Monday, 17th July 2023

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs


Anthropocene Epoch - Edukemy Current Affairs


Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana (AVYAY)


Child Trafficking - Edukemy Current Affairs


Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB)


Bedaquiline availability in poor countries


Dudhwa Tiger Reserve - Edukemy Current Affairs


Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) - Edukemy Current Affairs


Brucellosis - Edukemy Current Affairs


UPI QR codes for CBDC transactions


Sushruta Jayanti - Edukemy Current Affairs


Namda Art of Kashmir - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Daily Editorial Analysis


Japan and the Indo-Pacific - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Daily Current Affairs

Anthropocene Epoch - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: In a major development that could change the Earth’s official geological timeline, geologists have proposed a new geological epoch, Anthropocene epoch, which began when human activity started to have a significant impact on the Earth.

About Earth’s Geological time Scale:

  • The geologic time scale is a timeline that shows the earth's history divided into time units based on the significant events occurring at that time. Scientists use fossils, rock layers, and their positions relative to each other to put the history of the earth into order.
  • Most of the boundaries on the geological time scale correspond to the origination or extinction of particular kinds of fossils. The appearance and extinction of major groups of fossils is used for determining the ages.
  • The principle of faunal succession states that different kinds of fossils characterise different intervals of time. This is because evolution and extinction are facts of nature.
  • Geologists have divided the 4.6-billion-year existence of Earth into slices of time such as Eon, Era, System/Period, Series/Epoch, and Stage/Age.

    • Eons are the broadest category of geological time. Earth's history is characterized by four eons; in order from oldest to youngest, these are the Hadeon, Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic.
    • Eons are subdivided into eras, which are the second-longest units of geological time. The Phanerozoic eon is divided into three eras: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.
    • Eons are subdivided into eras, which are further subdivided into units of time called periods. The Paleozoic era is divided into six periods: the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian.
    • Epochs and Ages: Periods are subdivided into epochs, which are in turn divided into even narrower units of time called ages.
  • Currently the Earth is in the Phanerozoic eon, Cenozoic era, Quaternary period, Holocene epoch and the Meghalayan age. The Holocene epoch began approximately 11,700 years ago at the end of the last major ice age.

What is the Anthropocene Epoch?

  • The Anthropocene epoch as a term was first coined by Nobel Prize-winning chemist Paul Crutzen and biology professor Eugene Stoermer in 2000 to denote the present geological time interval, in which the Earth’s ecosystem has gone through radical changes due to human impact, especially since the onset of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Phenomenon associated with the Anthropocene Epoch are global warming, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, mass-scale soil erosion, the advent of deadly heat waves, deterioration of the biosphere and other detrimental changes in the environment.
  • Many of these changes will persist for millennia or longer, and are altering the trajectory of the Earth System, some with permanent effect. They are being reflected in a distinctive body of geological strata now accumulating, with potential to be preserved into the far future.

Background of the proposal for new Epoch:

  • Anthropocene Working Group (AWG), an interdisciplinary research group dedicated to the study of the Anthropocene as a geological time unit, was established in 2009 as part of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS), a constituent body of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
  • AWG studied the sediments at Crawford Lake in Canada’s Ontario and found the presence of plutonium in its sediments due to the detonation of nuclear weapons. This marked as an indicator of humanity becoming a dominant force that could leave a unique global ‘fingerprint’ on planet Earth.
  • However the debate over the difference between Anthropocene and Holocene continues. The primary question that the IUGS needs to answer before declaring the Anthropocene an epoch is if humans have changed the Earth system to the point that it is reflected in the rock strata.


Keywords: GS-1 Physical geography; Important Geophysical Phenomena
Daily Current Affairs

Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana (AVYAY)

Why in News: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment launched the scheme Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana (AVYAY) to empower senior citizens and ensure their well-being and social inclusion.

Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana (AVYAY):

  • Earlier it was known as National Action Plan for Senior Citizen (NAPSrc), which was revamped, and renamed as Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana in April 2021.
  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme aimed at empowering senior citizens in India.
  • The objective of the scheme is to address the financial, healthcare, and social needs of elderly citizens, recognizing their valuable contributions to society.
  • It has two components:
    • Integrated Programme for Senior Citizens (IPSrC): Providing basic amenities and entertainment opportunities to improve the quality of life of the senior citizens, especially indigent senior citizens.
    • State Action Plan for Senior Citizens (SAPSrC): Each state/union territory is expected to formulate its own action plan for the welfare of senior citizens.
  • Five Schemes under the umbrella scheme:
    • Poshan Abhiyan for the elderly
    • Livelihood and skilling initiatives for senior citizens
    • Scheme on promoting the silver economy
    • Awareness generation and capacity building for the welfare of senior citizens
    • Channelizing CSR funds for elderly care


  • Nearly 5 lakh beneficiaries are staying in the Senior Citizen homes and 361 districts across the country have been covered.
  • A total of 288.08 crore grants in aid released during the last 3 financial years for 3,63,570 beneficiaries.


  • The scheme aims to empower the elderly, ensuring their active participation and inclusion in society. This is being done by addressing financial, healthcare, and social needs.

Keywords: GS – 2: Social Justice (Government Policies & Intervention)
Daily Current Affairs

Child Trafficking - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in News: Recently, a new report by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights at Harvard University (FXB) shows that more than half of child trafficking victims are trafficked within their own country.

Child Trafficking:

  • It is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of children, by means of threat or the use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of receiving benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over the child, for the purpose of exploitation.

International Organization for Migration (IOM):

  • IOM is a part of the United Nations System established in 1951.
  • It is the leading intergovernmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.

Key Findings of the Report:

  • 4% of child trafficking victims were female and 42.6% were male children.
  • Children aged 13-17 formed the largest group of child victims (46.6%) and some were aged between 0 and 2 years.
  • Close to half of the child victims were used for forced labour (mainly boys).
  • 20% of children – mainly girls were the victims of Sexual exploitation, including through prostitution, pornography, and sexual servitude.
  • Common means of control reported were False promises (58.9%) and psychological-physical abuse.
  • Victims for sexual exploitation were commonly trafficked internationally, while those for forced labour were trafficked more domestically.

Suggestions by the report:

  • The report recommended integrating counter-trafficking into climate change, environmental and disaster risk reduction policies and programmes.
  • Empowering communities affected by climate change, environmental degradation and disasters to develop community-based mitigation strategies aimed at reducing human trafficking.
  • Tailored programs to address the vulnerability of children to trafficking.

Keywords: GS – 2: Governance
Daily Current Affairs

Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB)

In News: Chief Election Commissioner of India Rajiv Kumar participates in the 11th meeting of the Executive Board of Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB)

About Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB)

  • Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB) was founded in October 2013 in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • It is the largest association of Election Management Bodies (EMBs) worldwide with 119 EMBs as Members and 20 Regional Associations/Organizations as Associate Members.
  • Its primary vision is to achieve sustainable democracy globally by strengthening the processes of election management in member countries.
  • It organizes capacity building programs, conducts election visitor and observation programs to study election management practices and share knowledge among member EMBs.
  • It also has regional offices, including A-WEB India Centre, which focus on sharing best practices and providing training and capacity building to officials.
  • It facilitates cooperation and collaboration among EMBs worldwide, allowing them to learn from each other's experiences and best practices.
  • Overall, the association helps addressing the pressing challenges faced by EMBs including countering fake narratives that threaten election integrity globally.

Keywords: GS-II: International Relations
Daily Current Affairs

Bedaquiline availability in poor countries

In News: In a significant breakthrough, J&J has agreed to allow nonprofit company to distribute Generic TB Drug

About Bedaquiline availability in poor countries:

  • The nonprofit company Global Drug Facility has recently reached an agreement with Johnson & Johnson to supply cheaper, generic versions of the anti-tuberculosis drug Bedaquiline.
  • The agreement aims to make the anti-TB drug more accessible in low and middle-income countries and supports the objective of ending TB as a global health threat.
  • Tuberculosis causes 5 million deaths annually and is a significant health issue in these countries.
  • Johnson & Johnson holds the patent for Bedaquiline, which has shown high success in treating drug-resistant TB.
  • The agreement enables Global Drug Facility to tender, procure, and supply generic versions of the anti-TB drug in most low and middle-income countries.
  • The agreement will also allow for increased availability of Bedaquiline in countries where patents for the drug are still in effect.
  • This initiative will help addresse the high cost of the drug and aims to make it more affordable for patients in need besides improving public health outcomes.
  • Overall, this step is expected to have a positive impact on TB treatment outcomes and will contribute to global efforts to eliminate the disease.


  • Tuberculosis or TB is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • It primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, spine, and brain.
  • It is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks.
  • Symptoms of TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats.
  • It is a global health problem, with an estimated 10 million people falling ill with TB and 5 million dying from the disease each year.

Keywords: GS-III: Health
Daily Current Affairs

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Four tigers died within two months in the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve in Uttar Pradesh, India.


  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is a protected area, located in Terai region of Uttar Pradesh near the India and Nepal border, spreading in the districts of Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich.
  • It includes the areas of Dudhwa National Parks along with Kishanpur and Katarniaghat wildlife sanctuary.
  • History:
    • In 1965 It was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary.
    • In 1977 It was established as a national park.
    • As a part of project Tiger, it was declared a tiger reserve in 1987-88 as it has a significant population of Bengal tigers.
  • It is the only place in Uttar Pradesh where both Tigers and Rhinos can be spotted together.
  • It is one of the finest examples of exceedingly diverse and productive Terai ecosystems.
  • Flora: It includes Grasslands, sal, asna, shisham, jamun, gular, sehore and bahera.
  • Fauna: Apart from tigers there exists variety of fauna which includes elephants, sloth bears, northern swamp deer, one horned Rhinoceros, Hispid Hare.

Keywords: GS –1 Environment, Conservation
Daily Current Affairs

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, Peru has declared a state of national emergency amid a surge in patient suffering from Guillain-Barré syndrome.


  • Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that affects the peripheral nervous system—the network of nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord.
  • It initially presents weakness, tingling, and numbness in the limbs, which can progress to paralysis lasting 6-12 months or longer.
  • It is not contagious or inherited and its exact cause remains unknown.
    • But as per the World Health Organisation (WHO), Guillain-Barré syndrome is often preceded by an infection. This could be a bacterial or viral infection. This leads the immune system to attack the body itself.
  • While there is no known cure for Guillain-Barré syndrome, some therapies can help lessen the severity of the illness and shorten recovery time.
    • GBS treatment involves procedures like plasmapheresis, which removes plasma and replaces it with other fluids.

Keywords: GS – 3 Health, Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Brucellosis - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, A seven-year-old student from Kadakkal in Kollam has tested positive for Brucellosis, a bacterial infection that spreads from animals to people.


  • Brucellosis Disease is a bacterial infection that spreads from animals to people.
  • It is caused by various Brucella species, which mainly infect cattle, swine, goats, sheep and dogs.
  • Brucellosis is found globally and is a reportable disease in most countries. It affects people of all ages and both sexes.
  • Transmission:
    • However, Person-to-person transmission is rare. Most commonly, people are infected by eating raw or unpasteurized dairy products.
    • Sometimes, the bacteria that cause brucellosis can spread through the air or through direct contact with infected animals.
  • Symptoms: Brucellosis typically causes flu-like symptoms, including fever, weakness, malaise and weight loss.
  • If not treated promptly, the infection can be life-threatening.

Keywords: GS –3 Health
Daily Current Affairs

UPI QR codes for CBDC transactions

Why in news? Recently, RBI announced that customers will soon be able to use QR codes of the Unified Payment Interface (UPI) network for transactions using digital currency.


  • Interoperability of QR codes will encourage more central bank digital currency (CBDC) transactions.
  • Previously, merchants had to go through a separate onboarding process and have a specific QR code for CBDC, causing delays.

Central bank digital currency (CBDC):

  • In 2022, RBI launched CBDC, known as the Digital Rupee.
  • CBDCs are a digital form of a paper currency and unlike cryptocurrencies that operate in a regulatory vacuum, these are legal tenders issued and backed by a central bank.
  • It is based on blockchain technology.

Keywords: GS –3 Economy
Daily Current Affairs

Sushruta Jayanti - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, The All-India Institute of Ayurveda organised a three-day seminar on the occasion of Sushruta Jayanti.


  • Sushruta Jayanti is celebrated every year on 15th July to honour the legendary Sushruta, hailed as the father of surgery.
  • Sushruta is considered the author of the Sushruta Samhita, an ancient Indian treatise on medicine and one of the most important foundational texts for Ayurveda.
    • Sushruta Samhita is considered one of the world’s oldest texts on plastic surgery. The other two are the Charaka Samhita and the Astanga Hridaya.
  • He is believed to have been born in the mid-first millennium BCE and lived in Varanasi.
  • His work includes rhinoplasty, treating burns, classification of eye diseases, the introduction of wine as a surgical anaesthetic, etc.
  • Sushruta Jayanti is celebrated to honor his contributions and to promote the knowledge and practices of Ayurveda and ancient Indian medicine.

Keywords: GS –1 Ancient Indian History
Daily Current Affairs

Namda Art of Kashmir - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, The Namda craft of Kashmir is being successfully revived under a Skill India’s Pilot Project as part of the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), with nearly 2,200 candidates from across six districts of the state, receiving training in the dying art form.


  • Namda is a traditional Kashmiri craft that involves creating felted carpets using sheep wool and hand embroidery.
  • Namda is said to have begun in the 16th century when Mughal Emperor Akbar wanted to get a covering for his horses to protect them from the cold.
  • It was introduced by a Sufi saint named Shah-e-Hamdan to Kashmiris.
  • The distinct feature of this Kashmiri craft is that wool is felted and not woven.
  • Namda rugs provide warmth and are used as floor coverings and home decor.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

  • PMKVY is a flagship skill development program launched by the Government of India.
  • It aims to empower the country's youth by providing them with industry-relevant skills to enhance employability and bridge the skill gap in various sectors.

Keywords: GS –1 Art & culture
Daily Editorial Analysis

Japan and the Indo-Pacific - Edukemy Current Affairs

Exam View: A Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP); Challenges before the Indo-Pacific; Focus of the New Plan for the FOIP; The foundation.

Context: The visit by the Japanese Prime Minister to India in March 2023, focused on cooperation between the G-7 and the G-20. Japan’s New Plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) was also unveiled.

Decoding the editorial: A Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP)

Challenges before the Indo-Pacific

  • Geopolitical issues:
    • The Russia-Ukraine war,
    • Growing Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea, East China Sea, the Indian Line of Actual Control and the Taiwan Straits.
  • Food security,
  • Cyber space,
  • The freedom of the seas,
  • Connectivity,
  • Lack of united stand on rules-based order
    • The differing position of countries on the Russia-Ukraine war has brought this issue to the fore.

Focus of the New Plan for the FOIP

  • Rules-based order,
  • Respect for each other’s territorial sovereignty,
  • Working with and embracing diverse voices, and
  • Japan is working alongside other like-minded countries in the region with India being billed as an ‘indispensable’ partner.

The foundation

Four pillars of cooperation’ under the new FOIP have been outlined:

  • Principles for peace and rules for prosperity
    • Vulnerable countries usually suffer the most if there is an erosion in the rule of law.
    • Therefore, Japan wants to engage in economic development programmes such as promoting the implementation of the G-20 Principles for “Quality Infrastructure Investment”.

  • Addressing challenges in an Indo-Pacific way
    • Under this pillar, Japan talks about expansion of cooperation for the FOIP by incorporating realistic and practical projects in a wide range of areas, such as climate change, food security, global health and cybersecurity.
  • Multi-layered connectivity
    • Under the third pillar, the three areas identified for introducing more such projects are Southeast Asia, South Asia and the South Pacific/Pacific Island countries.
    • Japan has made a new commitment of $100 million towards the Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund which will promote
      • the Bay of Bengal-Northeast India industrial value chain concept in cooperation with India and Bangladesh, and
      • the new Palau International Airport Terminal project (an archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean).
    • Extending efforts for security and safe use of the “sea” to the “air”

      • Under the fourth pillar, Japan will help in strengthening the capabilities of maritime law enforcement agencies in other countries.
      • Towards these objectives, Japan will
        • Implement the “strategic use of Official Development Assistance (ODAs)”;
        • Revise the Development Cooperation Charter;
        • Set forth guidelines for ODA for the next 10 years; and
        • Introduce an “offer-type” cooperation and a new framework for “private capital mobilisation-type” grant aid.
        • Mobilise a total of more than $75 billion in public and private funds in the Indo-Pacific region by 2030 in infrastructure development.



The primary goal of Japan’s visit was to reinforce the centrality of Japan in the emerging geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific. Japan is preparing itself for any unforeseen threat to its own as well as regional security. A Japan deeply invested in Indo-Pacific stability and prosperity is good news indeed for India and the wider region.


Keywords: GS Paper-2: Effect of Policies & Politics of countries on India’s interests.
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