Wednesday, 7th September 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

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Report on Sedition - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Notifying Castes in India - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Model Prisons Act - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Terms & Concepts

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PM Shri Scheme - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Cyber Surakshit Bharat - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

National Clean Air Program - Edukemy Current Affairs

3   Editorial of the day

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Beyond Liberalisation: Reforms for Stronger Economy

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Managing Mental Health in Uniformed Services

4   Case Study of the Day

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V.O. Chidambaranar - Edukemy Current Affairs

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News Snapshot

Report on Sedition - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News:

NCRB has recently released the ‘Offences Against State’ report highlighting sedition cases in India.

About the News:

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

  • Background: It was established in 1986 with the aim to compile and keep records of data on crime.
  • Authority: It functions under the Union Home Ministry.
  • Functions: Apart from publishing annual reports, its functions include “Collection, coordination and exchange of information on inter-state and international criminals to the respective states”.
  • Record keeping: NCRB also acts as a “national warehouse” for the fingerprint records of Indian and foreign criminals, and assists in locating interstate criminals through fingerprint search.
  • National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) has recently released a report on crime statistics based on reports submitted by states and Union Territories, and data on sedition cases.
  • Section 124A of the Indian penal code defines sedition as: “Whoever, by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards, the Government estab­lished by law shall be punished with im­prisonment for life, to which fine may be added.
  • As per the report, India has witnessed a total of 76 sedition cases registered across the country in 2021 which is a marginal increase from the 73 registered in 2020.

Major highlights of the bill:

  • About: Last year, a total of 149 offences against the state were reported across the nation, of which 76 fell under the category of sedition and 73 under the heading of "other”, which is a marginal decrease against 172 as registered in 2020.

  • Across states: Among states, Assam recorded the highest number of cases, followed by Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Skewed distribution: The report showed that out of 475 sedition cases registered in the country between 2014 and 2021, Assam accounted for 69 cases ie 14.52%.
  • Surge among states: Nearly double digits have been witnessed in the registration of sedition cases in states of Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Kerala, Nagaland, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal.
  • No case states: States and UTs that did not register even one sedition case in the same period were Meghalaya, Mizoram, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, and Puducherry.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/india/most-number-of-sedition-cases-in-last-8-years-came-from-assam-ncrb-data-8131263/
  • https://www.mha.gov.in/MHA1/Par2017/pdfs/par2021-pdfs/LS-16032021/281.pdf
  • https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/supreme-court-to-hear-pleas-to-scrap-sedition-law-today-101650998688056.html

 

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Keywords: General studies III: Internal security, Sedition
News Snapshot

Notifying Castes in India - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News

  • The Allahabad High Court has recently invalidated two orders issued by the government of Uttar Pradesh that designated 17 OBC sub-castes as Schedule Castes (SC).
  • According to the court, only Parliament has the authority to add new Schedule Castes to the list.

About the Case

  • R. Ambedkar Granthalaya Evam Jan Kalyan Samiti, Gorakhpur had filed a PIL challenging the two Government Orders(GO) issued in 2016, whereby members of certain 'Other Backward Castes' were sought to be declared as Scheduled Castes. 

 

    • The petitioner had argued that only the Parliament of the country has the right to include any caste in the SC list as per the provision under Article 341 of the Constitution.
  • Another writ plea was moved by Gorakh Prasad, challenging the subsequent Government Order issued by the State in 2019 to the same effect.
    • Petitioners argued that the list of Scheduled Castes was prepared by the President of India and only the Parliament has the right to make any changes to the same and that the states have no right to amend it in any way.

About Caste System

  • Caste is a type of social stratification that is characterized by endogamy, the passing down of a way of life that frequently involves a job, ritual status in a hierarchy, traditional social contact, and exclusion based on cultural conceptions of purity and contamination.

Scheduled Castes 

  • Scheduled castes are those castes which are notified as Scheduled Castes as per provisions contained in Article 341 of the Constitution.

How OBCs and SCs differ from one another?

  • Specific castes are recognized as SC and OBC according to different standards.
  • Although all groups have the same conditions for extreme social, educational, and economic backwardness, SCs derive this backwardness from untouchability.
  • In addition to social, educational, and economic disadvantages, one qualification for OBCs is inadequate representation in government positions and services.
  • Critics claim that the inclusion of other castes in the group weakens the constitutionally guaranteed positive rights for SCs, which are intended to remedy past wrongs of untouchability.

How is a caste listed as a Scheduled Caste?

  • Six Presidential Orders were issued between 1950 and 1978 designating particular caste groupings as SCs.
  • The Constitution's Article 341(1) lays out the process for classifying castes as "Scheduled Castes."
  • State governments must first propose a change to the Schedule in accordance with the process to add or remove items from the Schedule by revising the relevant Presidential Order for a state under Article 341(2).
  • The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and the Registrar General of India must both approve a proposal before it can be submitted as a bill in Parliament.
  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment adopted this procedure in 1999, and it was modified in 2002.
  • Under Article 342, Scheduled Tribes are subject to a similar provision.

Court’s Observations

  • The Court emphasized that the order of the UP Govt recognizing 17 Castes, that were otherwise in the category of O.B.C., as Scheduled Castes in the State of Uttar Pradesh was not proper as it is impermissible for a state government to undertake such an exercise in view of the provisions of Article 341 of the Constitution.
  • Court further observed that the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950 alone can specify which castes, races or tribes or groups within castes, races or tribes, shall be regarded as Scheduled Castes under the Constitution, in relation to a particular State or a Union Territory and this Order has to be made by the President of India.
  • The Court discussed the judgment of a constitution bench in the case of State of Maharashtra v Milindin which it was reiterated that the power to include, exclude, amend or alter the presidential order is expressly and exclusively conferred on the parliament.
    • It was held that courts could not and should not extend jurisdiction to deal with the question as to whether a particular caste or sub-caste or group or part of tribe is included in any one of the entries mentioned in the Presidential Order.

Content Source link:

  • https://lawbeat.in/amp/top-stories/allahabad-high-court-quashes-state-govts-orders-notifying-17-obc-sub-castes-scheduled-castes-up,

 

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Keywords: GS paper II, social empowerment, Constitutional Bodies, issues Related to SCs & STs.
News Snapshot

Model Prisons Act - Edukemy Current Affairs


In news

State’s Stand

  • According to the State List of the Seventh Schedule to the Indian Constitution, "Prisons" is a State subject.
    • Therefore, the management and operation of prisons is solely the responsibility of the state governments.
  • Only 11 states and territories under central administration have embraced the new "Model Prison Manual."
  • In the upcoming six months, the Union government will change the law from the British era by bringing a Model Prisons Act, for which extensive consultations with state governments are in progress.

Why is there a need for change?

  • Age Old System of Colonial Prisons: It was established by the British to subjugate political inmates, therefore, India's prison system is vulnerable to misuse.
  • Working on Modernization: There is a need for modern, technologically advanced jails with high levels of security.
    • Better living and healthcare facilities, libraries, training programs for inmates to help them reintegrate into society, and activities to support mental development are also necessary.
  • Modern prison Manual: For this reason, the government replaced the current jail guidebook in 2016 with the "Model Prison Manual."
    • The government took into account a number of factors when creating the manual, including human rights, the reintegration of ex-offenders into society, the rights of female inmates, regulations governing prison inspection, and the right to education even for those on death row.
  • Over-crowded Prisons: The National Crime Records Bureau reported that in 2021, there were 5,54,034 inmates in Indian prisons, compared to a total capacity of 4,25,609.
    • Overcapacity continued to be a problem in 2020 and 2019.

Recommendations regarding Jail Reforms

  • 268th Report of Law Commission:
    • The Commission suggested that persons arrested for crimes carrying sentences of up to seven years in prison be freed after serving one-third of that time and those accused of crimes carrying lengthier sentences be released after serving half of that time.
    • Additionally, it was advised that the magistrates should not issue mechanical remand orders and that the police should avoid making unnecessary arrests.

  • Recommendations made by Justice Amitava Roy Committee:
    • Supreme Court team led by former Supreme Court judge Amitava Roy suggested that:
    • To handle just minor offences that have been pending for more than five years, specialized fast-track courts should be established.
    • In addition, those charged with minor offences who have been granted bail but are unable to secure surety should be released on a Personal Recognizance (PR) Bond.
    • It recommended launching the National Justice Delivery and Legal Reforms Mission.

What needs to be done?

  • There are many obstacles to overcome before prisons may be transformed into reformative facilities rather than homes for torture.
  • The allocation of resources, the deterrent effects of punishment, and the rehabilitation strategy are the key obstacles to progress.
  • Even though there have been ideas and recommendations from various bodies, actual enforcement remains India's top worry.

Content Source Link: 

  • https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/shah-model-prisons-act-will-replace-colonial-law-428687,
  • https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/centre-to-bring-model-prisons-act-amit-shah-101662315982981.html,

Image Source Link:

  • https://scroll.in/article/1017879/in-indian-jails-three-out-of-four-prisoners-are-undertrials

 

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Keywords: GS paper II, Government Policies & Interventions, Issues Relating to Development, Important Aspects of Governance
Terms & Concepts

PM Shri Scheme - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: On the occasion ofTeacher’s Day 2022, the Prime Minister announced the PM SHRI initiative.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Schools for Rising India (PM-SHRI) Yojana is a centrally sponsored scheme for the upgradation and development of more than 14500 Schools across the country.
  • It aims at strengthening the selected existing schoolsfrom amongst schools managed by Central Government/ State/ UT Government/ local bodies.

  • It will showcase all components of the National Education Policy 2020and act as an exemplar school and also offer mentorship to other schools in its vicinity.
  • The aim of these schools will not only be qualitative teaching, learning and cognitive development but also to create holistic and well-rounded individualsequipped with key 21st-century skills.
  • The pedagogy adoptedin these schools will be more experiential, holistic, integrated, play/toy-based, inquiry-driven, discovery-oriented, learner-centred, discussion-based, flexible and enjoyable.
  • The focus will be onachieving proficiency in the learning outcomes of every child in every grade.
  • These schools will be equipped withmodern infrastructure including labs, smart classrooms, libraries, sports equipment, art room etc. which is inclusive and accessible.

Source:

  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1856883

Image Source:

  • https://pmmodiyojana.in/pm-shri-yojana/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: Government Policies and Interventions: Education, skill development
Terms & Concepts

Cyber Surakshit Bharat - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: The National e-Governance Division (NeGD), recently organised the 30thChief Information Security Officers (CISO) Deep-Dive training programme at the Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA), New Delhi.
  • Cyber Surakshit Bharat initiative was conceptualized withthe mission to spread awareness about cybercrime and build the capacities of Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) and frontline IT officials, across all government departments.
  • It was launched in 2018 by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).

 

  • The objectives of the initiative include:
    • It is aimed at educating and enabling CISOs to understand cyber-attacks comprehensively and thoroughly, get necessary exposure to the latest technologies of safeguard, and translate the benefits of a resilient e-infrastructure to individual organizations and citizens at large.
    • Create awareness of the emerging landscape of cyber threats.
    • Provide an in-depth understanding of related solutions.
    • Applicable frameworks, guidelines & policies related to cyber security.
    • Share best practices to learn from success & failures.
    • Provide key inputs to make informed decisions on Cyber Security related issues in their respective functional area.

Source:

  • https://www.meity.gov.in/cyber-surakshit-bharat-programme
  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1856472

Image source:

  • https://twitter.com/_digitalindia/status/1416283567097667584?lang=ar-x-fm

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Cyber security, cyber warfare
Terms & Concepts

Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Every year September 5 that is celebrated as Teachers Day in India marks the birth anniversary of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, India’s first Vice-President (1952-1962) and second President of India (1962-1967).
  • Dr Radhakrishnan was born to a Brahmin family in Tiruttani, erstwhile Madras presidency.
  • He is the former president of India (1962-1967) and was also vice-chancellor of Benares Hindu University (BHU) from 1939–48.

  • In the year 1948, Dr Radhakrishnan was elected chairman of UNESCO’s executive board.
  • Apart from that, he was the second ambassador of India to the Soviet Union between 1949 and 1952.
  • He also taught Eastern Religions and Ethics at Oxford from 1936, a position he held for 16 years. Oxford University started the Radhakrishnan Chevening Scholarships and the Radhakrishnan Memorial Award.
  • A celebrated academic, he was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1954.
  • He was the founder of Helpage India, a non-profit organization for underprivileged people and elder beings.
  • He was nominated 16 times for the Nobel Prize for his contribution to Literature. A few of his works include Gautama the Buddha, India and China, Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore, Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy among others.
  • He was also nominated 11 times for Nobel Peace Prize
  • Since 1962, his birthday is celebrated as Teachers' Day in India

Source:

  • https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/teachers-day-2021-know-all-about-dr-sarvepalli-radhakrishnan-101630801598409.html
  • https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/life-style/teachers-day-2022-inspirational-quotes-by-dr-sarvepalli-radhakrishnan-on-education-8131099/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: Polity and Governance: President, Vice President.
Terms & Concepts

National Clean Air Program - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: A recent report has noted that only 14 of 43 NCAP cities registered a 10% or more reduction in their PM2.5.
  • The National Clean Air Programme has been launched by the Centre as a long-term, time-bound, national-level strategy to tackle the air pollution problem.

  • It aims to achieve a 20% to 30% reduction in Particulate Matter concentrations (PM2.5 & PM10) by 2024 keeping 2017 as the base year for comparison.
    • PM 2.5 are fine inhalable particles, with diameters that are generally 2.5 micrometres and smaller, and are the greatest risk to health.
  • Under NCAP, city-specific action plans have been prepared in consultation with the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), like strengthening the air quality monitoring network, reducing vehicular and industrial emissions, increasing public awareness, etc.
  • NCAP will be operationalised through inter-sectoral groups which include ministries of road transport and highways, petroleum and natural gas, renewable energy and urban affairs.
  • According to available data, National Capital Region (NCR) cities dominate the list of most improved non-NCAP cities. Most change (positive or negative) is noted among north Indian cities.

SOURCES:

  • https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/bid-to-curb-pollution-govt-launches-ncap-scheme-for-102-cities/articleshow/67476989.cms
  • CSE analysis finds limited improvement in cities funded by National Clean Air Programme - The Hindu

 

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Keywords: GS Paper -3 Environment & Ecology, Air pollution
Editorial of the day

Beyond Liberalisation: Reforms for Stronger Economy


Essence - The Indian economy was expected to collapse due to covid induced slowdown, but it is recovering better than that of most countries. This became possible because the reforms had reached threshold adequacy. The current economic policy is focused on smoothening the shocks to the economy and the reforms are being delayed.

The article calls for pre-emptive economic reforms to help India sustain the present growth rate. The much-needed reforms include leveraging the digital economy, supply chain diversification away from China, harnessing green initiatives for investment and innovation, privatization of banks for diversification in the financial sector, allowing the rupee exchange rate to be market-determined completely, and checking FPI trading.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To understand the present economic situation and the needed reforms to propel growth.
  • The article highlights the need for India to break away from over-dependence on reforms based on liberalization and ensure that domestic needs are protected and issues addressed.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/for-a-stronger-economy-we-need-economic-reforms-beyond-liberalisation-8135103-8135103/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, Economic reforms, Liberalization, Indian Economy
Editorial of the day

Managing Mental Health in Uniformed Services


Essence – The editorial discusses the issue of mental health among security personnel. It presents the lack of avenues to meet family and stressful work environment as the leading cause of this issue. It also highlights the issues of underreporting of mental issues to superiors and the adverse impact of prolonged mental suffering among the uniformed forces.

Towards the end it suggests a system of incentives, increasing communication across all ranks, an efficient grievance redressal system, sports and cultural programs and setting up of a friendly environment among others to boost motivation and build trust among forces which in turn help them deal with the stress.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To know the reason and the solution for the rising mental stress among the uniformed forces.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/how-to-deal-with-mental-health-challenges-in-uniformed-forces-8134732/

 

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Keywords: GS3, Various security forces and agencies and their mandate
Case Study of the Day

V.O. Chidambaranar - Edukemy Current Affairs


Background:

The Tamil Nadu Chief Minister had recently paid tribute to the statue of the late freedom fighter V.O. Chidambaranar remembering him on his 151 birth anniversary.

About V.O. Chidambaranar Pillai

  • O.Chidambarampillai (VOC) was born on 5 September 1872 in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
  • The partition of Bengal in 1905, and the rise of militancy evidenced by the Swadeshi (boycott of foreign goods) movement, saw him taking a direct interest in the political struggle.

  • His other contributions to the freedom struggle include:
    • He supported Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the militant wing of the Indian National Congress.
    • He participated in the 1907 Surat Congress.
    • He was one of the earliest to start the 'Dharmasangha Nesavuchalai' for hand-loom industry and the 'Swadeshi Stores' for the sale of India made things to the people.
    • He played a lead role in many institutions, like the "National Godown," "Madras Agro-Industrial Society Ltd.," and "The Desabimana Sangam".
  • Inspired by the Swadeshi movement, V.O.C. mobilised the support of local merchants, and launched the first indigenous Indian shipping enterprise, the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company, thus earning for himself the name "Kappalottiya Tamilan''.
  • His efforts in the Swadeshi Movement, brought him into conflict with the British Raj, for which he was arrested on charges of sedition, and later Court imposing a sentence of two life imprisonments.
  • In prison VOC continued to maintain a stream of petitions, until he stepped out of prison in 1912.
  • VOC finished his major political work by 1908, but died in late 1936, with the passion for freedom still raging in his mind till the last moment.
  • On the whole, VOC was an erudite scholar in Tamil, a prolific writer, a fiery speaker, a trade union leader of unique calibre and a dauntless freedom fighter. His life is a story of resistance, strife, struggle, suffering and sacrifice for the cause to which he was committed.

Source:

  • V.O. Chidambaranar 151st birth anniversary: Tamil Nadu CM pays tribute

Image source:

  • https://historyunderyourfeet.wordpress.com/2018/09/05/v-o-chidambaram-pillai/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1: Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant personalities, V.O. Chidambaranar
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