Monday, 3rd October 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

●  

Russia’s Annexation of Ukraine

●  

India in Top 40 on Global Innovation Index

●  

Chief of Defense Staff - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Terms & Concepts

●  

Stupa - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

AUKUS - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Maheshwar Dam - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Kurds - Edukemy Current Affairs

3   Editorial of the day

●  

To protect the Sundarbans Delhi, Dhaka must unite: HT

●  

Permanent membership of the UNSC is another story

4   Case Study of the Day

●  

Cuba holds unusual vote on law allowing same-sex marriage

.... Show less Show more
News Snapshot

Russia’s Annexation of Ukraine


Snapshot:

Russia’s Annexation of Ukraine’s Territories:

In News:

Russia has recently announced to annex four occupied Ukrainian regions in a grand ceremony at the Kremlin, after President Vladimir Putin threatened to use nuclear weapons to defend the territories.

About the News:

-Donetsk People's Republic (DPR): 99.23% for joining Russia, 0.62% against.

- Luhansk People's Republic (LNR): 98.42% for joining Russia.

- Russian-controlled Kherson region: 87.05% for joining Russia.

- Russian-controlled Zaporizhzhia: 93.11% for joining Russia.

  • The move will result in the annexation of 15% of the Ukrainian territory.
  • The annexation is in the backdrop of referendums voted upon by the four territories namely Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia that have given their consent for annexation.

Cause of Conflict

  • Shared history: 
    • Ukraine and Russia share hundreds of years of cultural, linguistic and familial links. 
    • As part of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was the second-most powerful Soviet republic after Russia, and was crucial strategically, economically and culturally. 

  • Emotional Exploitation of People:
    • For many in Russia and in the ethically Russian parts of Ukraine, the shared heritage of the countries is an emotional issue that has been exploited for electoral and military purposes.
  • Balance of Power: 
    • Ever since Ukraine split from the Soviet Union, both Russia and the West have vied for greater influence in the country in order to keep the balance of power in the region in their favour.
  • Acts as a buffer: 
    • For the United States and the European Union, Ukraine is a crucial buffer between Russia and the West. 
    • As tensions with Russia rise, the US and the EU are increasingly determined to keep Ukraine away from Russian control.

Euromaidan Movement

  • Origin: November 2013 saw the start of mass protests across Ukraine, but particularly in Kiev's Maidan, or central square. 
  • Protest: 
    • Protesters were angry at Ukraine’s then pro-Russia President Viktor Yanukovych’s decision to join the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Unioninstead of the EU. 
    • The protests, known as the Euromaidan movement, saw massive clashes between the protesters and security forces that reached their peak in February 2014 and led to the ouster of Yanukovych.
  • Russia’s reaction:
    • Attacking Ukraine and annexing Crimea: Amid fears of growing Western influence in Ukraine, Russia decided to take action by invading Crimea, which was a part of Ukraine. 
  • It also began fomenting a separatist movement in eastern Ukraine, which is home to many who are ethnically Russian.
    • Result of this annexation: The invasion and subsequent annexation of Crimea have given Russia a maritime upper handin the region. 
    • Russia seized Crimea from Ukraine-thefirst time a European country annexed territory from another country since World War-2 
  • Crimea’s Significance to Russia:
  • Control of Crimea gives Moscow continuing access to the naval base at Sevastopol, home to Russia’s Black Sea Fleet. 
  • This will provide Russia with the ability to project power in and around the Black Sea.
  • Access to the Black Sea is vital for all littoral and neighboring states and also the region is an important transit corridor for goods and energy.

Criticism received globally:

  • It was widely condemned by world powers and resulted in the US and EU imposing sanctions on Moscow. 
  • It also resulted in a strengthened commitment by both the US and the EU to protect the integrity of Ukraine’s borders.

Referendum and the Response:

  • The four Russian-occupied areas of Ukraine- Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhia have voted in Referendums on joining Russia.

  • Considered illegal under international law and dismissed as “a sham” by Western governments and Kyiv (Capital of Ukraine). Also condemned by International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).
  • Why Illegal?
  • Violate the Constitution of Ukraine, (Art. 92)- which states that the organization and procedure for conducting referendums “are determined exclusively by the laws of Ukraine”
  • Violates the Hague Regulations of 1907 and the IV Geneva Convention. International IDEA calls on the international community to condemn these referendums as illegitimate and illegal.   
  • The referendums took place under military occupation and without any outside oversight.

Based on the above, in no circumstances can these referendums be considered as an exercise of a right to self-determination through remedial secession.   

Ukraine Liquidation” Strategy of Russia

  • Crimea Annexation: 2014
  • Donetsk and Luhansk: Declared as independent “people’s republics” in February 2022.
  • Kherson and Zaporizhia- captured by Russian forces during the early stages of this year’s conflict.
  • Strategy followed- War followed by Capture followed by Independence and Annexation.

Implication of the Move

  • Russia wants the West to stop arming Ukraine and instead pressure Kyiv to accept Moscow’s terms for ending the conflict.
  • The areas annexed will be seen as part of Russia and Moscow's nuclear umbrella will extend to them.
  • Will further justify Russia’s potential threat of even using nuclear weapons, to counter threat to its territorial integrity.
  • The West could increase arms supplies to Kyiv, and tighten financial sanctions that are already the most severe imposed against a large economy in modern history.
  • China could also use a similar strategy to annex Taiwan.

International Response:

  • Even Russia’s closest allies – China, India, Kazakhstan, and Serbia – have indicated that they will not recognise the results of the vote or any attempts at annexation.
  • The West and Ukraine say Russia is violating international law by taking 15% of Ukrainian territory, whose post-Soviet borders Moscow recognised shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union.
  • Ukrainian stated that it would become “impossible to continue any diplomatic negotiations” with Russia after it goes ahead with its annexation plan.

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2, International relations
News Snapshot

India in Top 40 on Global Innovation Index


Why in news?

  • The World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) Global Innovation Index (GII) 2022 ranked India at 40th position out of 132.
    • India ranked 46th in 2021 and 81st in 2015.

Key Highlights from the Report

In terms of Innovation:

  • For the 12th year in a row, Switzerland has the most creative economy in the world in 2022, followed by the US, Sweden, the UK, and the Netherlands.
  • While India and Turkey made their first appearance in the top 40, China is getting close to the top 10.

India’s Performance:

  • India is the top innovator among countries with lower middle incomes.
  • In addition to maintaining its top positions in other indicators such as venture capital receipt value, financing for start-ups and scale-ups, graduates in science and engineering, labour productivity growth, and domestic industry diversification, it continues to lead the world in exports of ICT services.

Impact of Pandemic:

  • The top corporate R&D spenders in the world boosted their R&D spending by over 10% to more than USD 900 billion in 2021, higher than in 2019 before to the pandemic.

Venture Capital Growth:

  • In 2021, it increased by 46%, reaching heights similar to the late 1990s internet boom. The fastest VC growth is being seen in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa.

About Global Innovation Index

  • Professor Soumitra Dutta (still employed at INSEAD), launched the Global Innovation Index (GII) project in 2007.
  • The goal is to identify measures and methodologies that could provide the most accurate picture of social innovation.

  • It is published by WIPO in partnership with the Portulans Institute and with assistance from its corporate partners, including the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), the Brazilian National Confederation of Industry (CNI), Ecopetrol (Colombia), and the Turkish Exporters Assembly (TIM).
  • It was the 15th event this year.
  • Indicators:
    • It include 'institutions', 'human capital and research', 'infrastructure', 'market sophistication', 'business sophistication', 'knowledge and technology outputs' and 'create outputs'.
  • 2022’s Theme: “What is the future of innovation-driven growth?”
  • Three Measures are calculated as follows:
    • Innovation Input Sub-Index: Elements of the economy that support and stimulate creative activity are encapsulated in five input pillars.
    • Innovation Output Sub-Index: The outcomes of innovative actions inside the economy are innovation outputs. Even though there are only two pillars in the Output Sub-Index, it has the same weight as the Input Sub-Index for determining the final GII scores.
    • The GII economy rankings are based on the overall GII score, which is the average of the input and output sub-indices.

About WIPO

  • The WIPO serves as a global forum for information, cooperation, and services related to intellectual property (IP).
  • It is a self-funding organization of the UN, with 193 member nations.
  • Its objective is to take the lead in creating a fair and efficient international IP system that encourages invention and creativity for the good of all.
  • The WIPO Convention, which created WIPO in 1967, outlines its mandate, governing bodies, and procedures.

Challenges associated with Innovation in India

  • The industry or challenges in the real world are not connected to university study.
  • India lags behind in allocating funds for Research & Development.
  • India lacks the most in the field of Infrastructure.
    • Organizers can only make available the good and efficient infrastructure, only if they know the needs of the innovators and scientists.

Related Government Initiatives

Digital India:

  • In 2015, India began its "Digital India" journey, with the aim of creating a trillion-dollar digital economy within a few years.
  • The mapping of capital assets using GIS technology and the revolutionizing of payments through the Unified Payments Interface are only two among many such examples where digital technologies are applied (UPI).
  • In 2021, 40% of all real-time global digital transactions happened in India.

National Education Policy, 2020

  • The National Education Policy, which fostered the spirit of enquiry by establishing incubation & technology development centers, was established to further strengthen innovation.

Atal Tinkering Labs

  • A total of 9000 Atal Tinkering Labs enable young people to develop solutions to societal challenges.

Content Source Link:

  • https://www.livemint.com/news/india/global-innovation-index-ranking-2022-india-enters-top-40-for-first-time-11664461869215.html,

Image Source Link:

  • https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/about-gii, 

 

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Keywords: GS paper II & III, Government Policies & Interventions, Issues related to Development, GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
News Snapshot

Chief of Defense Staff - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News:

The Government of India has recently appointed new Chief of Defense Staff (CDS)

About the News:

  • The Government has recently announced the appointment of former Eastern Army Commander Gen. Anil Chauhan as the next Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).
  • The appointment comes nine months after the untimely death of India’s first CDS, Gen. Bipin Rawat and over three months after the new amended rules for appointment to the post of CDS.
  • The new CDS was born in 1961, in Uttarakhand and was commissioned into the 11 Gorkha Rifles in 1981 and had earlier commanded the challenging Northern Commands.
  • The appointment comes ahead of the biennial annual defence exhibition, DefExpo2022, which will be held in Gandhinagar which is the first ever expo for only Indian companies or foreign companies that have Indian subsidiaries or joint ventures with Indian companies.

Major highlights of CDS:

  • About: General Bipin Rawat was the country’s first Chief of Defence Staff who take charge on the first day of the new year 2020.
  • Dual-hatted role: The CDS acts the dual role as the permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee which has the three service chiefs as members, as well as the head of the newly created Department of Military Affairs (DMA) in the ministry.
  • New departmental hierarchy: The four departments of military Department of Defence, Production, Research and Development and the department of Ex-servicemen welfare will now fall under the ambit of DMA, and will have an appropriate mix of civilian and military officers at every level.
  • Advisory role: CDS acts as the Principal Military Adviser to the defence minister only on tri-services matters and will not exercise any military command, including over the three service chiefs.

  • Act as a bridge: The service chiefs will be members of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, which will be headed by the CDS.
  • Role: As the head of the DMA, the CDS has to also facilitate restructuring of military commands for optimal utilisation of resources by bringing about jointness in operations, including through establishment of joint/ theatre commands.
  • Rank: The CDS has the status of a Cabinet Secretary, but functionally will head a department headed by a secretary.
  • 4-star officer: CDS are the first in a cohort of equals with the service chiefs with the only four-star officers in the country to include the CDS, and the chiefs of the Army, Navy and Air Force.
  • New eligibility norms: Serving or retd Lt General, Air Marshal & Vice Admiral under 62 yrs to be eligible for CDS post
    • These officers can be considered for top post along with serving chiefs of tri-services
    • Age criteria rules out recently retired Chiefs
    • Tenure of 3 service Chiefs is 3 years of service or till they turn 62, whichever is earlier However, the government can extend the service of CDS maximum till 65 years of age

Source: 

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/india/government-appoints-lt-general-anil-chauhan-retired-as-chief-of-defence-staff-8178843/

Image:

  • https://www.indiatoday.in/magazine/cover-story/story/20190902-enter-the-superchief-1590316-2019-08-23

 

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Keywords: General studies 2, Chief of defence staff
Terms & Concepts

Stupa - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Mauryan Art and Architecture
  • Stupas were burial mounds prevalent in India from the vedic period.
  • Stupas consist of a cylindrical drum with a circular andaand a harmika and a chhatra on the top.
    • Anda:Hemispherical mound symbolic of the mound of dirt used to cover Buddha’s remains (in many stupas actual relics were used).
    • Harmika:Square railing on top of the mound.
    • Chhatra:Central pillar supporting a triple umbrella form.
  • Material Used:The core of the stupa was generally made of unburnt brick while the outer surface was made by using burnt bricks, which were then usually covered with a thick layer of plaster and medhi and the toran were decorated with wooden sculptures.

  • Examples:
    1. Sanchi Stupain Madhya Pradesh is the most famous of the Ashokan stupas. It is a UNESCO world heritage site.
    2. Piprahwa Stupain Uttar Pradesh is the oldest one.
    3. Stupas built after the death of Buddha:Rajagriha, Vaishali, Kapilavastu, Allakappa, Ramagrama, Vethapida, Pava, Kushinagar and Pippalivana.
    4. Stupa at Bairat, Rajasthan:Grand stupa with a circular mound and a circumambulatory path.
  • Depiction of Buddha at Stupas
    • Symbols:In the early stages, Buddha was represented through symbols that depicted the different events of Buddha’s life (birth, renunciation, enlightenment, the first sermon (dharmachakrapravartana) and mahaparinirvana (death) in the form of footprints, lotus thrones, chakras, stupas, etc.
    • Jataka Stories:Later on, Jataka stories (stories associated with the previous birth of Buddha) were portrayed on the railings and torans of the stupas.

Source:

  • https://mitaleeostwal.wordpress.com/2019/05/08/sanchi-stupa/

Image source:

  • https://mitaleeostwal.wordpress.com/2019/05/08/sanchi-stupa/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1, History/ Art and Culture, Mauryan Art and Architecture, Sanchi Stupa
Terms & Concepts

AUKUS - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: China has reportedly withdrawn its draft resolution against AUKUS grouping at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • AUKUS is a trilateral security partnership for the Indo-Pacific between Australia, the UK and the US (AUKUS).

  • It was announced in 2021 to focus on advancing strategic interests in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • As part of this initiative, Australia will acquire nuclear-powered submarines with help from the UK and the US.
  • This step is significant because the US has only shared nuclear submarine technology once before,and it started in 1958 with Great Britain.
  • Nuclear submarines that arequieter than their conventional counterparts but also more capable of being deployed for longer periods and needing to surface less frequently.
  • With this alliance,
    • China faces a powerful defence in the Indo-Pacific region,
    • also reaffirms that, after Brexit, the US still wants the UK, and not the EU, engaged as its key military partner.
    • It also gives US focus for its post-Afghanistan tilt to Asia.

SOURCES: 

  • https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/china-withdraws-proposal-against-aukus-nuclear-submarines-plan-at-iaea/article65958001.ece 
  • https://www.cfr.org/article/quad-aukus-and-indias-dilemmas 

IMAGE SOURCE:

  • https://securityworldbd.com/details-page/109

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: International Relations, Regional Groupings
Terms & Concepts

Maheshwar Dam - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Madhya Pradesh govt has recently cancelled all Maheshwar Hydroelectric
  • The Maheshwar dam is one of the large dams of the Narmada Valley Development Project, which envisaged the construction of 30 large and 135 smaller dams in the Narmada valley.
  • The privatised hydroelectric project of 400 megawatts capacity was coming up in Madhya Pradesh’s Khargone.

  • The Madhya Pradesh government has cancelled the project as it had a poor financial track record, irregularities and graft allegations, caused the submergence of 61 villages, failed to provide proper resettlement to all the 9,500 families affected by it.
  • The Narmada, the largest west flowing river of the Peninsula, rises near Amarkantak range of mountains in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It traverses Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat and meets the Gulf of Cambay (also called, Gulf of Khambhat)
  • It is the only river in India, which runs in a rift valley running west amid the Vindhya and Satpura Mountain Ranges.
  • The river has numerous waterfalls, notably the Dhuandhar Falls, Kapildhara Falls and Dudh Dhara Falls in Anuppur, Sahastradhara Falls (Khargone) in Maheshwar ,Mandhar and Dardi Falls in Omkareshwar, etc.
  • In addition to Jabalpur, other important cities and towns on its banks include Hoshangabad, Maheshwar, Handia, and Mandhata.

Source:

  • https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/governance/madhya-pradesh-govt-cancels-all-maheshwar-hydroelectric-contracts-85235

IMAGE SOURCE:

  • https://gujaratmap.blogspot.com/2011/03/narmada-river-in-gujarat.html

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1, Geography, River Systems
Terms & Concepts

Kurds - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps of Iran have warned that they will carry on with attacks in neighbouring Iraq until they disarm Kurdish groups that they have accused of spreading unrest in the Islamic republic.

  • The Kurds are one of the indigenous peoples of the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands in what are now south-eastern Turkey, north-eastern Syria, northern Iraq, north-western Iran and south-western Armenia.
  • They are theworld’s largest stateless ethnic group who are an estimated 25 million to 35 million of them.
  • They were left stateless when the Treaty of Lausanne, which set the boundaries of modern Turkey, made no provision for a Kurdish state.

Source:

  • https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/iran-guards-vow-no-let-up-in-attacks-on-iraq-kurds/article65955162.ece

Image source:

  • https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/iran-guards-vow-no-let-up-in-attacks-on-iraq-kurds/article65955162.ece

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2, International relations, Kurds
Editorial of the day

To protect the Sundarbans Delhi, Dhaka must unite: HT


Essence - The article calls for cooperation between India and Bangladesh to protect the Sunderbans which are located in the delta region of three rivers – Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Meghana, and are home to threatened species – Bengal Tiger, Ganga River Dolphins, and Irrawady River Dolphins.

The article highlights that cooperation between the two countries can help in the increased eco-tourism, fisheries, and protection from cyclones and storms. It will also help both countries mitigate global carbon emissions as Sunderbans are responsible for 2.79 tonnes of carbon exchange per hectare per year.

A joint commission on Sunderbans co-chaired by the two countries would be a great step in initiating cooperation between the two countries with a focus on tourism, shipping, disaster management, agriculture, fisheries, and the development of climate-resilient activities. The forum can also act as a platform to raise finance from global climate funds.

Why should you read this Editorial?

  • Tto understand the areas of cooperation between India and Bangladesh to protect Sunderbans.
  • The article outlines a good example for multi-national cooperations to save common natural resources and hotspots.

Source:

  • https://www.hindustantimes.com/opinion/to-protect-the-sundarbans-delhi-and-dhaka-must-unite-101664456798273.html

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, Environment & Ecology, Sundarbans, Wetlands
Editorial of the day

Permanent membership of the UNSC is another story


Essence - The editorial discusses about the prospect of granting permanent membership of UNSC to India in light of UNSC reforms. It considers UNSC as the most exclusive club on the globe which has not been breached till now. It has highlighted the status quoits behavior of P5 countries towards UNSC reforms. It briefly explained the history of how the provision for Veto got included in UN charter and how the provision was used by P5 in the past. It also presents an elaborate discussion on worthiness of different candidates for the permanent seat at UNSC. It explains the cumbersome procedure for making the slightest of change in the membership. It highlights the possibility of expansion of seat without conferring veto power to new members.

Towards the end, it recommends adding a new category of semi-permanent members and suggests that India should accept permanent membership even without veto power as by the virtue of being the member only many good can be done.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To know the reason behind delay in UNSC reforms
  • To know the possible mid-way to hasten the reform process.

Source:

  • https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/permanent-membership-of-the-unsc-is-another-story/article65943147.ece

 

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Keywords: GS2, International Relation.
Case Study of the Day

Cuba holds unusual vote on law allowing same-sex marriage


In news

Cuba, recently held a rare referendum on an unusually contentious law, a government-backed family law code that would allow same-sex couples to marry and adopt, as well as outlining the rights of children and grandparents.

About the referendum

  • Referendums are the principle or practice of submitting to popular vote a measure, passed on or proposed by a legislative body or by popular initiative.
  • The measure, which contains more than 400 articles, was approved by 66.9% to 33.1%.
  • The passed code allows surrogate pregnancies, broader rights for grandparents in regard to grandchildren, protection of the elderly and measures against gender violence.
  • However, the referendum has met a strong strain of social conservatism in Cuba and several religious leaders have expressed concern or opposition to the law, worrying it could weaken nuclear families.
  • The referendum marks a big moment for Cuba, which saw gay people persecuted and sent to work camps in the 1960s and 70s.
  • While Cuba was officially and often militantly an atheist for decades after the 1959 revolution led by Fidel Castro, it has become more tolerant of religions over the past quarter century.
  • This has resulted in opening of not only the once dominant Roman Catholic Church, but also to Afro-Cuban religions, protestants and Muslims.

Source:

  • Cuba holds unusual vote on law allowing same-sex marriage
  • Cuba approves same-sex marriage in unusual referendum

Image source:

  • https://www.dw.com/en/could-same-sex-marriage-become-legal-in-cuba/a-62649565

 

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Keywords: GS1: Social Empowerment, Same-sex marriage, Gay Rights.
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