Wednesday, 23rd August 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


Consumption-based poverty estimates

2   Daily Current Affairs


Gene-edited mustard - Edukemy Current Affairs


Wild Fires - Edukemy Current Affairs


COP28: Gabon wraps up $500 million debt-for-nature swap


Amitabh Kant Committee recommendation on stalled housing projects


Ancient Mailara cult in coastal Karnataka


Demon particle - Edukemy Current Affairs


DRDO’s UAV Tapas - Edukemy Current Affairs


Offshore wind power projects - Edukemy Current Affairs


Infrastructure Debt Fund-NBFCs (IDF-NBFCs)


Bharat New Car Assessment Programme (Bharat NCAP)


Definition of Green Hydrogen - Edukemy Current Affairs


Acoustic Side Channel Attacks - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Editorial of the day

Consumption-based poverty estimates

Exam view: Status of poverty in India; The estimates of poverty based on multidimensional indicators; The estimates of poverty based on consumer expenditure.

Context: A recent report by NITI Aayog on multidimensional poverty shows that the percentage of the poor has gone down but these estimates are not substitutes for National Sample Survey consumption-based poverty ratios.


Decoding the editorial: Status of poverty in India

  • The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) report of 2018 by UNDP and OPHI
    • The incidence of multidimensional poverty was almost halved between 2005/06 and 2015/16, climbing down to 27.5 percent.
    • Thus, within ten years, the number of poor people in India fell by more than 271 million.
  • The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index report of 2023
    • The incidence of the multidimensional poverty index declined from 27.5% in 2015-16 to 16.2% in 2019-21.

The estimates of poverty based on multidimensional indicators

  • The search for non-income dimensions of poverty stems from a view that in terms of the capabilities approach to the concept and measurement of poverty, some of these ‘capabilities’ may not be tightly linked to the privately purchased consumption basket in terms of which the poverty lines are currently drawn.
  • As per the Expert Group to Review the Methodology for Measuring Poverty (2014), these measures raise several issues regarding their
    • measurability,
    • aggregation across indicators, and
    • databases that provide the requisite information at reasonably short intervals.
  • Aggregation
    • In principle, indicators should be independent.
      • For example: Access to safe drinking water, cannot be aggregated with indicators such as child mortality.
    • Even in respect of independent indicators, analytically appropriate rules of aggregation require that all of them relate to the same household. This requirement poses data constraints.
      • For example, there is a problem with the child mortality indicator as it is for population groups and not for households.
    • Converting all of them into an index poses several problems.
      • The Human Development Index pioneered by the United Nations Development Programme is an example of an arbitrarily weighted sum of non-commensurate indexes.
    • The non-income indicators of poverty are reflections of inadequate income.
      • Defining poverty in terms of income or in the absence of such data in terms of expenditure seems most appropriate, and it is this method which is followed in most countries.

The estimates of poverty based on consumer expenditure

  • The Tendulkar committee methodology: The number of poor came down by 137 million over a seven-year period between 2004-05 and 2011-12, despite an increase in population.
  • The Rangarajan Committee methodology: The decline between 2009-10 and 2011-12 is 92 million, which is 46 million per annum.
    • In absolute terms, the poverty ratios based on the Tendulkar and Rangarajan Committee methodologies are lower than as estimated by global MPI.

  • Issues:
    • There is no official data on consumer expenditure after 2011-12 to make a comparison with trends in the multidimensional poverty index.
    • The survey data on consumption expenditures done in 2017-18 have not been released
    • In the absence of such data, there have been several studies on poverty using indirect methods and using the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) and Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) data sources, and they have come up with differing conclusions.
    • The widening differences in aggregate consumption estimates between National Accounts Statistics (NAS) and NSS data.
      • These two estimates of consumption (NSS and NAS) do not match in any country.
      • However, the difference in India between the NSS and the NAS consumption has widened from less than 10% in the late 1970s, to 53.1% in 2011-12, i.e., the Survey Estimate is only 46.9% of NAS estimates.
      • The National Statistical Office must study the problem and come out with possible suggestions to improve the collection of data through both routes.
    • There is a need to supplement the results of consumption surveys with a study of the impact of public expenditure on health and education of different expenditure classes.


Keywords: GS Paper-3, poverty
Daily Current Affairs

Gene-edited mustard - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, Indian scientists have developed the first-ever low-pungent mustard.

About GTR Gene-Edited Mustard

  • Mustard (Brassica juncea) dry seed contain 120-130 parts per million (ppm or mg/kg) of glucosinolates. This is as against the sub-30 ppm levels in canola seeds.
  • By lowering the glucosinolate content to the dry seed weight concentration, the scientists have bred mustard lines whose oil and meal match the standard of canola-quality rapeseed (Brassica napus) in terms of pungency.
  • In this seed glucosinolates are synthesized in mustard leaves and pod walls before translocation to seeds.
  • New GTR genes-edited mustard lines are transgene-free or non-genetically modified (GM). It is low-pungent mustard that is pest and disease-resistant.
  • It does not contain any foreign genes like Bar-Barnase-Barstar (isolated from other soil bacteria) in the GM hybrid mustard (DMH-11)

About Glucosinolates:

  • Glucosinolates are synthesized in the leaves and pod walls of mustard plants. Its translocation and accumulation in the seeds happens through the action of glucosinolate transporter or GTR genes
  • Mustard seeds have high levels of glucosinolates, a group of sulphur and nitrogen-containing compounds contributing to the characteristic pungency of their oil and meal.
  • High glucosinolates are also known to cause goiter (swelling of the neck) and internal organ abnormalities in livestock.
  • High glucosinolates reduce the feed intake of livestock.
  • Glucosinolates limit the palatability of the meal and the exploitation of its true protein potential are also key arsenals of the Brassicaceae family crops – from mustard and canola to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli – against invading pests, pathogens and termites.


Importance of the Gene-Edited Mustard

  • India is a huge importer of edible oils, In the fiscal year 2022-2023 India imports were valued at $20.84 billion that only meet 60% of the country’s consumption
  • There is a dire need to boost domestic oilseed production through focused breeding to improve crop yields, pest and disease resistance, and product quality. So, it can l help to save the foreign exchange and reduce import dependency.
  • Mustard and soyabean are India’s most widely-cultivated oilseed crops, planted annually on 9 million and 12.5 million hectares area respectively.

Mustard's higher average oil extractable content (38% versus 18% for soyabean) makes mustard the bigger “oilseed” crop, while a source of both fats for humans and protein for animals.

Keywords: GS – 3, Science, Biotechnology
Daily Current Affairs

Wild Fires - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: Wildfires wreak havoc in Canada’s Northwest territories and Spain’s Tenerife

About wildfires:

  • Canada has recently witness active wildfires in Yellowknife and other areas in the Northwest territories.
  • Wildfires or "forest fires," are uncontrolled fires that spread rapidly across vegetation, forests, grasslands, and other natural landscapes.
  • Incidences of fire have increased in recent years due to several factors including:
  • Natural causes: lightning strikes, volcanic activity, and spontaneous combustion.
  • Human Activities: Campfires, discarded cigarettes, equipment sparks, arson, and power lines.
  • Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere contributes to global warming and degrades air quality due to smoke and particulate matter.
  • Wildfires has led to environmental impacts such as destruction of habitats, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, and air pollution.
  • Their exposure leads to health concerns such as respiratory issues due to smoke inhalation, and evacuation-related stress.
  • It also has economic consequences such as property damage, loss of crops, forestry industry setbacks, and firefighting costs.
  • In this regard, there is a need for wildfire management with steps such as:
    • Prevention Measures: Public awareness campaigns, fire bans, and controlled burns to reduce fuel load.
    • Early Detection: Surveillance systems, lookout towers, and satellite technology.
    • Firefighting Efforts: Fire crews, aircraft, helicopters, and equipment for containment and extinguishing.
    • Community Preparedness: Evacuation plans, emergency shelters, and community drills.
    • Ecosystem Restoration: Reforestation, habitat rehabilitation, and soil erosion control.
  • Wildfire Management faces several challenges such as climate change leading to more frequent and severe wildfires.
  • Communities living in Urban-Wildland Interface are at risk due to proximity to fire-prone areas which often lacks required firefighting resources with multiple concurrent fires.
  • Overall, Wildfires are a natural part of many ecosystems and thus there is need for effective wildfire management and international collaboration to mitigate their impact on the environment, economy, and human health.

Keywords: GS-III, Environment conservation
Daily Current Affairs

COP28: Gabon wraps up $500 million debt-for-nature swap

In News: Gabon signs $500 Million Debt-for-Nature Swap with Bank of America

About COP28: Gabon's $500 Million Debt-for-Nature Swap

  • Gabon has recently concluded a $500 million debt-for-nature swap aimed at debt refinancing and marine conservation.
  • It is the first debt-for-nature swap in continental Africa and has been finalized by Bank of America, Gabon, and The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
  • A "blue bond" is a type of financial instrument that is issued by governments or organizations to raise funds specifically for marine conservation and sustainable ocean-related projects.
  • The name "blue bond" is derived from the color of the ocean, emphasizing the focus on marine conservation and sustainable ocean management.

      Key highlights:

  • Gabon will repurchase $500 million of three dollar-denominated bonds for $436 million and will exchange for a new $500 million loan funded by "blue bonds."
  • The swap will generate $125 million for ocean conservation over 15 years which will be used to fulfill Gabon's commitment to protect 30% of its sea by 2030.
  • Gabon has 20 protected areas covering 26% of its marine waters and the deal aims to expand coverage to 30% and elevate protection status.
  • However, the deal has been flagged due to delayed deal launch and higher-than-expected interest rate for blue bonds.
  • Questions have also been asked about debt risk reduction since a significant portion of Gabon's near-term bonds remains unchanged.
  • Previously, similar swaps were struck by Belize, Barbados, and Ecuador in recent years with developing countries, policymakers, and banks showing interest due to fees and ESG credentials.

Overall, the deal could serve as a model for other countries provided the swaps can overcome challenges including high costs, lack of transparency, and strict conditions imposed by foreign entities.

Keywords: GS-II, International relations
Daily Current Affairs

Amitabh Kant Committee recommendation on stalled housing projects

Why in News: Recently, the committee headed by former NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant suggested reviving stalled real estate projects by requiring all stakeholders, including developers, financiers, and land authorities, to accept “haircuts” to make the projects financially viable.


  • A haircut refers to the lower-than-market value placed on an asset being used as collateral for a loan.
  • It refers to the acceptance of reduced amounts or losses by stakeholders, such as developers and financiers, to make financially troubled projects viable.

Housing Projects in India:

  • The Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) has estimated that over 4 lakh stressed dwelling units involving over Rs 4 lakh crore are impacted in these stalled real estate projects.
  • The committee reported that 44% of stalled projects are in the National Capital Region and 21% in the Mumbai Metropolitan.

Other Recommendations of the Committee:

  • A “Zero Period” from April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2022, should be established where interest and penalties would be suspended due to Covid-19 and court orders putting a stay on construction within 10 km of the Okhla Bird Sanctuary.
  • State governments should create rehabilitation packages, and developers should commit to a three-year completion timeline.
  • It recommended allowing “co-developers” to help developers complete projects.
  • A partial surrender policy should be designed in which developers can surrender unused land against their outstanding dues.
  • Plan approvals should be extended by three years without payment to the Authority.
  • Homebuyers of projects under the state government’s package should not be charged penalties or extra interest.
  • The use of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code should be a last resort.
  • The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016, a provision for registering projects with the respective Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA), must be enforced.
  • RERAs should identify mostly complete projects facing administrative hurdles and provide a resolution within 30 days.

Keywords: GS – 3, Indian Economy (Infrastructure)
Daily Current Affairs

Ancient Mailara cult in coastal Karnataka

Why in News: The recent discovery of two sculptures, which resembles one belonging to 15th century A.D. and another to 17th century A.D., at Basrur, near Kundapura, in Udupi district has proved that the ancient Mylara cult existed in the coastal region.

Sculptures found:

  • One sculpture was found in a well at Basrur and depicts a royal hero on a horse holding a sword and a bowl in his hands. This unique piece lacks the usual Mylaladevi figure on the horse’s back. The sitting posture of the horse is unusual and dates it to the 15th century A.D.
  • The second discovery is a small stone tablet depicting Mailara and Mylaladevi both mounted on an ornate horse while holding swords in their right hands. This relief, found in a tank during dredging, is in side profile and appears to be from the 17th century.

Mailara Cult:

  • The Mailara cult is a religious tradition centred around the worship of a folk deity named Mailara, who is believed to be a manifestation of Lord Shiva.
  • This cult is prevalent in parts of southern India, particularly in the Deccan region, including Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  • The cult has its own unique rituals, practices, and beliefs that have developed over time.
  • Mailara is often associated with other regional deities like Mallanna in Andhra Pradesh and Khandoba in Maharashtra.
  • The cult has a diverse following that includes people from various castes and occupations, ranging from agricultural and pastoral communities to martial groups.


  • Basrur was a significant trading city during the Medieval period, with trading guilds like Uhayadesi and Nanadesi playing active roles.
  • This environment fostered various cults, including the popular Mylara cult that was widespread in the Deccan region.

Keywords: GS – 1, Art and Culture (Sculptures)
Daily Current Affairs

Demon particle - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: Researchers at the University of Illinois recently discovered a demon particle that could lead to the making of superconductors that can operate at room temperature.

About the Superconductors:

  • Superconductivity is the property of certain materials to conduct direct current electricity without energy loss when they are cooled below a critical temperature. These materials also expel magnetic fields as they transition to the superconducting state.
  • Such metals or alloys can conduct electricity without resistance, but for that to happen, the temperature of such material needs to be below 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Superconductors are used in operations such as levitating trains and highly accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines.

Demon Particles:

  • These are massless particles, termed as the holy grail of superconductors, which were discovered nearly 70 years after ‘demon particles’ were first predicted.
  • The prediction of the demon particle was first made by theoretical physicist David Pines in 1956, who believed that electrons would behave strangely when passed through a solid.
  • Electric interactions make electrons combine to form collective units i.e. plasmons. This can make electrons lose individuality in solids. However, with such a large mass, plasmons cannot form with energies available at room temperature.
  • But Pines pointed out that there is an exception. Since demons do not contain mass, they can form plasmons with any energy and at room temperatures as well, thus giving rise to the idea of superconductors working at room temperatures.
  • With the discovery of materials capable of operating at room temperature, emergence of more powerful computers could come into being.

About the Research:

  • The team at University of Illinois, identified the potential existence of the demon particle while investigating the properties of the metal strontium ruthenate, which is similar to high-temperature superconductors.
  • The team of researchers were conducting the first survey on the electronic properties of the metal by blasting it with electrons, which led to the summoning of the demon through the metal’s features.
  • The final GE lines of mustard contain no Cas9 protein and are transgene-free.



Keywords: GS-3, Science and Technology, developments and their applications
Daily Current Affairs

DRDO’s UAV Tapas - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: After the crash of Tapas unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in Karnataka, during its experimental flight trial, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) informed that there was no collateral damage.

About the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle TAPAS:

  • Tactical Airborne Platform for Aerial Surveillance (TAPAS)-Beyond Horizon-201 or Tapas BH-201 is a long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle that used to be previously referred to as Rustom-II.
  • The drone has a 6-meter wingspan and a maximum speed of 225 kmph. It can cover a range of more than 250 km using the C Band frequency data link developed by Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) at DRDO.
  • It's range can also be enhanced to more than1000 km via SATCOM using the Kᵤ Band frequency and GAGAN system.
  • TAPAS BH 201 is being developed in India by Aeronautical Development Establishment.
  • The medium-altitude, long-endurance drone has an impressive flight endurance of several hours and successfully completed its maiden flight in November 2016.
  • The TAPAS BH 201 drone has the capability to fly autonomously or via remote control, allowing for pre-programmed flight plans and operational use in daylight or darkness.
  • Its compact, lightweight design makes it easily transportable and deployable to remote locations, while its real-time data collection and transmission provide valuable intelligence for decision-making.
  • With a range of over 18 hours and altitude capabilities of up to 28,000 feet, the TAPAS BH 201 has already completed more than 180 flights and will be live-streaming aerial and static displays at Aero India 2023.

Significance of UAV-TAPAS:

  • Tapas-BH is the answer to India’s quest for ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, Tracking, and Reconnaissance) requirements.
  • TAPAS incorporates the highest-grade military EO Electro-Optical (EO) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payloads which will improve the images dramatically for the ISTAR range of operations for the military across the terrain.
  • The development of TAPAS is also crucial for the next phase of armed drones with greater capabilities which will reduce the dependency on importing ISTAR drones.
  • The long-endurance capabilities of drones are vital for border surveillance amid escalating Chinese build-up across the border.



Keywords: GS-3, Defence Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Offshore wind power projects - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, the union ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE) has sought bids for survey of sites identified for offshore wind power projects in Tamil Nadu.


  • Wind energy typically comes in two different types:
  • Onshore wind farms are large installations of wind turbines located on land.
  • Offshore wind farms which are installations located in bodies of water.

Offshore wind energy

  • It refers to the deployment of wind farms inside the water bodies.
  • Offshore wind power projects involve generating electricity from wind turbines installed in bodies of water, typically oceans or seas.
  • These wind farms either use fixed-foundation turbines or floating wind turbines.
  • Offshore wind power offers the advantage of stronger and more consistent wind speeds compared to onshore locations, potentially leading to higher energy generation.
  • Offshore wind farms must be at least 200 nautical miles from the shore and 50 feet deep in the ocean.
  • Offshore wind turbines produce electricity which is returned to shore through cables buried in the ocean floor.

Government Plan:

  • The government’s plan involves auctioning projects with a capacity of 4 GW (this year) and an additional 3 GW capacity in the subsequent financial year.
  • The projects will be executed using two different models:
  • one with government-backed viability gap funding
  • other involving competitive bidding for site leasing and subsequent development without financial support

More Information:

  • India ranks 4th globally in Installed wind energy capacity with 42.8 GW (onshore wind) as of April 2023. (After China, US, and Germany).
  • The largest Wind Farm in India is the Muppandal Wind Farm in Tamil Nadu.
  • Top States in India – Installed Wind Power Capacity
  • Tamil Nadu > Gujarat > Maharashtra > Karnataka > Rajasthan > Andhra Pradesh

Keywords: GS – 3, Renewable Energy, GS – 2, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Infrastructure Debt Fund-NBFCs (IDF-NBFCs)

Why in news? Recently, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has issued revised guidelines for Infrastructure Debt Fund-NBFCs (IDF-NBFCs) with the aim of enhancing their role in financing the infrastructure sector.


  • Infrastructure Debt Fund-Non-Banking Financial Companies (IDF-NBFCs) are specialized financial entities registered as NBFCs to facilitate the flow of long-term debt into infrastructure projects.
  • IDF-NBFCs come under the regulation of RBI.
  • It raises resources through the issue of rupee or dollar-denominated bonds of minimum 5-year maturity.
  • Only Infrastructure Finance Companies (IFC) can sponsor IDF-NBFCs.
  • NBFC is permitted to refinance infrastructure projects that have completed at least one year of commercial operations.
  • NBFC is also permitted to finance Toll-Operate-Transfer (TOT) projects as a direct lender.

About the revised guidelines:

  • IDF-NBFCs must have a minimum net owned fund (NOF) of Rs 300 crore, and a capital-to-risk weighted assets ratio (CRAR) of at least 15%, with a minimum Tier 1 capital of 10%.
  • IDF-NBFC shall raise funds through the issue of either rupee or dollar-denominated bonds of minimum five-year maturity.
  • The requirement for a sponsor for IDF-NBFCs has been removed, and shareholders will now undergo scrutiny similar to other NBFCs.
  • Under the earlier guidelines, an IDF-NBFC was required to be sponsored by a bank or an NBFC-Infrastructure Finance Company (NBFC-IFC).
  • All NBFCs would be eligible to sponsor IDF-MFs with prior approval of RBI.


  • These changes are intended to facilitate a greater flow of long-term debt into infrastructure projects and harmonize financing regulations in the infrastructure sector.

Keywords: GS – 3, economy
Daily Current Affairs

Bharat New Car Assessment Programme (Bharat NCAP)

Why in news? The Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways will be launching the Bharat New Car Assessment Programme (Bharat NCAP).


  • The programme aims to provide a tool to car customers to make a comparative assessment of crash safety of motor vehicles available in the market.
  • Under this programme, car manufacturers can voluntarily offer their cars tested as per Automotive Industry Standard (AIS) 197.
  • Based on the performance of the car in the tests, car will be awarded star ratings for Adult Occupants (AOP) and Child Occupants (COP).
  • Significance:
    • It is expected that the demand for safer cars will increase, encouraging car manufacturers to comply with customer needs.
  • This programme is a significant step forward in the Government’s commitment to improving road safety by raising the safety standards of motor vehicles up to 3.5 tonnes in India.

Daily Current Affairs

Definition of Green Hydrogen - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, In a significant move for the progress of the National Green Hydrogen Mission, the government has notified the Green Hydrogen Standard for India.


"Green Hydrogen" shall mean Hydrogen produced using -renewable energy, including, but not limited to, production through electrolysis or conversion of biomass.  Renewable energy also includes such electricity generated from renewable sources which is stored in an energy storage system or banked with the grid in accordance with applicable regulations.

For Green Hydrogen produced through electrolysis:-

  • The non-biogenic greenhouse gas emissions arising from water treatment, electrolysis, gas purification and drying and compression of hydrogen shall not be greater than 2 kilogram of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilogram of Hydrogen (kg CO₂ eq/kg Hydrogen), taken as an average over last 12-month period.

For Green Hydrogen produced through conversion of biomass:-

  • The non-biogenic greenhouse gas emissions arising from biomass processing, heat/steam generation, conversion of blomass to hydrogen, gas purification and drying and compression of hydrogen shall not be greater than 2 kilogram of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilogram of Hydrogen (kg CO2 eq/kg Hydrogen) taken as an average over last 12-month period.

Additional Information

  • Detailed methodology for measurement, reporting, monitoring, on-site verification, and certification of green hydrogen and its derivatives shall be specified by the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy.
  • Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power shall be the Nodal Authority for accreditation of agencies for the monitoring, verification and certification for Green Hydrogen production projects.

Keywords: GS – 3, Science and Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Acoustic Side Channel Attacks - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, a research paper titled “A Practical Deep Learning-Based Acoustic Side Channel Attack on Keyboards”, was published and supported by the ethics committee of Durham University.

About Side Channel Attacks (SCA)

  • SCAs are a method of hacking a cryptographic algorithm based on the analysis of auxiliary systems used in the encryption method.
  • These can be performed using a collection of signals emitted by devices, including electromagnetic waves, power consumption, mobile sensors as well as sound from keyboards and printers to target devices.
  • These collected signals are used to interpret signals that can be then used to compromise the security of a device.

About Acoustic Side Channel Attacks (SCA)

  • ASCA, the sound of clicks generated by a keyboard is used to analyze keystrokes and interpret what is being typed to leak sensitive information.
  • These attacks are particularly dangerous as the acoustic sounds from a keyboard are not only readily available but also because their misuse is underestimated by users.
  • Users take no precautionary steps are taken to hide the sound of the keystrokes.
  • The use of laptops has increased the scope of ASCAs as laptop models have the same keyboard making it easier for AI-enabled deep learning models to pick up and interpret the acoustics.

How can users protect against ASCAs?

  • Using touch-based typing can reduce the chances of successful keystroke recognition making it more difficult for threat actors to leak sensitive information.
  • Changes in typing style and creating stronger passwords that use a combination of upper- and lower-case alphabets can make it more difficult for criminals to launch successful ASCA attacks

Keywords: GS – 3, Science and Technology
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