Monday, 19th June 2023

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs


India: Global Maritime Power by 2030


Wind Energy in India - Edukemy Current Affairs


Consequence of Subsidies - Edukemy Current Affairs


Agriculture Ministry's Bio-stimulant Registration Guide


Tamil Nadu withdraws general consent accorded to CBI


Skill Impact Bond initiative - Edukemy Current Affairs


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)


New Species of Sea Lettuce - Edukemy Current Affairs


Sundargarh natural arch - Edukemy Current Affairs


Justice Clock - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Daily Editorial Analysis


Strengthening the Integrated Child Development Services scheme

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Daily Current Affairs

India: Global Maritime Power by 2030

In News: The recently released World Bank’s Logistic Performance Index (LPI) Report 2023 has ranked India at 22nd position globally on the International Shipments” category, up from the 44th position in 2014. Moreover, India has also secured 38th rank on the Logistics Performance Index scores.

Reasons for better performance:

  • Dwell time: The time vessels spend in port actively loading or unloading the cargo has seen substantial reduction, reaching an optimum level of 3 days vis-à-vis 4 days in UAE, South Africa and 10 days in USA.
  • Port operational efficiency-India’s average turnaround time (TRT) is of only 0.9 day vis-à-vis 1.4 days for Belgium, Germany, UAE, Singapore, Malaysia, New Zealand and 1.5 days for USA.
  • Increased investments in the upgradation of infrastructure in the ports and shipping sector with consistent focus on improvements in port efficiency and productivity through reforms, induction of new technologies, a greater thrust on public-private partnership has also improved the performance.
  • Increase in Capacity: The capacity at 12 major ports has increased from 871 million metric tonnes (MMT) in 2015 to 1,617 MMT in 2023. The total capacity has also gone up from 1,560 MMT in 2015 to more than 2,600 MMT
  • Increase in value of operationalization of PPP projects in Major Ports: There has been a 150% increase in value of operationalization of PPP which has contributed significantly to increased operational efficiencies.
  • Decarbonisation in the maritime sector: There has been a 14-fold increase in the use of renewable energy in major ports over the last 8 years. Four of the major ports now generate surplus renewable energy.

Various initiative by Government in the Maritime Sector:

  • Harit Sagar Green Port guidelines issued by the government is an important step towards green ports and aims to bring about a paradigm shift towards safe, efficient and sustainable ports while implementing sound environmental practices.
  • Launch of National Logistics Portal has led to increase in efficiency of ports. It is a single-window digital platform for all stakeholders including those engaged in cargo services, carrier services, banking and financial services, and government and regulatory agencies.
  • Sagar Setu app facilitates seamless movement of goods and services in ports while substantially enhancing the ease of doing business.
  • Important Legislative reforms:
  • Major Port Authorities Act, 2021 grants greater autonomy to major ports.
    • The Marine Aids to Navigation Act, 2021 provides for increased safety and efficiency in vessel traffic services and training and certification at par with international standards.
    • The Indian Vessels Act, 2021 brings uniformity in law and standardised provisions across all inland waterways in the country.
    • The Indian Ports Act 1908 is also being reviewed by the government to replace it with a new law which is in tune with present-day requirements
  • Maritime India Vision (MIV)-2030 launched in 2020, is a ten-year blueprint for the maritime sector aiming to give a fillip to the shipbuilding industry and encourage cruise tourism in India.


Keywords: GS-3 Growth & Development, infrastructure
Daily Current Affairs

Wind Energy in India - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: Government plans to bring new measures to revive the wind energy sector by 2030

About Wind Energy in India:

  • India aims to build 140 gigawatts of wind capacity by 2030, part of its goal to install 500 GW of renewables by the end of the decade.
  • Wind energy has the potential to power about 100 million homes in India and can create about 150,000 jobs by 2030, up from 26,000 in 2021.
  • Challenges:
  • Wind power projects require technical qualifications and skills, making them more labor-intensive than solar energy projects.
  • Wind sector is hindered by challenges including a lack of skills in areas such as marine bed surveys, offshore wind plant construction, downsizing, and stunted growth.
  • The wind power industry has also faced challenges due to the competitive bidding process and disruptions caused by COVID-19.
  • Steps:
    • India is focusing on developing offshore wind farms to boost the wind supply chain and installation industry.
    • Government has scrapped the bidding process and announced new renewable energy parks to meet its renewable energy targets.
    • India is also investing in skills development and training to bridge the talent demand-supply gap in the wind energy sector.
  • Reviving the domestic wind market requires a strong and stable policy framework, incentivizing manufacturers, and restoring manufacturing capacity.
  • India's wind energy push has the potential to create green jobs, contribute to the clean energy transition, and help achieve the country's renewable energy goals.
  • Overall, wind energy plays a significant role in India's renewable energy sector and is crucial for India's energy transition and achieving net-zero emissions.

Keywords: GS-3: Infrastructure
Daily Current Affairs

Consequence of Subsidies - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: World Bank Report suggests that subsidies don't help Fight Climate Change

About Consequence of Subsidies:

  • A new World Bank report highlights the negative consequences of inefficient subsidies in agriculture, fishing, and fossil fuel sectors.
  • Major findings:
    • As per findings, countries in 2021 spent $577 billion on subsidies to lower the price of polluting fuels like oil, gas, and coal.
    • The report reveals that subsidies in agriculture, fishing, and fossil fuels exceed $7 trillion, equivalent to 8% of global GDP.
    • Explicit agricultural subsidies amount to $635 billion per year in countries with accessible data, and possibly over $1 trillion globally.
    • The fisheries sector receives an estimated $35.4 billion per year in subsidies, contributing to
  • Challenges:
    • Subsidies for fossil fuels contribute to higher greenhouse gas emissions and exacerbate climate change.
    • They encourage the overuse of polluting fuels and delay the transition to clean and renewable energy sources.
    • They can lead to overexploitation of natural resources, such as fisheries, causing environmental degradation.
    • Subsidies put a strain on government budgets and contribute to fiscal deficits besides crowding out public spending in crucial areas like education, healthcare, and infrastructure.
    • They can exacerbate income inequality and may not effectively reach the intended beneficiaries, leading to unequal distribution of benefits.
    • Subsidies also creates dependency on government support, hindering self-sufficiency and
    • Market signals and price mechanisms are altered by subsidies leading to inefficient resource allocation and unsustainable practices.
    • All leads to rise in Opportunity costs from the foregone benefits and potential economic growth that could have been achieved.
  • Step ahead:
    • Repurposing subsidies can finance just transition activities and improve quality of life, as they have significant environmental impacts.
    • Availability, affordability, and accessibility of cleaner alternatives can be addressed to increase the effectiveness of subsidy reform.

Overall, governments should consider the long-term effects and opportunity costs of implementing or continuing subsidies and should strive for a balance between support and market efficiency.

Keywords: GS- 3: Economy
Daily Current Affairs

Agriculture Ministry's Bio-stimulant Registration Guide

In News: Government releases draft guidelines for Registration of Bio-stimulants

About Guidelines for registration of bio-stimulants:

  • Ministry of Agriculture has recently released a draft guideline for the registration of various categories of bio-stimulants.

Major Highlights:



Registration Requirement

  • Manufacturers or importers of bio-stimulants must list them under Schedule VI of the FCO Amendment Order 2021.
  • Bio-stimulants need to be registered and prove efficacy before they can be marketed.

Authenticity and Quality

  • Stakeholders should ensure the data submitted for registration is authentic, replicable, utilizable, and of good quality.

Data Requirements

  • Data on proposed application, packaging and labelling, chemistry, bio-efficacy trials, and toxicity data to be submitted by manufacturers.

ToxicityData Examination

  • The Central Bio-stimulant Committee (CBC) to examine toxicity data on a case-by-case basis.
  • Animal testing should be avoided where possible, and scientifically validated in-vitro methods can be accepted.

Shelf Life and Fortification

  • No fortification of bio-stimulants with other nutrients or chemicals to be allowed, except for naturally occurring beneficial elements on a case-by-case basis.

Packaging Standards

  • Packaging of bio-stimulants should follow standard designs prescribed for agro-chemicals and bio-fertilizers.

Provisional Registration and Data Submission

  • Data submitted for provisional registration does not need to be resubmitted for regular registration if composition and claims remain unchanged.

What is Bio-stimulant?

  • A bio-stimulant is defined as a substance or micro-organism that stimulates physiological processes in plants, enhances nutrient uptake, growth, yield, and stress tolerance.
  • They do not include pesticides or plant growth regulators regulated under the Insecticides Act, 1968.
  • Common bio-stimulants includes:
    • Seaweed extracts, Humic substances, Amino acids
    • Microbial inoculants such as mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobacteria
    • Plant growth-promoting substances like cytokinin, auxins, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids etc.

Keywords: GS-1 Agriculture
Keywords: General Studies –2 Government Policies & Intervention
Daily Current Affairs

Skill Impact Bond initiative - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, Under the Skill Impact Bond (SIB) initiative, nearly 18,000 first-time job seekers have been skilled, with 72% of them being women.


  • The Skill Impact Bond (SIB) is India’s first development impact bond for skilling and employment.
  • It is a public-private partnership (PPP) model that emphasizes providing employment opportunities to trainees rather than just issuing training certificates.
  • It is launched by the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in collaboration with global partners.
  • Aim is to benefit 50,000 young Indians (over 4 years), with a focus on empowering women (60% of beneficiaries)
  • The SIB addresses the impact of the pandemic on women and employment, removes barriers to women’s workforce retention, and leverages private sector capital and expertise.
  • It also works towards strengthening India’s technical and vocational education ecosystem through knowledge exchange and mainstreaming good practices. 


Keywords: General Studies –2 Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

Why in news? According to the researchers, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be alleviating depression by reversing the signal to go the right way.


  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that uses magnetic pulses applied to the scalp to stimulate the brain.
  • rTMS is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic mutual induction, first reported by Michael Faraday in 1831.
  • rTMS works by generating electromagnetic pulses through a coil placed on the scalp, which modulates the cortical activity of the brain.
  • It also changes the strength of connections between different areas of the brain.
  • The electromagnetic pulses create electrical currents in the brain tissue and affect the membrane potential of brain cells.
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved rTMS as a treatment for clinical depression in 2008.
  • rTMS has also been investigated as a potential treatment for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

More Information:

  • Clinically, rTMS has been used to relieve depressive states. In the treatment of depression, 40 pulses of stimulation are delivered over four seconds, followed by a gap of 26 seconds before the next 40 pulses. A brain area called the left prefrontal cortex, which is in the front part of the brain, is targeted in this process.

Keywords: General Studies – 3 Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology, Biotechnology
Daily Current Affairs

New Species of Sea Lettuce - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Researchers have recently discovered 20 new species of Sea lettuce along the Baltic and Scandinavian coasts.


  • Sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca) is a prominent species of green macroalgae, scattered widely across the vast Baltic Sea region, stretching from the Atlantic waters to the Bay of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea.
  • It is commonly referred to as seaweed.
  • It is a genus of green algae usually found growing on rocky shores of seas and oceans around the world.
  • Some species of Sea lettuce also grow in brackish water rich in organic matter or sewage and can accumulate heavy metals.
  • It usually grows attached by a small discoid holdfast to rocks and shells, but it can also grow in a free-floating, non-attached form, sometimes in prolific masses.
  • It is perennial, and grows all year, although the largest blooms occur during the summer.
  • It needs a lot of sunlight to flourish.
  • Large masses of sea lettuce are often an indicator of nutrient pollution in the water.
  • The color is often bright green but can range from dark green to almost yellow.
  • Owing to its rapid growth and easy reproduction, sea lettuce has piqued the interest of the growing aquaculture industry.
  • Sea lettuce finds its application in various industries like food industry.
  • It is quite high in nutritional values like protein, dietary fibre, and healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords: General Studies –3 Environment
Daily Current Affairs

Sundargarh natural arch - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, A team of the Geological Survey of India discovered India’s biggest natural arch during their survey of coal in Kenduadihi block in Odisha’s Sundargarh district.


  • Sundargarh natural arch is oval in shape and approximately 12 metres in height which dates back to lower-middle Jurassic age.
  • It is considered to be the largest natural arch in India, while the other two natural arches are found in Tirumala hills in Tirupati and Andaman and Nicobar Island.
  • These structures indicate a high-energy fluvial environment during the process of sedimentation.
  • Formation of the natural arch could be due to fault activities and the nature of lithotype, which have enhanced the process of sub-aerial weathering over a long period.

Keywords: General Studies – 1 Geographical Features & Their Location
Daily Current Affairs

Justice Clock - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Electronic signage systems called Justice Clocks have been installed in the court complexes of High Courts.


  • It is an LED display of 7 feet by 10 feet, placed at a height of 17 feet from the ground.
  • This ‘Justice Clock’ will exhibit vital statistics of the justice delivery system, to maximise outreach and visibility of the work done by the state judiciary.
  • These clocks aim to inform stakeholders about key court-related parameters and provide a bird’s eye view of court-related data.
  • The initiative is expected to increase awareness among the public about the judicial process.
  • The interface has been designed and developed in-house and will display data from the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) in real-time.

Keywords: General Studies –
Daily Editorial Analysis

Strengthening the Integrated Child Development Services scheme

Exam View: Empirical research on ICDS; Funding and recruitment of Anganwadi workers; Stretched beyond their limits; Significant variation in level of skills of Anganwadi workers; Need to recruit more workers.

Context: India’s high prevalence of stunting, wasting, and anaemia continues to pose public health risks for children and women. India must strengthen its existing social sector schemes, such as the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), to tackle this.

Decoding the editorial

Empirical research on ICDS

  • Several studies have highlighted the correlation between early-life poverty, malnutrition, and inadequate stimulation, and later cognitive and economic challenges.
  • A study published in World Development demonstrated the ICDS’s positive impact on cognitive achievements, especially among girls and those from economically disadvantaged families.
    • Another peer-reviewed study in The University of Chicago Press Journals found that children who were exposed to ICDS during the first three years of life completed 0.1-0.3 more grades of schooling than those who were not.
    • In a study published in the Natural Library of Medicine, it was found that adolescents aged 13-18, who were born in villages with proper ICDS implementation, showed a 7.8% increased likelihood of school enrolment and completed an average of 0.8 additional grades compared to their peers who did not have access to the ICDS.

Funding and recruitment of Anganwadi workers

  • Saksham Anganwadi and Poshan 2.0 are Centrally Sponsored Schemes.
  • State governments oversee its execution, including administration, management, and monitoring.
    • Anganwadi worker recruitment falls under their jurisdiction, guided by regulations and region-specific criteria.
    • This decentralised approach promotes tailored, efficient implementation.
  • The Government of India provides funds for Anganwadi workers’ and helpers’ honorariums on a cost-sharing basis.

Stretched beyond their limits

  • As principal operatives in the Poshan 2.0 initiative, these workers bear the onus of advancing child nutrition, health, and education in their communities.
  • Their roles vary widely from employing modern technology, like smartphones and applications, to practical tasks such as delivering health education, managing feeding programmes, and liaising with auxiliary nurse midwives and other healthcare professionals.

Significant variation in level of skills of Anganwadi workers

  • This requires further investments in the training programme.
  • There is an urgent need for infrastructural improvement in India’s Anganwadi centres.
  • A disconcerting 2.5 lakh centres operate without functional sanitation facilities and 1.5 lakh centres lack access to potable water.
  • Approximately 4.15 lakh Anganwadi centres do not possess their own pucca building.

Need to recruit more workers

  • It would lead to better health and educational outcomes.
    • A large-scale randomised controlled trial by Alejandro Ganimian, Karthik Muralidharan and Christopher Walters in Tamil Nadu, conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing staff levels within the ICDS framework, revealed significant outcomes.
    • The addition of a half-time worker effectively doubled the net preschool instructional time, which led to improvements in maths and language test scores for children enrolled in the programme.
  • Children who remained enrolled also exhibited reduced rates of child stunting and severe malnutrition.
  • The cost of a nationwide roll-out of this model is relatively insignificant in comparison to the potential advantages it offers.
    • The estimated long-term benefits, based on expected improvements in lifetime earnings, would be around 13 to 21 times the expenses.
  • The new Anganwadi worker can be given the responsibility of concentrating only on preschool and early childhood education.
    • This would allow existing workers to dedicate more time to child health and nutrition.
    • It would also enable the Anganwadi workers to expand their outreach and serve a larger number of families.
  • Apart from improving the well-being of rural communities, this would create job opportunities for local residents, particularly women. It would lead to the creation of 1.3 million new jobs for women across India.

Despite four decades of relentless efforts, the ICDS still faces the herculean task of ameliorating the nutritional and health outcomes for children aged 0-6 years.


Keywords: GS Paper 2: Issues related to children, Issues Related to Women, Government policies & Intervention.
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