Tuesday, 2nd August 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

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Eleventh agricultural census 2021-22

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Rules for suspension of MPs from Parliament

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Clean, Healthy Environment as a Universal Human Right

2   This Day in History

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Government of India Act (1858)

3   Terms & Concepts

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Google street view - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Kali Bein river - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Jute Crop - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Aid in Trade Initiative: - Edukemy Current Affairs

4   Editorial of the day

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Public-Private TB Efforts: Key Lessons for Elimination

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Govt’s Own Gig Workers: The Hindu

5   Case Study of the Day

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Shinzo Abe: India's Friend Inspired by Vivekananda

.... Show less Show more
News Snapshot

Eleventh agricultural census 2021-22


In news

The Union Agriculture Minister has recently launched the Eleventh agricultural census, the fieldwork of which will start in August 2022.

About the news:

  • The agricultural census has been launched to collect data on various parameters, including operational holdings.
  • For the first time, the data will be collected through smartphones and tablets.
  • Such use of mobile apps for data and digitised land records will enable the creation of a database of operational holdings in the country.

About Agricultural Census:

  • What is it?
    • The Census is a large-scale statistical operation for the collection of requisite data and derivation of quantitative information about the structural characteristics of agriculture in the country.
    • The basic unit of data collection in Agriculture Census is the operational holding.
  • Who conducts it?

According to the 10th agricultural census (2015-16):

  • Small and marginal farmers (less than two hectares of land) accounted for 86.2% of all farmers but owned just 47.3% of the crop area.

  • The 2015-16 census also found that total number of operational holdings in the country had increased from 138 million in 2010-11 to 146 million in 2015-16, which meant an increasing fragmentation of land.
  • Uttar Pradesh had the largest number of landholders, constituting 16% of the total.
  • Overall, while Indian farms became more fragmented between 2010-11 and 2015-16, holdings continued to be inequitably distributed.
    • The Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, conducts Agriculture Censuses in India in collaboration with States/UTs as part of a programme of the World Census of Agriculture of FAO.
    • Since the launch of the first Agriculture Census in 1970-71, India has conducted ten Agriculture Censuses so far and the 2020-21 census will be the 11th in the series.
    • The tenth edition of the census was conducted with the reference year 2015-16.
    • The census is conducted every 5 years.
  • Significance:
    • The agricultural census is the main source of information on a variety of parameters, such as the number and area of operational holdings, their size, class-wise distribution, land use, tenancy and cropping pattern, etc.
    • The above information is needed to change the standard of living of the farmers, organise small farmers in order toempower them, attract them towards remunerative crops and ensure the quality of the produce is at par with global standards.
    • This in turn will help increase farmers’ income.
    • Further, Census also provides the basis for the development of a comprehensive integrated national system of agricultural statistics and has links with various components of the national statistical system.

Source:

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, E- technology in the aid of farmers, Agricultural Census, Smartphone, Agricultural Database
News Snapshot

Rules for suspension of MPs from Parliament


In News

The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha have recently suspended a few MPs on grounds of disrupting the proceedings of the house.

About the News

  • The general role and duty of the Presiding Officer-Speaker of Lok Sabha and Chairman of Rajya Sabha is to maintain order so that the House can function smoothly.
  • Thus, the Presiding Officer is empowered to force a member to withdraw from the House.
  • So far, several members have been suspended in Rajya Sabha for reasons including unprecedented acts of misconduct, contemptuous, unruly and violent behaviour and intentional attacks on security personnel etc.,
  • The recent suspension was on grounds of “unruly behaviour”.

What are the Rules under which the Presiding Officer acts?

The Rule in Lok Sabha:

  • About: The Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business deals with day-to-day functioning in the parliament.
  • Rule 373: It empowers the Speaker to direct such Member to withdraw immediately from the House if he is of the opinion that the conduct of any Member is grossly disorderly.
    • Any Member so ordered to withdraw remains absent during the remainder of the day’s
  • Rule 374: It deals with more recalcitrant Members, under which the Speaker may if deems it necessary:
    • Name a member: The speaker points out the member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the rules of the House by persistently and wilfully obstructing the business thereof.
    • Pass a motion: Speaker then passes on a motion being made forthwith to put the question that the Member be suspended from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session, provided that the House may, at any time, on a motion being made, resolve that such suspension be terminated.
    • Terminate: A member suspended under this rule shall forthwith withdraw from the precincts of the House.
  • Rule 374A: It was incorporated into the Rule Book in 2001 to move and adopt a motion for suspension.
    • Grave disorder: In the event of grave disorder occasioned by a member coming into the well of the House or abusing the Rules of the House persistently and wilfully obstructing its business by shouting slogans or otherwise.
    • Suspension: Such Member shall, on being named by the Speaker, stand automatically suspended from the service of the House for five consecutive sittings or the remainder of the session, whichever is less.
    • Remedy: The House may, at any time, on a motion being made can resolve that such suspension be terminated.

Procedure in Rajya Sabha:

  • About: Like the Speaker in Lok Sabha, the Chairman of Rajya Sabha is empowered under its Rule Book.
  • Rule Number 255: It empowers the chairman to “direct any Member whose conduct is in his opinion grossly disorderly to withdraw immediately” from the House.
  • Rule 256: The Chairman may “name a member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the rules of the Council by persistently and wilfully obstructing” business. In such a situation, the House may adopt a motion suspending the Member from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session.
  • Remedy: The House may, by another motion, terminate the suspension.

Sources:

Keywords: GS Paper 2:, Polity
News Snapshot

Clean, Healthy Environment as a Universal Human Right


In News:

With 161 votes in favour, and eight abstentions, the UN General Assembly has recently adopted a historic resolution declaring access to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment, a universal human right.

About the Resolution:

As per the resolution,

  • Every person on the planethas the right to live in a clean, healthy environment.
  • Climate Change and environmental degradation are the most critical threats awaiting humanity in the future.
  • It demonstrates that the member states can unitein the collective fight against the triple planetary crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution.
  • The declaration adopted by over 161 UN member nations, including India, is not legally binding. However, it will encourage countriesto incorporate the right to a healthy environment in national constitutions and regional treaties.
  • India has voted for the resolutionand Russia, and Iran are countries that have abstained from voting.

Significance of the Resolution:

  • It will help toreduce environmental injustices and protection gaps.
  • The resolution canempower people, especially those in vulnerable situations, including environmental human rights defenders, children, youth, women and indigenous people.
  • Help States to accelerate the implementation of their environmental and human rights obligations and commitments.
  • This is a historic resolution that will change the very nature of international rights law as the right- access to a Clean, Healthy Environment was not included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948. 

Earlier Resolutions:

  • Earlier in 2021, the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva had passed a resolution recognising access to a healthy and sustainable environment as a universal right.
  • 50 years ago, the United Nations Conference on Environment in Stockholm concluded in 1972 with a resolution placing environmental issues at the global forefront.

Constitutional provisions relating to Environment and Human Rights

  • Article 21: Guarantees fundamental right to life. Right to an environment, free of danger of disease and infection is inherent in it.
  • Article 48 A: State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the country.
  • Article 51-A (g): Duty of every Indian citizen to protect and improve the natural environment.

Source:

Image source:

Keywords: GS Paper 2: Government Policies and interventions, Groupings and Agreements involving India and/ or Affecting India’s interests; GS Paper 3: Pollution and Degradation, Conservation
This Day in History

Government of India Act (1858)


The Government of India Act (1858) was passed by the United Kingdom Parliament on August 2, 1858. The British Parliament handed over the administrative control of British India from the East India Company to the Crown. The Government of India Act, 1858 is also known as the Act of Good governance.

As per the Act, the East India Company was liquidated and Indian territories of Britain were to be governed in the name of the British Queen. The Court of Directors and the Board of Control were scrapped and the powers of the Company’s Court of Directors were vested with the Secretary of State for India. The SoS was the channel of communication between the British government in Britain and the Indian administration. The representative of the British government in India was the Governor-General and Viceroy who were appointed by the Crown. The act abolished the dual government of Pitt’s India Act and also ended the doctrine of lapse. The Indian Civil Services was to be instituted for the administration of the country. There was provision for Indians also to be admitted to the service.

Facts – Government of India Act 1858

  • First Secretary of State for India: Lord Stanley
  • First Governor-General and Viceroy of India: Lord Canning

Source:

Keywords: GS Paper 1: Modern History:, The Government of India Act (1858)
Terms & Concepts

Google street view - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Google Street View has been finally made available for ten cities in India and is expected to roll out in 50 more cities by the end of the year.
  • It has been launched under the Guidelines of the National Geospatial Policy (NGP), 2021.

  • Google Street View is an immersive 360-degree view of a location captured using special cameras mounted on vehicles or on backpacks by data collectors moving around the city streets.
  • The images are then patched together to create a 360-degree view which users can swipe through to get a detailed view of the location.
  • It is available to view on both Android and iOS using the app, or as a web view.
  • While Google Maps gives users the ability to plot a route and see the satellite view of the same, with Street View, users will be able to see exactly what a new destination looks like, and even explore local businesses before going there.
  • However, Street View in India is not allowed for restricted areas like government properties, defence establishments and military areas which means that in a place like Delhi, the cantonment area will be out of bounds for Street View.

Source:

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Science and Technology: Growth and Development, Space technology, IT and Computers.
Terms & Concepts

Kali Bein river - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: The Chief Minister of Punjab was recently admitted to hospital, days after drinking a glass of water directly from the Kali Bein river.
  • Kali Bein is a 165-km rivulet that starts from Hoshiarpur and runs across four districts and meets the confluence of the rivers Beas and Sutlej in Kapurthala.

  • Along its banks are around 80 villages and half a dozen small and big towns which release wastewater as well as industrial waste into the rivulet via a drain, turning its waters black, hence the name Kali Bein (black rivulet).
  • A cleaning project was started in 2000 by environmentalists without government support which later on became a role model for river cleaning The ‘Kali Bein Model’ was cited as the blueprint for the National Mission for Clean Ganga.
  • The river is of great significance to the Sikh religion and history, because the first Guru, Nanak Dev, is said to have gotten enlightenment here.

Source:

Image source:

Keywords: GS Paper 3: Environment and Ecology: River Pollution, Marine Pollution, Kali Bein river, Sikh community, Guru Nanak Dev.
Terms & Concepts

Jute Crop - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: As per third advance estimates of the Ministry of Agriculture, India’s jute production declined to 1.77 million tonnes in 2021-22, from 2.03 million tonnes in 2011-12
  • Also, over the years average area under jute cultivation has declined.

  • Lack of market, government procurement and diversification, poor infrastructure as well as the poor state of Indian jute mills are the possible reasons for this decline.
  • Jute, also known as golden fibre, is a long, soft and shiny natural fibre used in many textile applications.
  • Jute crop requires a humid climate with temperatures between 24 and 38 degree Celsius. It requires a minimum rainfall of 1000 mm.
  • India is the world’s largest producer of raw jute. The areas where Jute is primarily grown include West Bengal, Odisha, Assam, Meghalaya, and Tripura.
  • India contributes 7% of the global jute exports while Bangladesh accounts for nearly 75%

Source:

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Economy/GS Paper 1: Geography: conditions for the growth of the Jute crop, Jute Exports.
Terms & Concepts

Aid in Trade Initiative: - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: According to the recent WTO’s Glance 2022 Report, India has received the highest aid for trade in 2020 at $2.7 billion from developed countries.
  • The aid for trade commitments has been observed to have increased by 18% during 2020, reaching an all-time high of $64.6 billion.

  • The Aid for Trade initiative was launched at the 2005 Hong Kong WTO Ministerial Conference, to help developing countries, particularly least developed countries with trade.
  • Many developing countries face a range of supply-side and trade-related infrastructure obstacles which constrain their ability to engage in international trade.
  • The WTO-led Aid-for-Trade Initiative encourages developing country governments and donors to recognize the role that trade can play in development.
  • In particular, the initiative seeks to mobilize resources to address the trade-related constraints identified by developing and least-developed countries.
  • The initiative focuses on the following 4 elements as a part of its monitoring framework:
    • Mainstreaming and prioritising trade (demand)
    • Trade-related projects and programmes (response)
    • Enhanced capacity to trade (outcome)
    • Improved trade performance and reduced poverty (impact)

Source:

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Keywords: GS paper 3: Economy: Aid For Trade, WTO, Glance 2022 Report
Editorial of the day

Public-Private TB Efforts: Key Lessons for Elimination


Essence- The article says that by unlocking the potential of the Private healthcare system, the government can address various health issues especially Tuberculosis (TB) in India. It mentions the schemes that have given promising outcomes in different regions of India where the private sector was involved. The article also suggests the need for scaling up such schemes and recommends the necessary steps on that front.

It concludes by stating about how these schemes can be integrated with the flagship health sector scheme to transform the health sector in India and to eradicate TB from India by 2025.

 

Why should we read this article?

  • To know about the previous health sector schemes where private partnerships had ushered great results.
  • To know about what needs to be done to better utilize the locked potential of our health infrastructure.

Source:

Keywords: GS Paper 2: Governance:, Health
Editorial of the day

Govt’s Own Gig Workers: The Hindu


Essence- The article highlights the ongoing trend of employing gig workers in government departments and offices. It showcases that most of the jobs are outsourced via contracts, and workers are changed or retained depending on the nature of the contract. The result of this is both low government expenditure and also parallel inefficiencies in the system.

The article argues that while the contract works cannot be completely done away with given the huge workforce and nature of some public works, they need to be effectively managed instead. It urges the government to take concrete steps to manage its own gig workers, while it seeks to regulate the gig economy.

Why should we read this article?

  1. To understand the present state of the gig economy.
  2. To know the bottlenecks that hamper the government’s work.

Source:

Keywords: GS Paper 3: Economy:, Gig economy
Case Study of the Day

Shinzo Abe: India's Friend Inspired by Vivekananda


Background

Shinzo Abe, who was shot recently in Japan, had earlier in 2007 at the Indian Parliament mentioned Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore and Netaji Bose to highlight the bond between the two nations.

About Japanese ties with India

  • Abe, in 2007 had highlighted the ''spirit of tolerance”, as India's contribution to the world, quoting a reference from Vivekananda’s 1893 speech in Chicago.
  • He also hailed Vivekananda as a great spiritual leader gifted by India to the world.
  • Earlier, Vivekananda had been greatly impressed by Japan when he visited the country while on his way to the World Congress of Religions in 1893.

  • In 1897, he shared that, “The world has never seen such a patriotic and artistic race as the Japanese'', and mentioned the love of the Japanese for their country.
  • He said, ''If you catch the social morality and the political morality of the Japanese, you will be as great as they are''.
  • Subhash Chandra Bose and Rabindranath Tagore, are also known in Japan for their contribution to the nation's freedom.
  • Abe also shared that the Japanese people had rediscovered India as a partner that shares the same values and interests, who would work alongside them to enrich the seas of freedom and prosperity, abiding by the principles of openness and transparency.
  • Further, in 2021, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India’s second-highest civilian honour.

Quote: Tolerance implies no lack of commitment to one's own beliefs. Rather it condemns the oppression or persecution of others - John F.Kennedy

Source:

Keywords: GS Paper 2:, International relations
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