Thursday, 1st June 2023

Table of contents

1   Daily Current Affairs


Insurgency in Manipur - Edukemy Current Affairs


GM Food the Best Way of Sustainable Food Production


Article 299 of the Constitution


Use of animals for espionage - Edukemy Current Affairs


Global Slavery Index - Edukemy Current Affairs


NAFIS - Edukemy Current Affairs


National Land Monetisation Corporation (NLMC)


Turkey - Edukemy Current Affairs


Evergreening of Loans - Edukemy Current Affairs


Lightweight Payments System - Edukemy Current Affairs


Gangetic Dolphins - Edukemy Current Affairs


Mumbai Trans Harbour Link - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Daily Editorial Analysis


India’s diaspora decides - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Daily Current Affairs

Insurgency in Manipur - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: Amid violence in Manipur, Chief Minister told the media that 40 insurgents had been killed by security forces. The Kuki National Organisation (KNO) has countered his claims.


  • Manipur has been in the cross-currents of India’s oldest insurgent movements. The Naga national movement in the 1950s and the fight for an independent Nagalim touched parts of Manipur. The NSCN-IM entered a ceasefire agreement with the Indian government only in 1997.
  • In 1964, the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) was formed, demanding secession from India. People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which received arms and training from China also rise at that time.
  • These valley groups operated with a dual purpose – independence from India, and warding off Naga insurgent groups.
  • The Kuki-Zomi groups were a reaction to Naga aggression against the Kukis. In 1993, a massacre of Kukis by the NSCN-IM left thousands of Kukis homeless.

 Reasons for the Rise of Insurgency in Manipur

  • Forced Merger of Manipur: A forced merger of Manipur with the Union of India and the subsequent t delay in granting it full-fledged statehood is one of the reasons for the rise in insurgency. The Kingdom of Manipur was merged with India on 15th October 1949, it became a state only in 1972.
  • Rise of Militant outfits: People’s Liberation Army (PLA), People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), and Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL) being formed at that time.
  • Spillover Effect of Greater Nagalim Demand: The Naga movement in neighboring Nagaland spilled over into Manipur’s hill districts with the NSCN-IM controlling most of it while pressing for “Nagalim” (Greater Nagaland), which is perceived in the valley as a “threat” to Manipur’s “territorial integrity”.
  • Geographical area Conflict: While the hills account for nine-tenths of Manipur’s geographical area, they are sparsely populated, with most of the state’s population concentrated in the valley.The Meitei community forms a majority in Imphal valley, while the surrounding hill districts are inhabited by Nagas and Kukis.
  • Naga-Kuki Conflict: In the early 1990s, the ethnic clashes between Nagas and Kukis led to the formation of several Kuki insurgent groups, which have now scaled down their demand from a separate Kuki state to a Territorial Council.

Steps taken by the government to control Insurgency

  • The Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) 1958 was enacted and extended to the entire state. As the law-and-order situation gradually improved, AFSPA has been repealed in several areas.
  • In the 1980s, Manipur was declared a disturbed area.
  • A tripartite Suspension of Operation (SoO) agreement between the Centre, the state, and the Kuki-Zomi groups was signed in 2008.
  • Valley insurgent groups like the UNLF (mother of all Meitei insurgent groups) have never entered an agreement with the Centre.


Keywords: GS-3 Internal Security
Daily Current Affairs

GM Food the Best Way of Sustainable Food Production

Context: Genetically modified food remains controversial, but for some experts it is the best scientific method for a sustainable global food system amidst biodiversity loss and a rising population.

About Genetically Modified (GM) Crops:

  • As per the WHO, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are organisms i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms, in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination.
  • The technology is often called “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology” and allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between non-related species.
  • Foods/Crops produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods/crops. GM is nothing more than a breeding technique, much like crossing but in a more sophisticated way.

Rationale behind introduction of GM Crops:

The current challenges faced by agriculture necessitate exploration of new technology in agriculture:

  • Agriculture is responsible for a quarter of the carbon emissions in the atmosphere and the vast majority of the world's biodiversity losses.
  • The UN predicts the world population will reach 10 billion in 2057, which requires an increase in food production by 50%. To feed 10 billion people there are two approaches
    • Change in dietary pattern to make consumption more sustainable i.e. less waste, less meat.
    • Use of better technologies to create more environmentally friendly methods of agriculture such as gene technologies for a sustainable food system
  • Diversion of more land for agriculture causes climate change and biodiversity loss, thus we need lesser land for greater production.

Benefits of GM crops

  • Crop Protection: GM crops have improved resistance to diseases, pests, insects and herbicides. GM crops are resistant to blights and have saved papaya crops from ringspot virus in Hawaii.
  • Food Security: GM crops offer promising solutions to meet the world’s food security needs and as they have high productivity and are resistant to vagaries of climate such as drought, floods etc.
  • Lesser diversion of land: GM crop production uses only about 10% of the land non-GM crop production uses.
  • Economic benefits: GM crops can increase yield and thus income. They have a longer shelf life, thus conserving their freshness during transportation and storage.
  • Tackle malnutrition: Crops can even be engineered to be more nutritious, providing critical vitamins to populations that struggle to get specific nutrients needed for healthy living.

Concerns regarding GM crops:

  • Environmental concerns:
    • Since GMO is artificially created, its breeding with the other crops in the natural ecosystem can result in genetic contamination.
    • Another argument from ecologists is that the Bt. crops can harm non-target insects thereby affecting species diversity.
    • GM technology could also allow the transfer of genes from one crop to another, creating “super weeds”, which might be immune to common control methods
  • Economic concerns:
    • Stagnation of yield as witnessed in Bt Cotton crops where production peaked at 460 kg/hectare and has remained the same for the past 15 years.
    • Corporate control over farming is facilitated by GM technology (with accompanying IPR), giving large corporations control over the food supply, posing a risk to long-term food security.
  • Negative public perception regarding GM crops as a 2020 opinion poll found 50% of people in 20 surveyed countries perceiving GM foods as unsafe.
  • Ethical Concerns: Various ethical concerns regarding GM crops have been raised such as potential harm to human health and environment, negative impact on traditional farming practice and unnaturalness of the technology.


Keywords: GS-3 Awareness in the fields of Biotechnology
Daily Current Affairs

Article 299 of the Constitution

In News: Supreme Court rules that when entering into contracts under the President's name, the government cannot claim immunity from the legal provisions of that contract under Article 299 of the Constitution.

About Article 299 of the Constitution:

  • Article 299 of the Constitution pertains to the manner in which contracts made by the government are to be expressed and executed.
  • It applies to contracts made in the exercise of the executive power of the Union or of a State.
  • According to it, all such contracts must be expressed to be made by the President or by the Governor of the State.
  • Contracts and assurances of property made in the exercise of that power must be executed on behalf of the President or the Governor by persons authorized and directed by them.
  • The phrase 'expressed to be made and executed' implies that there must be a written contract or deed executed by a person duly authorized by the President or the Governor.
  • The objective of Article 299 is to establish a specific procedure for making contracts on behalf of the government, preventing unauthorized or illegitimate contracts that may deplete public funds.
  • Contracts not adhering to the manner given in Article 299(1) cannot be enforced by any contracting party.
  • However, Article 299(2) clarifies that neither the President nor the Governor can be personally held liable for contracts made under their name.
  • Thus, the provision of the article ensures transparency and accountability in government contracts, while also protecting government officials from personal liability.
  • Previously, the courts have established the essential conditions in government contracts through judgments in cases including 'K.P. Chowdhry v. State of Madhya Pradesh and Others, 1966., and 'State of Bihar v. Messrs. Karam Chand Thapar' in 1962.


Keywords: GS-2: Polity
Daily Current Affairs

Use of animals for espionage - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: Hvaldimir, a beluga whale has recently gained attention due to speculations about its alleged connection to Russian espionage.

Use of animals for espionage:

  • Since ages, animals have been trained by humans to can carry surveillance equipment, gather data, or even act as autonomous spies.
  • However, over the years, the use of animals for espionage have raised ethical concerns about their welfare and exploitation.




During World War I, pigeons were fitted with cameras and used for aerial reconnaissance.

They captured images as they flew and played a crucial role in delivering messages across enemy lines.


Dolphins possess excellent sonar capabilities, making them valuable assets for naval operations.

The US Navy has trained dolphins since the 1960s to detect submarines and underwater mines.

Sea lions

They have exceptional eyesight and agility make them effective in retrieving objects like mines and equipment.

Sea lions have been employed by the US Navy for their underwater detection skills.


The Acoustic Kitty project, attempted by the CIA, involved using cats as listening devices.

Under the project, Cats were surgically implanted with microphones and transmitting devices.


Insects, such as beetles and dragonflies, have been explored as potential tools for surveillance.

Miniaturized cameras and sensors can be attached to these insects to gather intelligence in hard-to-reach areas.


Besides pigeons, Falcons and hawks have been trained for hunting down other birds that might carry secret messages.


Rats have sensitive sense of smell allows them to navigate dangerous areas safely.

Cybernetic animals

Advancements in technology have led to the development of robotic or cyborg animals for covert operations.

Keywords: GS-2: IR
Daily Current Affairs

Global Slavery Index - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News: G20 Countries Contributing to Modern Slavery as per Global Slavery Index 2023

About Global Slavery Index:

  • The Global Slavery Index is an annual report that assesses the prevalence and conditions of modern slavery
  • It is released by the Walk Free Foundation, an Australia-based organization dedicated to ending modern slavery.

Major findings:

  • The report highlights that over half of the estimated 50 million people living in modern slavery are in the G20 countries.
  • It identifies India as the country with the highest number of forced laborers among G20 nations, followed by China, Russia, Indonesia, Turkey, and the U.S.
  • Trade operations and global supply chains of G20 countries contribute to the increase in modern slavery.
  • Imports worth nearly $468 billion of at-risk products, such as electronics, textiles, palm oil, and solar panels, are shipped from countries with weak worker protection.
  • G20 countries collectively import $148 billion worth of apparel goods and $13 billion worth of textiles produced by forced labor each year.
  • The report indicates a 25% rise in modern slavery over the past five years, attributed to climate change, armed conflict, weak governance, and health emergencies.
  • The report calls for stronger measures and legislation to prevent governments and businesses from sourcing goods and services linked to modern slavery.
  • It recommends embedding anti-slavery measures in climate change sustainability plans and tightening regulations on forced and child marriage.
  • The report also emphasizes the need for rehabilitation and empowerment of modern slavery victims, including providing education, job security, and adequate compensation.
  • Overall, G20 nations should ensure the rehabilitation of modern slavery victims and prioritize providing them with education, job security, and compensation besides access to public goods and decent work.


Keywords: GS-3: Important Reports
Daily Current Affairs

NAFIS - Edukemy Current Affairs

In News:  Recently, CBI, NIA, NCB to get access to fingerprint database to solve crimes faster


  • National Automated Fingerprint Identification System (NAFIS) is developed by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) at the Central Fingerprint Bureau (CFPB) in New Delhi.
  • NAFIS is a country-wide searchable database of crime- and criminal-related fingerprints and functions as a central information repository by consolidating fingerprint data from all states and Union Territories.

Use of NAFIS

  • It enables law enforcement agencies to upload, trace, and retrieve data from the database in real-time on a 24×7 basis.
  • It would help in the quick and easy disposal of cases with the help of a centralized fingerprint database.
  • The NFN is used for the person’s lifetime, and different crimes registered under different FIRs are linked to the same NFN in the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) database.

Working of NAFIS

  • NAFIS assigns a unique 10-digit National Fingerprint Number (NFN) to each person arrested for a crime. This unique ID will be used for the person’s lifetime, and different crimes registered under different FIRs will be linked to the same NFN.
  • The 2020 report states that the ID’s first two digits will be that of the state code in which the person arrested for a crime is registered, followed by a sequence number.
  • By automating the collection, storage, and matching of fingerprints, along with digitizing the records of fingerprint data, NAFIS will provide the much-needed unique identifier for every arrested person.
  • It will be included in the CCTNS (Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems) database as both are connected at the backend.


Keywords: GS-2 Polity and governance
Daily Current Affairs

National Land Monetisation Corporation (NLMC)

Why in news? Government will soon hire the National Land Monetisation Corporation (NLMC) chief.


  • NLMC was announced in the 2021-22 Union Budget.
  • NLMC is a wholly owned government company established as Special Purpose Vehicle to carry out monetisation of government and public sector assets in form of surplus, unused or underused land assets.
  • It also acts as an advisory body and supports in identifying CPSEs surplus non-core assets to monetise them, maximising value realisation.
  • It falls under the administrative jurisdiction of Ministry of Finance.
  • The new company will have an initial authorised share capital of ₹5,000 crore and paid-up share capital of ₹150 crore.
  • Composition:
    • The Board of Directors of NLMC will comprise senior Central Government officers and eminent experts to enable professional operations and management of the company.
    • The chairman, non-government directors of the NLMC will be appointed through a merit-based selection process.


Keywords: General Studies – 3 Mobilization of Resources, Fiscal policy, Government Policies & Interventions
Daily Current Affairs

Turkey - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, President of Turkey was re-elected to the post of President.


  • It lies partly in Asia and partly in Europe.
  • It is bordered by eight countries: Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east, and Iraq and Syria to the southeast.
  • Turkey has a coastline along the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Egypt, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine.
  • Ankara is the capital city of Turkey.
  • Largest city and seaport is Istanbul.
  • It is located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.
  • Geographical features
    • Major River: Euphrates, Tigris and Kizilirmak.
    • Highest Point: Mount Ararat.
    • Important Straits: Bosphorus strait, Dardanallaise strait.


Keywords: General Studies –1 Geography
Daily Current Affairs

Evergreening of Loans - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor raised red flags over banks adopting innovative methods for evergreening of loans – covering up the real status of stressed loans of corporates.


  • Evergreening of loans refers to a practice where banks or lenders provide additional funds or take other measures to artificially sustain a loan that is not being repaid as scheduled.
  • A form of zombie lending, it is typically a temporary fix for a bank to avoid classification of a loan as a non-Performing asset (NPA).
  • Methods used by banks for Evergreening of loans:
    • Bringing two lenders together to evergreen each other’s loans by sale and buyback of loans or debt instruments.
    • Good borrowers are being persuaded to enter into structured deals with stressed borrowers.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Economy
Daily Current Affairs

Lightweight Payments System - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has conceptualised a lightweight payment and settlements system, which it is calling a “bunker” equivalent of digital payments.


  • It can be operated from anywhere by a bare minimum staff in exigencies such as natural calamities or war.
  • The infrastructure for this system will be independent of the technologies that underlie the existing systems of payments such as UPI, NEFT, and RTGS.
  • The system operates on minimalistic hardware and software and is activated only when needed.
  • Benefits:
  • Such a lightweight and portable payment system could ensure near zero downtime of the payment and settlement system in the country and keep the liquidity pipeline of the economy alive and intact by facilitating uninterrupted functioning of essential payment services.
  • By implementing a lightweight system as a backup, the RBI aims to ensure that individuals and institutions can continue to make payments during emergencies or disruptions to the conventional payment infrastructure.
  • It serves as a precautionary measure to be prepared for extreme situations and maintain the continuity of financial transactions.

Difference between UPI and lightweight system:

  • The key difference lies in the resilience and availability of the two systems.
  • UPI and other conventional systems prioritise handling large transaction volumes and require a stable and robust infrastructure.
  • On the other hand, the lightweight system is designed to operate even in volatile and extreme conditions when regular payment systems may not be accessible.


Keywords: General Studies –3 Economy
Daily Current Affairs

Gangetic Dolphins - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, Two Gangetic dolphins found dead in Bihar in the last 3 days.


  • The Ganges River dolphin was officially discovered in 1801.
  • It was recognised as the National Aquatic Animal in 2009, by the Government of India.
  • The Gangetic River dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is one of the four freshwater dolphin species in the world.
    • The other three are the baiji, now likely extinct from the Yangtze River in China, the bhulan of the Indus in Pakistan and the boto of the Amazon River in Latin America.
  • Ganges river dolphins live in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu River systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh.
    • The distribution range of the Ganges River dolphins in India covers seven states namely, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • The Ganges River dolphin can only live in freshwater and is essentially blind.
    • They hunt by emitting ultrasonic sounds, which bounces off of fish and other prey, enabling them to “see” an image in their mind. They are also called ‘susu’.
  • It is a reliable indicator of the health of the entire river ecosystem.
  • Conservation Status:
    • IUCN: Endangered.
    • Indian Wildlife (Protection), Act 1972: Schedule I.
    • CITES: Appendix I (most endangered).
    • Convention on Migratory Species (CMS): Appendix II


Keywords: General Studies –3 Environment, Conservation
Keywords: General Studies –3 Economy, infrastructure
Daily Editorial Analysis

India’s diaspora decides - Edukemy Current Affairs

Exam View: Indian Diaspora; History between India and its diaspora; Structural changes in India’s relations with its diaspora.

Context: Rahul Gandhi’s engagement with the diaspora in New York on Saturday comes less than three weeks before Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrives for a state visit to the White House. The PM is also expected to address a diaspora event in the US.


  • The diaspora is where India’s domestic politics intersects with foreign policy.
  • Clichéd notion: The members of the diaspora served as India’s unofficial ambassadors to the world.
  • Reality: The diaspora carries within it all the fault-lines of the Indian society that find expression in their lives abroad.
    • India’s internal gulf is bound to envelop the diaspora in the run-up to the 2024 general elections.

Decoding the editorial:

History between India and its diaspora

  • During the struggle for independence in the early 20th century, the Indian National Congress led the mobilisation of the diaspora.
    • Besides the Congressmen, socialists of various shades, and the communists developed significant connections to Indians abroad as well as progressive forces around the world.
    • As the structures of these parties atrophied, their internationalist engagement became erratic and ineffective.
  • The early 1990s also saw a more fundamental effort to mobilise the US political and business classes to support broader Indian interests.
    • The Narasimha Rao government galvanised the Indian diaspora in the US to fend off the anti-India campaigns organised by Pakistan in Washington.
    • It was the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government that gave the engagement with the diaspora a significant new twist by altering the narrative of “brain drain” into one of “political and cultural gain” for “Mother India”.
    • Then came the annual Pravasi Bharatiya Divas.
  • Rallies with the diaspora have become an integral part of PM Modi’s engagements abroad.
    • Rescuing and bringing back Indians caught in danger zones around the world also became a high priority.

Structural changes in India’s relations with its diaspora

  • Global footprint of India is growing bigger by the day.
    • According to the United Nations, the Indian diaspora is the largest in the world.
    • The current government is promoting “migration and mobility” agreements that will facilitate more substantive flows abroad of Indian scientists, engineers, doctors, accountants, managers, and bankers.
  • The diaspora is getting richer.
    • It contributes in myriad ways to the Indian economy, from hard currency remittances to the air travel market, from consuming Indian goods to entertainment.

  • The Indian diaspora is getting active in the politics of the host nations.
    • The prime minister of Britain Rishi Sunak and US Vice-President Kamala Harris are just two examples of the widespread Indian successes in electoral politics in the UK, US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
  • The diaspora’s engagement with Indian politics has grown.
    • Over the last few decades, the Indian diaspora has graduated from the passive role of extending support to presumed collective Indian goals or individual commitments to community development at home.
    • The leaders of the diaspora mobilise their local political leaders and officials to take up their real and perceived grievances against Delhi.
  • Meddling in domestic politics of host nations.
    • This is already a problem with China, where the party-state is extending its authority into other sovereignties through the diaspora.
  • The South Asian fragmentation.
    • The migrants from Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, the South Asian diaspora add up to 45 million.
    • The resurgence of religious, ethnic, and caste solidarities that overwhelm the rich collective inheritance of the Subcontinent, has been troubling.
    • Unconstrained by the nationalist framework at home, the other identities acquire much power.

Practice Mains Question


Keywords: GS Paper-2: Effect of policies & politics of countries on India’s Interests, Indian Diaspora.
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