest and Northeast.
  • Heatwaves in Europe (2003 and 2019): Europe experienced severe heatwaves in 2003 and 2019. The 2003 heatwave resulted in thousands of deaths across the continent, and in 2019, several countries, including France, Germany, and the Netherlands, recorded record-breaking temperatures.
  • Drought in Cape Town, South Africa (2017-2018): Cape Town experienced a severe multi-year drought, resulting in the city nearly running out of water. The situation prompted drastic water-saving measures and raised concerns about water scarcity in urban areas.
  • Australian Bushfires (2019-2020): Australia witnessed an unprecedented bushfire season, with vast areas of the country engulfed in flames. The fires burned for months, destroying homes, habitats, and causing significant loss of life, both human and animal.
  • Flooding in Venice, Italy (2019): Venice faced its highest tide in more than 50 years, flooding the city and causing extensive damage to historical sites and infrastructure.
  • El Niño in India ( 2015 ) : El Niño event in India weakens the monsoon , delayed the onset of monsoon , eventually resulting in the non uniform variation of rainfall in the country.

Social impact of climate and weather extremes

  • Human Health: Extreme weather events can pose risks to human health. It led to respiratory and heart diseases, West Nile virus na dither diseases like Lyme disease.
  • Displacement and Migration: In 1995,  Bangladesh’s Bhola island was half submerged by rising sea levels,  leaving 50,000 people homeless
  • Food Security: Malnutrition ,  water shortages , low output per acre are major challenges. Global Food policy 2022, estimates that climate change could escalate the hunger issue amongst Indians by 2030.

Economic impact of climate and weather extremes

  • Infrastructure Damage: Severe weather events such as hurricanes, floods, and storms can cause extensive damage to infrastructure. In 2021, Cyclone Yaas caused infrastructure damage of Rs 610 crores in Odisha.
  • Supply Chain Disruptions: Climate and weather extremes can disrupt supply chains, affecting manufacturing, transportation, and trade. Aviation is probably the transport sector most affected , as climate change increases unstable weather.
  • Tourism and Recreation : Studies indicated that winter tourism will see approximately 64% drop in demand if temperatures rise throughout skiing seasons.

Environmental impact of climate and weather extremes

  • Loss of Biodiversity: As temperature increases and rainfall changes, some species will face the risk of extinction. The possible demise of polar bears in arctic areas is tied directly to the effects of global warming.
  • Ocean Acidification: Increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to climate change are causing the acidification of oceans.

This phenomenon would be disastrous for planktons , coral up the food chain to sea stars.

  • Changes in Phenology: Climate extremes can disrupt the timing of natural events, such as flowering, migration, and hibernation, known as phenological shifts. Blooming of rhododendron heralds the onset of spring in the Himalayas , but they are now flowering early in the winter itself.

Global Measures taken to reduce the Impact of climate change

  • The Paris Agreement: The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, is a landmark international treaty aimed at limiting global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs): Under the Paris Agreement, countries are required to submit their NDCs, which outline their national climate targets and strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Renewable Energy Transition: International initiatives like the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) support the transition to renewable energy globally.
  • Carbon Pricing: Carbon pricing mechanisms, such as carbon taxes and emissions trading systems, are being implemented in several countries and regions. These mechanisms put a price on carbon emissions, providing economic incentives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Technology Transfer and Capacity Building: It involves sharing clean and sustainable technologies, knowledge, and expertise with developing countries to help them adopt climate-friendly practices, build resilience, and address the challenges posed by climate change.

CSE ( Centre for Science & Environment ) Report on extreme weather in India 2022

Key findings

  • India witnessing the disaster on almost every day in nine months of 2022 ranging from cyclones to floods and landslides.
  • Extreme weather events have claimed irreparable damage , caused 2755 death, impacted 1.8 million hectares of crop area and killed 70,000 live stock
  • Loss and damage fund is under-utilised as data for loss of public property and crop loss is not available.
  • Madhya Pradesh saw the highest number of days with extreme weather . Himachal Pradesh saw the highest human fatalities and Assam reported the most number of damaged houses.

 Measures taken by India to weaken the extreme weather events

  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC): India has developed the NAPCC, which includes eight missions addressing specific areas, such as solar energy, energy efficiency, sustainable agriculture, water management, and sustainable habitat.
  • Renewable Energy Expansion: The country aims to achieve 450 gigawatts of renewable energy capacity by 2030, including solar, wind, and hydropower.
  • Energy Efficiency Programs: Initiatives like the Perform, Achieve, and Trade (PAT) scheme and the Standards & Labeling program focus on improving energy efficiency in industries, buildings, appliances, and transportation.
  • Climate Resilient Agriculture: National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) and the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (crop insurance scheme) are few efforts to promote climate-smart agriculture, water conservation, and improved farm practices.
  • Forest Conservation and Afforestation: Initiatives like the Green India Mission and the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) focus on afforestation, reforestation, and biodiversity conservation.
  • International Cooperation: India joined international initiatives like the International Solar Alliance, and collaborated with other countries on clean energy technologies, capacity building, and climate finance.

Is climate change only to be blamed for extreme weather ?

Not all extreme weather events can be solely attributed to climate change. Here are some points highlighting the complexity of attributing extreme weather events to climate change:

  • Natural Climate Variability: Extreme weather events have occurred throughout Earth's history, driven by natural climate variability. Factors such as El Niño/La Niña cycles, volcanic eruptions, and other natural phenomena can contribute to the occurrence of extreme weather events independently of human-induced climate change.
  • Regional and Local Factors: Extreme weather events can be influenced by regional and local factors that are not directly related to climate change. Factors such as topography, land use changes, urbanization, and localized weather patterns can play a significant role in the occurrence and impacts of extreme weather events.
  • Natural Climate Oscillations: Natural climate oscillations, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have cyclic patterns that can influence regional weather patterns and the occurrence of extreme events.
  • Timeframe Considerations: Climate change is a long-term trend that manifests over decades to centuries. Attribution studies typically focus on long-term trends rather than individual events. It is crucial to distinguish between short-term weather variability and long-term climate trends when considering the role of climate change in extreme events.

Conclusion:

Accepting the reality of climate change and avoiding its politicisation is crucial. It is necessary to emphasise the importance of international cooperation in addressing climate change and mitigating its negative effects. In addition, it is essential to recognise that alongside mitigation efforts, adaptation to climate change is necessary to address the current adverse impacts we are experiencing. Mitigation alone is insufficient in dealing with the consequences of climate change. An international level comprehensive plan of action is necessary for inclusive and sustainable growth of the global community.

Where to use?

Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Global climatic changes , Role and Response of Man in climatic changes

Paper I ( General Studies ) : Global warming

 

Source :

https://www.c2es.org/content/extreme-weather-and-climate-change/

https://www.npr.org/2023/01/09/1147805696/climate-change-makes-heat-waves-storms-and-droughts-worse-climate-report-confirm

 

https://earthjustice.org/feature/how-climate-change-is-fueling-extreme-weather

 

Keywords: Kosmos
News in Brief

Oceans cool the planet by releasing short-lived halogens


Why in news ? Cooling by halogens could increase to 18-31 per cent by 2100 which has not been accounted yet by climate models.

About:

  • Short-lived halogens ( chlorine, bromine and iodine compounds ) with a lifetime of less than six months in the atmosphere, are naturally produced by phytoplanktons and algae in the oceans. 
  • Apart from absorbing carbon dioxide and moderating the climate, oceans also cool the planet by releasing short-lived halogens
  • Currently, these halogens contribute 8-10 per cent of cooling and could increase to 18-31 per cent by 2100, the study published in Nature
  • Human activities have amplified their release into the atmosphere. It causes pollutants such as ozone to deposit on the ocean, which then convert the soluble short-lived halogens into insoluble ones, forcing them out of the sea water and into the atmosphere. 
  • Short lived halogens cause a depletion of ozone in the troposphere and impact the global radiative balance.
  • Short-lived halogens from oceans reduces warming by depleting ozone but they increase methane’s lifetime in the atmosphere by destroying hydroxyl radicals (OH).
  • Halogen emissions from the ocean are not the same across the world. “Over continents, the emissions are small while it is bigger in polar regions and some places with higher ozone levels.

Warming effect of Short lived Halogens

  • Increased global methane burden by 14 per cent and 9 per cent for pre-industrial and present-day conditions, respectively.
  • Increases the levels of water vapour, a greenhouse gas, in the atmosphere.
  • Reduce the formation of cooling aerosols suspended in the atmosphere that reflect sunlight.
  • Drive an increase in warming by influencing methane, water vapour and aerosols, and compensate this by destroying ozone, exerting a cooling effect.

Where to use?

Paper I (Geography optional) : Oceanography , Marine pollution

Source:

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/oceans-cool-the-planet-by-releasing-short-lived-halogens-that-contribute-8-10-per-cent-of-cooling-study-90312 

 

Keywords: Kosmos
News in Brief

Tectonic deformation in northern Haryana plains south of Himalayas


Why in news ? Piedmont zone between Ghaggar and Yamuna river basins and found signs of an active tectonic deformation

About:

  • Convergence between the Indian tectonic plate and Eurasian plate lifting the Himalayas has deformed the piedmont zone of Haryana ( currently seismic zone IV) , shortened the lithosphere and could make it a seismic hazard zone
  • Active tectonics and geodynamic framework of the area may have played a role in the extinction of the Vedic Saraswati river .
  • Active deformation, propagating further south of the Himalayan front may reach the piedmont zone of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. 

Evidences

  • Tectonically controlled evolution of the region’s landscape was proven by characteristics like the debouching of the Ghaggar and Yamuna tributaries and seasonal streams into the piedmont zone from the Siwalik. 
  • Upwarped Piedmont zone is a badland zone trending parallel to the Himalayas. Rivers also shifted their courses in response to the upliftment in the piedmont zone, exhibiting a migration pattern.
  • Abandoned channels and small abandoned tributaries helped us infer the evidence of the paleoflow. 

Tools used

  • Geophysical ground penetrating radar (GPR) is used for obtaining high resolution profiles of the subsurface over a depth range of a few metres to several tens of metres.
  • Possible locations and types of active tectonic features such as subsurface faults, lineaments and warps are identified with GPR.
  • Presence of geomorphic signatures such as drainage gradient anomalies, abrupt changes in river flow direction, river shifts, palaeochannels, compressed meanders and topographic breaks helped us identify the features. 

Where to use ?

Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Geomorphology , Physical condition of earth interior

Paper II ( Geography optional ) : Structure and relief

 

Source :

 

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/science-technology/our-study-shows-growing-zone-of-active-tectonic-deformation-in-northern-haryana-plains-south-of-himalayas-90254

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Miyawaki


Miyawaki :  This is method which involves planting two to four different types of indigenous trees within every square metre.The plants used in the Miyawaki method are mostly self-sustaining and don’t require regular maintenance like manuring and watering.  Recently, Prime Minister of India in his recent episode of 'Mann ki Baat', discussed the concept of Miyawaki plantation.

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Black gold


Black gold : It is a type of fossil fuel found in the form of sedimentary rocks and is often known as 'Black Gold'.It is a conventional source of energy and is widely available. It is used as a domestic fuel, in industries such as iron and steel, steam engines and to generate electricity.

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Macrophyte


Macrophyte : It  is an aquatic plant that grows in or near water and is either emergent, submergent, or floating, and includes helophytes (a plant that grows in marsh, partly submerged in water, so that it regrows from buds below the water surface).

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Biosurfactants


Biosurfactants : Biosurfactants are natural compounds produced by microorganisms, and they possess surface-active properties. In the textile effluent treatment plant, biosurfactants are used in the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) to aid in the removal of dyes from the wastewater.

Keywords: Kosmos
Key Terms

Pulsating mechanism


Pulsating mechanism : It refers to the periodic contraction and expansion of the star. Pulsation periods provide valuable insights into the star's radius, luminosity, and mass, affirming its current phase of core carbon-burning. Recently,  researchers have compared the observed pulsation of Betelgeuse to theoretical estimates, indicating that the star is in its late carbon-burning stage.

Keywords: Kosmos
Places in the News

MAP


 

 

1.           Dal lake: Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is an urban lake, the second-largest lake in Jammu and Kashmir. It is variously known as the "Lake of Flowers", "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar's Jewel". Recently, a study revealed that it is on the verge of becoming a polluted wasteland that can no longer support native species. (Approx. Srinagar) 

2.         Mahadayi river: River Mahadayi spreads across the districts of Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra. It rises in the Western Ghats,  in Belagavi district of Karnataka. Recently , Karnataka government received clearance from the Central government for two Detailed Project Reports (DPR) on the Kalasa-Banduri water diversion project on the Mahadayi River.

3.          Simlipal Tiger Reserve : It is located in the Mayurbhanj district of Odisha. It is the 7th largest national park in India and Asia’s second-largest Biosphere Reserve. The park was declared a biosphere reserve by the Government of India in 1994. Recently, a forester was shot dead by poachers in  Odisha’s Simlipal Tiger reserve. (Approx. Mayurbhanj)

4.         Bhimgad wildlife sanctuary : It is a protected area in the Western Ghats, in Khanapur Taluk of Belgavi District near Jamboti Village, Karnataka. The Bhimgad forests are notable for the Barapede caves, the only known breeding area of the Wroughton's free-tailed bat, a threatened species on the verge of extinction. Recently two forest guards have been suspended for failing to prevent encroachment in the Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary. (Approx. Belgavi)

5.      Dachepalli : Dachepalle town is the Municipality in Palnadu district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Naguleru stream is the source of water for the town. (Approx. Guntur)

 

Keywords: Kosmos
Case Study of The Week

Impact of Brick kiln emissions on soil quality of Bangladesh (Ashulia brick kiln cluster)


  • There are more than 7000 active brick kilns in Bangladesh to meet the country's growing demand for building materials. Urban air pollution has become a great concern in this region due to the stack emissions during the brick manufacturing period.
  • However, study has also assessed the effect of heavy metals released from brick kiln emissions during their production period on the adjacent soil environment of the region.
  • The concentration level of cadmium resulted to be very high than its threshold limit in the majority of the sampling locations. Study findings indicate prospective damage to the studied soil environment and ecological settings of Ashulia, due to the emissions from the brick kilns which require suggested emission control and soil remediation actions, and implementation of eco-brick manufacturing technologies without further delay.

Where to use?

Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Soil erosion and degradation , Influence of man on ecology

 

Source :

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2667010022001962

Keywords: Kosmos
Rating 0.0
Please rate the article below, your opinion matter to us
A notification message..

Share the article

Subscribe now

Get Latest Updates on Offers, Event dates, and free Mentorship sessions.

*you’ll be agreeing to our Terms & Conditions
Get in touch with our Expert Academic Counsellors

Get in touch with our Expert Academic Counsellors 👋

Preferred time to call

Have questions about a course or test series?

unread messages    ?   
Ask an Expert

Enquiry

Help us make sure you are you through an OTP:

Please enter correct Name

Please authenticate via OTP

Resend OTP
Please enter correct mobile number
Please enter OTP

Please enter correct Name
Resend OTP
Please enter correct mobile number

OTP has been sent.

Please enter OTP