Thursday, 12th January 2023

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot


Supreme Court rejects PIL on State Committees for UCC


More essential drugs come under price regulation


Nanostructured Nickel alloy coatings


What is a cold wave, why northwest India is shivering?


Three new national-level multi-state cooperative societies

2   Terms & Concepts


What are the Multi-State cooperatives?


What is "Basic Structure Doctrine"?


What is Curative Petition? - Edukemy Current Affairs


Lokur Committee for defining a community as a tribe


‘Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy’ (DMD) Disorder


White Tufted Butterfly - Edukemy Current Affairs


PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PM GKAY)

3   Editorial of the day


Reducing Preterm Births and StillBirths

4   News Capsules


Conference of All India Presiding Officers


Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song


Magh Mela - Edukemy Current Affairs


Uganda declares end to Ebola Outbreak


Indian Skimmer - Edukemy Current Affairs


Free foodgrain scheme - Edukemy Current Affairs

5   Case Study of the Day


Major teachings of Swami Vivekananda

.... Show less Show more
News Snapshot

Supreme Court rejects PIL on State Committees for UCC


The Supreme Court of India has rejected a PIL (Public Interest Litigation) that challenged the decision of the Gujarat and Uttarakhand governments to set up committees for introducing a Uniform Civil Code (UCC).

Key observations made by the court:

  • The decision cannot be challenged as ultra vires the Constitution as it was within the powers of the state under Article 162, dealing with the extent of executive power of a state.
  • Matters such as marriage and divorce, adoption, wills, intestacy and succession, and joint family and partition fall under Entry 5 of the concurrent list, which allows both the Centre and states to make laws on these subjects.


Gujarat and Uttarakhand governments have set up committees of experts to examine relevant laws and prepare a report on implementing a UCC.

What is UCC?

Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is a set of laws that applies to all citizens of a country, regardless of their religion. It aims to bring uniformity in the laws related to personal matters like marriage, divorce, adoption, and succession.

Relevance in the Indian Context:

In India, different communities follow different personal laws based on their religion. The UCC is seen as a way to bring uniformity and equality among all citizens. The Constitution of India under Article 44, directs the State to strive to secure for its citizens a UCC. However, the implementation of UCC has been a contentious issue in India, with some religious groups opposing it on the grounds that it would infringe on their personal laws.

Need for:

The UCC is a significant step towards ensuring equality and uniformity among citizens in India. While there are opposing views on its implementation, it is important for the government to take into account the diverse perspectives and concerns of different communities before finalizing any laws.


Sources: the Hindu.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Separation of Powers
News Snapshot

More essential drugs come under price regulation


The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) has set a ceiling price for 93 essential drugs, including painkillers and drugs used to treat various illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, bacterial infections, and more.

  • These drugs are considered essential for public health and are included in the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM).

What are essential drugs?

Essential drugs are a set of medicines that are considered necessary for the basic health needs of the population. In India, the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) is a list of drugs that are considered essential for the public health system.

Purpose of Essential Drugs:

The primary purpose of essential drugs is to ensure that the basic health needs of the population are met, and that these drugs are available and affordable for everyone. The list is updated periodically to include new drugs and delete old ones, taking into account their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness.

Regulation of Essential Drugs:

The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) is the national regulatory body that is responsible for regulating essential drugs in India. It is responsible for granting licenses to manufacturers, approving new drugs, and monitoring the quality of drugs in the market.

Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) is another mechanism that regulates the prices of essential drugs in India.

NPPA is a body that monitors the price of drugs and enforces the DPCO. It is also responsible for adding or deleting drugs from the NLEM, based on their cost-effectiveness and public health importance.

Sources: Livemint.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Government Policies and issues arising out of their implementation
News Snapshot

Nanostructured Nickel alloy coatings


  • An autonomous Research and Development Centre of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) has developed a new method of depositing Nickel alloy coatings on engineering-grade materials that can replace environmentally toxic chrome plating.

Chrome Plating:

  • Chrome plating is a process where a thin layer of chromium is deposited on a metal surface using an electroplating process.
  • Properties of chrome plating include high reflectivity, hard surface and corrosion resistance.
  • Significance of chrome plating is mainly used on automotive parts and household fixtures such as door handles, and in many industrial applications.
  • Disadvantage of chrome plating is that the process involves the use of hexavalent chromium, which is a known human carcinogen and can cause respiratory problems, skin irritation, and an increased risk of lung cancer when inhaled.

Nickel Alloy Coating:

  • Nickel coating provides a unique combination of corrosion and wear resistance, adds brightness, luster and appeal.
  • Applications of nickel alloy coatings include aerospace, automotive, and food processing equipment to protect against corrosion and to improve durability and lifespan of the parts.
  • Often used as an ‘undercoat’ for other coatings, such as chromium, due to its excellent adhesion properties.

Sources: PIB

Keywords: GS Paper 3, Nanotechnology
News Snapshot

What is a cold wave, why northwest India is shivering?


Delhi usually records cold wave spells in December and January, with the number of cold wave days in January ranging from none to seven over the past decade. The cold wave this year has caused widespread disruption in the affected areas, with many schools and offices closed and transportation affected.

  • The cold weather has also caused an increase in respiratory illnesses and cold-related ailments. The government has taken measures to provide assistance to those affected by the cold wave.

What is a cold wave?

A cold wave is a weather phenomenon that is distinguished by a cooling of the air.

  • The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) marks a cold wave in terms of minimum temperatures:
    • When the minimum temperature in the plains is 4 degrees or less or
    • When the minimum temperature is less than 10 degrees and 4.5 to 6.4 degrees below the normal.

Factors Contributing to Cold Wave this year:

  • One of the major factors contributing to colder than normal temperatures over north India is the large-scale fog cover.
  • Fog has been lasting for longer durations, preventing sunlight from reaching the surface and affecting the radiation balance.
  • Light winds and high moisture near the land surface have been contributing to the formation of a blanket of fog over large swathes of the Indo-Gangetic plains in the morning.
  • Westerly and northwesterly winds of around 5 to 10 kmph in the afternoon have also been contributing to the dip in temperature.
  • The absence of significant impact of western disturbances over the region, cold northwesterly winds have also been contributing to low temperatures.

Impact on Health:

  • An increase in blood pressure in the cold and blood clotting can be fatal for the heart and the brain.
  • The cold causes the blood vessels to contract, which leads to high blood pressure and increases the risk of heart attacks.
  • Hypothermia is caused by prolonged exposure to very cold temperatures, as the human body begins to lose heat at a faster pace than it is produced.
  • Symptoms of mild hypothermia include shivering, fatigue, and confusion. In severe cases, the body may be unconscious and dangerously close to death.


Sources: Indian Express.

Keywords: GS Paper 1, Important Geographical Phenomenon.
News Snapshot

Three new national-level multi-state cooperative societies

Context: The Union Cabinet has approved setting up of setting up of three new national-level multi-state cooperative societies to promote organic products, seeds and exports under Multi-State Cooperative Societies (MSCS) Act, 2002.

These includes:

  1. The national level multi-state cooperative organic society: It will act as an umbrella organisation or aggregation, procurement, certification, testing, branding and marketing of organic products.
  2. The national-level multi-state cooperative seed society: It will act as an apex organisation for production, procurement, processing, branding, labelling, packaging, storage, marketing and distribution of quality seeds.
  3. The national-level multi-state cooperative export society: This entity will facilitate export of surplus goods and services produced by various cooperative societies across the country with support from relevant union ministries.


  • All these cooperatives will have their elected representatives in the Board of the society as per its bye-laws.
  • The cooperatives societies, including primary societies, district, state and national level federations, multi-state cooperative societies and Farmers Producer Organisations (FPOs) can become members of these new cooperatives.


  • The setting of these three national-level cooperative societies will bring rural growth.
  • They will play a key role in realising the goal of "Sahakar Se Samriddhi" (prosperity through cooperatives) by boosting rural growth and farmers' income.
  • There are about 8.5 lakh registered cooperative societies in the country with 29 crore members.

Constitutional provisions regarding Cooperative Societies:

  • Through the 97th constitutional amendment Act, 2011 in Part IXB (The Co-Operative Societies) was inserted into the Constitution.
  • The right to form cooperative societies was included as Right to Freedom under article 19 (1), Part-3 of the Constitution.
  • In addition to this, Article 43-B (Promotion of Cooperation societies) was also inserted as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy under Part 4 of the Constitution of India.



Cabinet approves setting up of 3 new multi-state cooperative societies | Business Standard News (

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Government policies and interventions.
Terms & Concepts

What are the Multi-State cooperatives?

The Multi-State cooperatives are societies that have operations in more than one state- for instance, a farmer-producers organisation which procures grains from farmers from multiple States.

  • Such MSCSs are registered under the Multi-State Co-operative Societies Act 2002, and their regulation lies with the Central Registrar.
  • The board of directors are from all the States these collectives operate in and control all finances and administration function.
  • There are close to 1,500 MSCSs registered in India, the highest number being in Maharashtra.
  • A large number of MSCSs are credit societies, while agro-based societies, dairies and banks are also sizeable in number.

MSCS (Amendment) Bill, 2022:

  • The Union Cabinet has approved the Multi-State Cooperative Societies (Amendment) Bill, 2022, which seeks to amend the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 2002.
  • The Bill will incorporate the provisions of the 97th Constitutional Amendment.
  • The proposed Bill aims to bring transparency in the sector and reform the electoral process of the MSCSs.

Key features of 97th Amendment Act:

  • Article 19(1) (c): The word “cooperatives” was added after “unions and associations” in Article 19(1)(c) under Part III of the Constitution.
  • Article 43B: It was added in the Directive Principles of State Policy (Part IV) regarding the “promotion of cooperative societies”.


Keywords: GS Paper 2, Governance related issues.
Terms & Concepts

What is "Basic Structure Doctrine"?

Context: Vice President Jagdeep Dhankhar, recently, questioned the landmark Supreme Court judgment that evolved the doctrine of basic structure.

What is "Basic Structure Doctrine"?

The Basic Structure doctrine was introduced in the Kesavananda Bharati judgment (1973).

  • It limited Parliament’s power to make drastic amendments that may affect the core values enshrined in the Constitution like secularism and federalism.
  • The supreme court has not defined the term ‘basic structure’, but listed a few principles — federalism, secularism, democracy — as being its part.

The ‘basic structure’ doctrine has since been interpreted to include:

  • Supremacy of the constitution.
  • Rule of law.
  • Sovereignty, liberty and republic nature of Indian polity.
  • Judicial review.
  • Harmony and Balance between fundamental rights and directive principles.
  • Separation of power.
  • Federal character.
  • Parliamentary system.
  • Rule of equality.
  • Unity and integrity of the nation.
  • Free and fair elections.
  • Powers of SC under Article 32,136,142,147.
  • Power of HC under Article 226 and 227.
  • Limited power of parliament to amend the constitution.
  • Welfare state.
  • Freedom and dignity of an individual.

Significance of Basic Structure:

  • The basic doctrine saved Indian democracy as it acts as a limitation of constituent power or else unlimited power of parliament might have turned India into a totalitarian.


  1. ‘Basic Structure’ finds no mention in the Indian constitution, and there is no exclusive definition given by the Judiciary.
  2. The Supreme court has assumed much power by this doctrine.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Separation of Powers.
Terms & Concepts

What is Curative Petition? - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context:  Recently, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court told the Union government that, a curative petition cannot be tried as a suit or a “review of a review” petition.

What is Curative Petition?

A curative petition is the last judicial corrective measure that can be pleaded for in any judgment or decision passed by the Supreme Court.

  • A curative petition may be filed after a review plea against the final conviction is dismissed.
  • It is meant to ensure there is no miscarriage of justice, and to prevent abuse of process.
  • A curative petition is usually decided by judges in chambers, unless a specific request for an open-court hearing is allowed.

Grounds for filing a curative petition:

  • The petitioner will have to certify and confirm that there was a genuine infringement of principles of natural justice and that there had been a bias of the judge and judgment that affected him.

Difference between Review Petition and Curative Petition:

  • A review petition is a request to the Supreme Court, under Article 137, to have any judgment of the court reviewed.
  • A curative petition is a one-of-a-kind remedy established by the court under section 142 to correct any error after a sentence.


'Dip into your own pocket before…': SC to Centre on Bhopal gas tragedy | Latest News India - Hindustan Times.

Procedure of Curative Petitions in India (


Keywords: GS Paper 2, Judiciary.
Terms & Concepts

Lokur Committee for defining a community as a tribe

Context: The Office of the Registrar-General of India (RGI) is following the set of criteria set out by the Lokur Committee nearly 60 years ago to define any new community as a Scheduled Tribe.

  • The Office of the RGI’s nod is mandatory for the inclusion of any community in ST lists, as per the procedure for scheduling tribes.

The criteria set out by the Lokur Committee for defining a community as a tribe are:

  1. Indications of primitive traits.
  2. Distinctive culture.
  3. Geographical isolation.
  4. Shyness of contact with the community at large.
  5. Backwardness

Criticism of this criteria:

  • These criteria are no longer relevant and do not accurately reflect the current socio-economic status of many tribes.
  • This has led to several tribes being left out of the scheduled tribe category and not receiving the benefits and protections provided to scheduled tribes.


Office of Registrar-General of India follows ‘obsolete’ criteria for scheduling of tribes - The Hindu.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Development Process and Role of NGOs.
Terms & Concepts

‘Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy’ (DMD) Disorder

Context: Researchers in India are working on developing an affordable treatment for a rare and incurable genetic disorder called Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with over 5 lakh cases in the country.

What is DMD?

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a condition that causes skeletal and heart muscle weakness that quickly gets worse with time.

  • It is marked by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness due to alterations of a protein called "dystrophin" that helps keep muscle cells intact.
  • DMD is caused by mutations in DMD (encoding dystrophin) that prevent the production of the muscle isoform of dystrophin (Dp427m).
  • Symptoms usually begin by the age of 6 years, and the condition mainly affects children assigned male at birth, but in rare cases, it can also affect girls.
  • There’s currently no cure, so treatment involves managing symptoms and improving quality of life.



Indian researchers developing treatment for rare genetic disorder ‘Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy’ - The Hindu.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Issues related to Health.
Terms & Concepts

White Tufted Butterfly - Edukemy Current Affairs

  • Context: Recently rare White Tufted Royal Butterfly was spotted in
  • It is a rare butterfly species which was recently photographed in Kerala.
  • The wingspan of the butterfly is 32-40 mm.
  • Its larvae feed on Scurrula parasitica, a plant belonging to the Loranthaceae family.
  • The butterfly is protected under Schedule 2 of the Wildlife Protection Act which means that animals under this list are given high protection along with the prohibition on their trade.
  • The species is found in the Western Ghats and it had been spotted in Agasthyakoodam in 2017 and the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary in 2018.
  • It requires protection as it has severe threats from unregulated laterite and granite quarries operating in Kalliyad.
  • Also read:
    1. Monarch Butterfly
    2. Crimson Rose Butterfly


Keywords: Ecology and Environment, Conservation of Biodiversity
Terms & Concepts

PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PM GKAY)

  • Context: Recently the Centre implemented PM-GKAY, a new free food grain scheme.
  • PM-GKAY is a new integrated food security scheme for providing free foodgrains to Antodaya Ann Yojna (AAY) and Primary Household (PHH) beneficiaries as per entitlement under NFSA.
  • It will strengthen the provisions of NFSA, 2013 in terms of accessibility, affordability and availability of foodgrains for the poor.
  • PMGKAY will subsume the two subsidy schemes of Department of Food & Public Distribution
    1. Food Subsidy to FCI
    2. Food Subsidy for decentralized procurement states dealing with procurement, allocation and delivery of free foodgrains to the states under NFSA.
  • In the new scheme, the government has done away with the subsided prices and is providing foodgrains free of cost for a year.
  • But now the additional quantity, which was available during the Covid pandemic, will not be provided to these beneficiaries.
  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution


Keywords: GS II: Governance: Issues related to poverty and hunger, GS III: Inclusive Growth
Editorial of the day

Reducing Preterm Births and StillBirths

Context - Global Report:

  • A report by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNIGME) estimates that globally, five million children died before their fifth birthday (under-five mortality) in 2021.
  • Over half of these deaths (2.7 million) occurred among children aged 1-59 months, while the remainder (2.3 million) occurred in just the first month of life (neonatal deaths).
  • India's share in these child mortalities was estimated at 7,09,366 under-five deaths; 5,86,787 infant deaths (death before first birthday); and 4,41,801 neonatal deaths. Many of these deaths are preventable.

India's Situation:

  • The Sample Registration System (SRS), released in September 2022, showed wide inter-state variations in child mortality in India.
  • For every 1,000 live births, the infant mortality rate in Madhya Pradesh was six-fold that of the rate in Kerala.
  • The children in rural parts in any age subgroup have much higher mortality rates than their urban counterparts.

Root Causes:

  • At the root of many child deaths are two neglected challenges. The first challenge is of children being 'born too early' (preterm births), which means they are born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy are completed.
  • This is a challenge because these 'preterm babies' are two to four times at higher risk of death after birth in comparison to those born after 37 weeks of gestation.
  • Globally, one in every 10 births is preterm; in India, one in every six to seven births is preterm.
  • The second challenge is of stillbirths, which are defined as deaths that occur after the completion of 24 weeks of pregnancy.

Preventable Measures:

  • Studies have shown that preterm births contribute to one in every six under-five child deaths. However, three out of every four deaths due to preterm birth-related complications are preventable.
  • To address the problem of child mortality, India needs to focus on improving maternal and child health services, such as providing access to quality prenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and neonatal care.
  • There is also a need to address the broader socio-economic determinants of child health, such as poverty, malnutrition, and poor sanitation.

In conclusion, India has a high burden of child mortality, with a significant proportion of deaths being preventable. Addressing the root causes of child mortality, such as preterm births and stillbirths, and improving maternal and child health services are critical for ensuring the health and survival of every child in India.


Sources: the Hindu.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Issues related to Health
News Capsules

Conference of All India Presiding Officers

Context: the 83rd ‘All India Presiding Officers Conference’ is being held in Jaipur.

What is the AIPOC?

  • The All India Presiding Officers’ Conference (AIPOC) is the apex body of the Legislatures in India that completed its hundred years in 2021.
  • Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi addressed the inaugural session of the 82nd AIPOC in 2021 in Shimla.
  • The first Conference was held in Shimla in 1921.
  • This is the fourth time that the Conference is being organized in the city of Jaipur.


Keywords: GS Paper 2, Functioning of the Parliament.
News Capsules

Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song

Context: Telugu movie RRR created history by winning a Golden Globe - a first for the country.

  • Composer MM Keeravani, along with singers Kaala Bhairava and Rahul Sipligunj, has won the Golden Globe for Best Original Song, for the track “Naatu Naatu”.
  • With this win, ‘Naatu Naatu’ becomes the first Asian song to win the coveted award.
  • The hit song was filmed in front of Ukraine president Volodymyr Zelensky's official residence in 2021.
  • Director SS Rajamouli’s historical epic RRR by has also been nominated in the Best Non-English Language Film category at the 80th Golden Globes.
  • Historical epic RRR centers around two real-life Indian revolutionaries, Alluri Sitarama Raju and Komaram Bheem, their fictional friendship and their fight against the British Raj.


Keywords: Prelims, Miscellaneous
News Capsules

Magh Mela - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: After two years, the North Central Zone Cultural Centre (NCZCC) is set to organise the popular cultural event “Chalo Man Ganga Yamuna Teer” at the Magh Mela area from January 18.

  • Magh Mela is a prominent Hindu religious festival that celebrates the creation of the universe by Lord Brahma who has been granted the title of being The Creator.
  • The Mela is organized at Triveni Sangam in Prayagraj.
  • The Mela usually begins with Makar Sankranti in January and continues for a period of 45 days till Mahashivratri.
  • The time period of these 45 days of th fair is known as Kalpvas.



Popular cultural event to be back at Magh Mela in Pryagraj after 2 years - Hindustan Times.

Keywords: Prelims, Miscellaneous.
News Capsules

Uganda declares end to Ebola Outbreak

Context: According to WHO, Uganda declared the end of the Ebola disease outbreak on Jan 11, 2023.

  • The country managed to end the outbreak in less than four months after the first case was confirmed in central Mubende district September 20, 2022.
  • Under the WHO's criteria, an outbreak of the disease officially ends when there are no new cases for 42 consecutive days -- twice the virus's incubation period.
  • Uganda's outbreak was caused by the Sudan Ebola virus, one of six species of the Ebola virus and for which there is currently no confirmed vaccine.


Keywords: Prelims, Issues related to Health.
News Capsules

Indian Skimmer - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: The Godavari estuary in Andhra Pradesh has become a prime and safe habitat for the Indian Skimmer.

Key facts about Indian skimmer:

  • The Indian skimmer or Indian scissors-bill (Rynchops albicollis) is one of the three species that belong to the skimmer genus Rynchops in the family Laridae.
  • the Indian skimmer is found in the coastal estuaries of western and eastern India.

Threat: Its population is declining primarily because of the degradation of wetland and riverine habitats.

Conservation status:

  • IUCN: Endangered
  • In 2020, Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) have initiated a ‘Guardians of the Skimmer’ programme, which is a community-based conservation initiative.



Godavari estuary in Andhra Pradesh has become prime habitat for Indian Skimmer, says expert  - The Hindu.

Keywords: Prelims, Miscellaneous.
News Capsules

Free foodgrain scheme - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: The union cabinet had approved new integrated food security scheme for providing free foodgrains to Antodaya Ann Yojna (AAY) & Primary Household (PHH) beneficiaries.

Key points:

  • New scheme has been named as Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY).
  • The integrated scheme will strengthen the provisions of NFSA, 2013 in terms of accessibility, affordability and availability of foodgrains for the poor.

PMGKAY will subsume the two subsidy schemes of Department of Food & Public Distribution:

  1. Food Subsidy to FCI
  2. Food Subsidy for decentralized procurement states dealing with procurement, allocation and delivery of free foodgrains to the states under NFSA.



Centre names new food security scheme Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana | Mint (

Keywords: GS Paper 3, Food Security Related issues.
Case Study of the Day

Major teachings of Swami Vivekananda

12th January:

National Youth Day is also known as Rashtriya Yuva Diwas and is celebrated on the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda.

  • Swami Vivekananda was a great social reformer of the 19th century. He was a devote follower of Vedanta.

Some teachings of Swami Vivekanand:

Tolerance: If humans are to thrive and prosper, they need to tolerate the diversified views and strive for the prosperity of all.

Right Education: He redefined the concept of education which was not limited to exploring means of earning only. For him education was a way to build one’s character, strength, intellect etc.

Strength: Whether it's personal goals or professional goals, a person needs to be fearless and firm to achieve them.

Compassion for Weaker Sections: It emphasizes the need to have empathy and compassion for the weaker sections of the society.

Religion: He argued in favour of religious reforms. He stressed that rationality must be applied to root out evils in religion. His meaning of religion had no place for superstitions, unending rituals and practices and religion that was adrift of spiritual content.

Fraternity: Swami Vivekananda focuses on the values like Love, Patience, Perseverance in one’s life. This would increase the brotherhood and fraternity among the people, reduce conflicts among them and would bind the society as a whole.

Relevance today:

  • Swami Vivekanand emphasized the importance of self-confidence and self-reliance in the youth.
  • He promoted the idea of universal brotherhood and the belief that the world is one family.
  • He believed that lack of education is the root of all problems in India, and advocated for education to be accessible to all sections of society, not just the upper class.
  • He believed that education should not be limited to career-oriented, but also focus on the overall development of an individual.
  • He advocated for women's education and empowerment, and believed that it would lead to greater development of society as a whole.
  • He emphasized the importance of martial arts training for women, so that they could defend themselves.
  • His teachings are still relevant today in addressing issues such as sexual crimes against women and the dropout rate of girls from school.

Keywords: GS paper 4, Contributions of Thinkers and Philosophers.
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