Monday, 9th January 2023

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot


Why SC order on abortion is not helping women?


What are the obscenity laws in India?


Sagol Kangjei - Edukemy Current Affairs


Aspirational Block Programme - Edukemy Current Affairs


New Umbrella Entity (NUE) network


One Week One Lab Campaign - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Terms & Concepts


Decline in Kala-azar case - Edukemy Current Affairs


Classical Language Status - Edukemy Current Affairs


Value Added Tax (VAT) - Edukemy Current Affairs


BEE Star rating - Edukemy Current Affairs


Parliamentary Secretaries - Edukemy Current Affairs


M-sand - Edukemy Current Affairs


Greenfield Project and Brownfield Project


Institutes of Eminence - Edukemy Current Affairs

3   Editorial of the day


The judicial pendency question: How to lighten the court’s load

4   News Capsules


Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas Convention


Digital India Awards 2022 - Edukemy Current Affairs


Purple Fest: Celebrating Diversity


Kangla Nongpok Thong - Edukemy Current Affairs


Zebrafish - Edukemy Current Affairs


Parshuram Kund Festival - Edukemy Current Affairs


Ganga Vilas - Edukemy Current Affairs

5   Case Study of the Day


Cancel Sri Lanka’s debt, global scholars tell creditors

.... Show less Show more
News Snapshot

Why SC order on abortion is not helping women?


Many hospitals and clinics are still refusing to perform abortions for unmarried women after 20 weeks, citing concerns about violating the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (MTP).

What's the issue?

Despite the 2022 September Supreme Court legal ruling that allows unmarried women in India to have an abortion up until 24 weeks into their pregnancy, it is still difficult for them to obtain one. Many women are having trouble finding a place to have the abortion.

Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act:

It was enacted in 1971 to provide for the termination of pregnancy in certain cases and to regulate the facilities for the performance of such termination.

  • Rule 3(2)(b) of the MTP (Amendment) Rules, 2021 does not permit single women to abort after 20 weeks.

What's good about this law?

  1. The MTP Act allows for the legal and safe termination of pregnancy in certain circumstances, which can help protect the health and well-being of women.
  2. The Act provides for the availability of trained medical professionals and facilities for the safe and hygienic performance of MTPs.
  3. The Act allows for the termination of pregnancies in cases of rape, incest, contraceptive failure, or when the continuation of the pregnancy poses a risk to the life or physical or mental health of the woman.
  4. The Act allows for the termination of pregnancies up to 20 weeks of gestation, which can give women more time to make a decision about whether to continue a pregnancy.

Issues associated with the law:

  • Some people may object to the MTP Act on moral or religious grounds.
  • There may be barriers to accessing MTP services, such as lack of availability in certain areas or lack of information about the availability of services.
  • There may be stigma or discrimination associated with seeking an MTP, which can discourage some women from seeking the care they need.
  • The Act does not allow for MTPs after 20 weeks of gestation, except in exceptional circumstances, which may not be sufficient for all women.
  • MTP amendment has created a new institution called “medical board”. This board consists of a gynaecologist, paediatrician, radiologist and so on. “Gynaecologist is the only member from this board who by virtue of training, qualification and experience can take a final decision.

What needs to be done?

The government will have to step up to promote safe abortions irrespective of the fact that the woman is married or not. This can include putting up awareness boards outside hospitals citing the judgment.

Sources: The Hindu

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Separation of Powers.
News Snapshot

What are the obscenity laws in India?


A BJP leader has sought action against TV actress Urfi Javed. Urfi Javed is allegedly spewing obscenity on Mumbai's streets.

What is obscenity?

In India, obscenity is a criminal offense under the Indian Penal Code.

  • According to Section 292 of the Code, any person who sells, publishes, or distributes an obscene book, picture, or other object can be punished with imprisonment and/or a fine.
  • Section 294 prohibits obscene acts and songs in public spaces. The maximum punishment for the person convicted under this charge is three-month jail and a fine. With the advent of the digital age, laws were made to criminalise obscene conduct on the internet also.
  • Section 67 of the Information Technology Act says that anyone who publishes or transmits obscene material in electronic form can be punished.


The definition of what constitutes obscenity is somewhat broad and includes any material that tends to "deprave and corrupt" the minds of those who are likely to read, see, or hear it.

In determining whether something is obscene, the following factors may be considered:

  1. Whether the material appeals to the prurient interest (i.e., an unhealthy interest in sexual matters).
  2. Whether the material depicts or describes sexual conduct in an explicit or graphic manner.
  3. Whether the material lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

What's the issue now?

There has been some debate and controversy over the interpretation and enforcement of obscenity laws, particularly with regard to artistic expression and freedom of speech.

Judiciary’s view on what constitutes as obscene:

Until 2014, the judiciary used the Hicklin test to determine if something is obscene or not.

  • The Hicklin Test was established in English Law after the case of Regina vs Hicklin (1868). According to it, a work can be considered obscene if any portion of it is found to “deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such influences”.

In 2014, the apex court did away with the Hicklin Test while hearing the case of Aveek Sarkar & Anr vs State Of West Bengal and Anr.


Sources: Indian Express.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Governance related issues.
News Snapshot

Sagol Kangjei - Edukemy Current Affairs


A 122-foot-tall statue of a polo player riding a Manipur pony was recently unveiled in Imphal.

  • Modern polo is said to have originated from Sagol Kangjei, a sport indigenous to Manipur.

What is Sagol Kangjei?

Sagol Kangjei is an ancient version of polo that has been played in the Indian state of Manipur for centuries.

  • In Manipuri mythology, the Manipuri pony was regarded to have descended from “Samadon Ayangba” the winged steed of Lord Margjing, one of the guardian deities of Manipur.

Features of the game:

  • The game is played on horseback with a ball made of bamboo, and the goal is to score as many goals as possible by hitting the ball through a set of poles.
  • Sagol Kangjei is considered an integral part of the state's cultural identity.
  • The game is played by both men and women, and it is an important social event that brings communities together.

What's the issue now?

Sagol Kangjei is facing challenges due to the loss of traditional playing fields and the difficulty in finding trained horses and riders.

  • Efforts are being made to revive and promote the game, including the formation of a Sagol Kangjei Association and the inclusion of the game in school curricula.


Sources: Indian Express

Keywords: GS Paper 1, Art and Culture.
News Snapshot

Aspirational Block Programme - Edukemy Current Affairs


The Centre has launched the Aspirational Blocks Programme (ABP).

  • The ABP is similar to the Aspirational District Programme, which aims to improve performance in districts lagging on development indicators.


  • 500 blocks across states have been identified for the ABP.
  • NITI Aayog will release quarterly rankings of these blocks based on their performance in sectors such as health, education, and nutrition.
  • The first ranking will be released in April.

About the Aspirational District Programme:

  • It focuses on improving 115 districts in India that are affected by poor socio-economic indicators.
  • The programme is anchored by NITI Aayog and individual Ministries also play a role.
  • The ADP focuses on 5 thematic areas: health and nutrition, education, agriculture and water resources, financial inclusion and skill development, and basic infrastructure.

The strategy of the programme includes convergence, collaboration, and competition.


Sources: Indian Express

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Development and related issues.
News Snapshot

New Umbrella Entity (NUE) network


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has put on hold the licensing process for the New Umbrella Entity (NUE) network, a fintech institution planned as a rival to the National Payments.


Six groupings, which included Facebook, Google, Amazon, Flipkart and others, had applied for NUE licences and all of them have fallen short of the RBI's expectations.

What is NUE?

  • An NUE is a non-profit entity that will set up, manage, and operate new payment systems in the retail space, such as ATMs, white-label PoS, Aadhaar-based payments, and remittance services.
  • The NUE will be a company incorporated in India under the Companies Act, 2013 and will be owned by Indian citizens with at least three years of experience in the payments industry.
  • Foreign companies can own a maximum of 25% of the NUE, and the entity will have a minimum paid-up capital of INR 500 crore, with no single promoter group holding more than 40% of the capital.
  • The NUE will have to follow corporate governance norms and the "fit and proper" criteria for appointments to the board.



Keywords: GS Paper 2, Economy and issues related to planning.
News Snapshot

One Week One Lab Campaign - Edukemy Current Affairs


It is a campaign that aims to promote the use of scientific labs and encourage the adoption of good laboratory practices.

  • The campaign is organized annually by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) in India, and it involves the participation of various research institutes, universities, and industrial labs across the country.


The main goal of the OWOL campaign is to create awareness about the importance of scientific research and innovation, and to encourage the general public to engage with science and technology.

  • To achieve this, the campaign organizes various activities, such as lab visits, science demonstrations, and talks by experts, that are open to the public.

"Adopt a Lab" initiative:

One of the key features of the OWOL campaign is the "Adopt a Lab" initiative, which allows individuals and organizations to support a scientific lab of their choice.

  • This can involve providing financial assistance, donating equipment, or volunteering time and expertise.
  • The "Adopt a Lab" initiative helps to ensure that scientific labs have the resources and support they need to carry out their research and development activities.


The OWOL campaign has been successful in promoting the value of scientific research and in engaging the general public with science and technology.

  • It has also helped to foster a culture of innovation and collaboration within the scientific community.
  • By providing an opportunity for researchers to interact with the public and by supporting the work of scientific labs, the OWOL campaign is contributing to the development of a more scientifically literate and innovative society.

Keywords: GS Paper 3, Developments in Science and Technology.
Terms & Concepts

Decline in Kala-azar case - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: According to the union Health minister, there has been a 98.7 per cent decline in cases of Kala-azar from 44,533 in 2007 to 834 in 2022 in India.

What is Kala Azar?

  • The Kala Azar disease is also known as Indian leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leishmania infection, dumdum fever, black sickness, and black fever.
  • It is a chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease of the viscera (the internal organs, particularly the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes) due to infection by the parasite called Leishmania donovani.
  • Its Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen.

Key Points:

  • Kala Azar is the 2nd largest parasitic killer in the world after Malaria and results in a 95% fatality rate if the patients are not treated.
  • This disease is considered the second deadliest parasitic killer in the world after Malaria.
  • Kala-azar is endemic to the Indian subcontinentin 119 districts in four countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal).
  • It is endemic to four states in India - Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • It is a treatable disease with anti-leishmanial medicines.

Step taken to eliminate KALA Azar:

  • Eliminationis is defined as reducing the annual incidence of Kala Azar (KA) to less than 1 case per 10,000 people at the sub-district level.
  • National Kala Azar Elimination Programme; National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP).
  • India is committed to eliminating Kalaa-Azar from the country by 2023.


Source: Down to Earth

Keywords: GS Paper 1, Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, Personalities, issues.
Terms & Concepts

Classical Language Status - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: Recently, Chief Minister announced the constitution of a high-level committee to advise and guide the government on the issue of conducting comprehensive research into Kannada as a classical language and related issues.

‘Classical languages’ in India:

  • Currently, six languages enjoy the ‘Classical’ status: Tamil (declared in 2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013), and Odia (2014).
  • All the Classical Languages are the part of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.

The criteria for conferring the classical language status:

  1. High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years;
  2. A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers;
  3. The literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community;
  4. The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.” 

How are the Classical languages promoted?

Once a language is notified as a Classical language, the Human Resource and Development Ministry provides certain benefits to promote it:

  1. Two major annual international awards for scholars of eminence in classical Indian languages
  2. A Centre of Excellence for studies in Classical Languages is set up
  3. The University Grants Commission is requested to create, to start with at least in the Central Universities, a certain number of Professional Chairs for the Classical Languages so declared.”


Source: The Hindu, Indian Express

Keywords: GS Paper1, Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Terms & Concepts

Value Added Tax (VAT) - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: The Himachal Pradesh government’s recent decision of hiking the ‘Value Added Tax’ (VAT) on diesel has been criticized.

What is VAT?

Value-added tax (VAT) is a type of indirect tax levied on goods and services for value added at every point of production or distribution cycle, starting from raw materials and going all the way to the final retail purchase.

  • Because the consumer bears the entire tax, VAT is also a consumption tax.
  • VAT was introduced on April 1, 2005.

How it works?

  • Under it, the amount of value addition is first identified at each stage, and then tax is levied on the same.
  • Ultimately, the end consumer has to pay the complete VAT while buying goods; buyers at earlier stages of production receive reimbursements of tax they have paid.
  • Each state has its own VAT laws for proper implementation and levying.

Why was VAT introduced?

  • To eliminate the presence of double taxation, and
  • To eliminate the cascading effect from the then existing sales tax structure.

What is Cascading effect:

A cascading effect is when there is tax levied on a product at every step of the sale. The tax is levied on a value which includes tax paid by the previous buyer, so the consumer ends up paying tax on already-paid tax.

VAT and GST:

  • To completely eliminate the cascading effect of taxes and to make the indirect tax structure simpler, the union government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in July 2017.
  • Though GST replaced VAT on most goods, some goods are still not covered under the new regime.
  • VAT continues to be the tax levied on such goods.


Source: The Hindu, Business Standard

Keywords: GS Paper3, Indian Economy
Terms & Concepts

BEE Star rating - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: Ceiling fans would get costlier as the category has come under the ambit of mandatory star labelling from January 1, as per the revised Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) norms.

What is the BEE Star rating?

  • BEE ratings (Bureau of Energy Efficiency Ratings) refer to the ratings that show how much electricity your appliance consumes in a year.
  • Each appliance gets between one and five stars, with five stars meaning your appliance is extremely efficient and is keeping your electricity consumption in check.

Significance of the rating:

  • The Bureau of Energy Efficiency star label is a crucial indicator and should be considered before deciding to buy a certain electronic appliance in India.
  • It helps by ensuring energy efficiency is achieved to the maximum extent possible.
  • This label helps consumers to save money and energy by choosing the most energy-efficient products.


Keywords: GS Paper 2, Government policies
Terms & Concepts

Parliamentary Secretaries - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: Recently, In Himachal Pradesh’s Cabinet six legislators were appointed as Chief Parliamentary Secretaries (CPS).

About the Parliamentary Secretary:

  • Parliamentary secretaries are the members of the last category of the council of ministers.
  • They have no department under their control.
  • They are attached to the senior ministers and assist them in the discharge of their parliamentary duties.

House Duties:

  • The Parliamentary Secretary in the House plays the role of liaison between the ministers, senators and other House members.
  • They help in strengthening the contacts within the government caucus.
  • They may be held responsible for answering policy questions in the absence of a minister from the House.

Other Roles and Responsibilities:

  • Preparation of Statements by Members.
  • During adjournment proceedings, they may speak on behalf of a minister.
  • They may also act on the behalf of a cabinet minister in some circumstances.

Limitations on Parliamentary Secretaries:

  • While the Parliamentary Secretaries have a number of responsibilities and rights, they are not involved in some major decisions.
  • They may not represent government bills and are ineligible to introduce their own private Member's motions or bills.

Parliamentary Secretaries in states:

  • Punjab, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh are some of the states where the Parliament Secretaries are appointed.


Source: The Hindu

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Appointment to various Constitutional posts.
Terms & Concepts

M-sand - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: Coal India Limited (CIL) has started a facility in West Bengal to produce manufactured sand (M-Sand), the first such initiative in the State.

What is M-Sand?

Manufactured sand (M-Sand) is an alternative for river sand. It is produced from hard granite stone by crushing.

  • The size of manufactured sand (M-Sand) is less than 4.75mm.
  • Due to fast growing construction industry, the demand for sand has increased tremendously, causing deficiency of suitable river sand in most part of the word.

Advantages of Manufactured Sand (M-Sand):

  • It is well graded in the required proportion.
  • It does not contain organic and soluble compound that affects the setting time and properties of cement, thus the required strength of concrete can be maintained.
  • It does not have the presence of impurities such as clay, dust and silt coatings. Thus, increased quality and durability of concrete.
  • M-Sand is obtained from specific hard rock (granite) using the state-of-the-art international technology; thus, the required property of sand is obtained.
  • Modern and imported machines are used to produce M-Sand to ensure required grading zone for the sand.


  • Sand is one of the major geological resources of the country and M sand is a form of artificial sand manufactured by crushing large hard stones into fine particles.
  • Conversion of overburden material into sand is a step to ensure environmental sustainability.


Source: The Hindu.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Appointment to various Constitutional posts.
Terms & Concepts

Greenfield Project and Brownfield Project

  • Context: The University Grants Commission is proposing new guidelines to allow the entry of foreign universities in India.
  • Greenfield and brownfield investments are two types of foreign direct investment.
  • In a greenfield investment:
    1. Parent company opens a subsidiary in another country.
    2. Instead of buying an existing facility in that country, the company begins a new venture by constructing new facilities in that country.
    3. They entail the completion of offices, accommodations for the company's staff and management, as well as distribution centers.
  • Brownfield investments:
    1. When an entity purchases or leases an existing facility to begin new production, it is considered brownfield project.
    2. Companies may consider this approach efficient since it saves time and funds.


Keywords: GS III, economy
Terms & Concepts

Institutes of Eminence - Edukemy Current Affairs

  • Context: The University Grants Commission is proposing new guidelines to allow the entry of foreign universities in India.
  • Institutions of Eminence scheme has been launched in order to implement the commitment of the Government to empower the Higher Educational Institutions and to help them become world class teaching and research institutions.
  • Ten public and ten private institutions are to be identified to emerge as world-class Teaching and Research Institutions.
  • This will enhance affordable access to high quality education for ordinary Indians.


  • Institutions of Eminence: Objectives
    1. To provide for higher education leading to excellence and innovations
    2. To engage in areas of specialization to make distinctive contributions to the objectives of the university education system
    3. To provide for high quality teaching and research and for the advancement of knowledge and its dissemination
    4. Improved global ranking through efficient concept delivery and pedagogy
  • Criteria
    1. Both public and private institutes are ranked by the UGC based on QS World University Rankings.
    2. In case of tie, National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) is used as a tie-breaker for private universities.


Keywords: GS II, Education: Govt initiatives
Editorial of the day

The judicial pendency question: How to lighten the court’s load

Context: India has about 21 judges for every million people; the government recently informed the Rajya Sabha.

Editorial analysis:

  • In the Indian court system, there are staggeringly high number of cases present that constitute “pendency” or cases that are undecided.
  • India has a terribly low number of judges serving a very large population.
  • India has about 21 judges for every million people, while China, by contrast, has about 159 judges for every million people.
  • The government has taken steps to address the shortage of judges, including increasing the number of judges in the higher courts and setting up fast track courts.

State of the pendency of cases in Indian Courts:

  • As of May 2022, over 4.7 crore cases are pending in courts across different levels of the judiciary.
  • Of them, 87.4% are pending in subordinate courts, 12.4% in High Courts, while nearly 1,82,000 cases have been pending for over 30 years.
  • An analysis of data on the National Judicial Data Grid, a database of the Department of Justice, shows that courts saw an increase of over 27% in pendency between December 2019 and April 2022.

Action taken to Reduce the Pendency of cases:

LIMBS project:

  • In 2015, the government started LIMBS project (Legal Information Management Briefing System) that intends to connect 55 ministries and their departments for litigation management.
  • Tt seeks to connect the various limbs of governance of our state.
  • As on January 3, LIMBS shows that there are 6,20,000 cases involving the government pending before the court system.

Action Plan to reduce Government Litigation:

  • On June 13, 2017, the department of justice released an “Action Plan to reduce Government Litigation”.
  • The action plan was in response to the fact that 46 per cent of the total pending cases in the court system pertains to the government.

Law Commission of India report:

  • In 2018, the Law Commission of India, in its 230th report, noted that the government is the biggest litigant in the system.

National Litigation Policy, 2010:

  • The government’s own “status note” on the National Litigation Policy (NLP), 2010 also find out the Government as the biggest litigant in the court system.
  • The status report to the NLP, 2010, was based on the recognition that the government and its various agencies are the predominant litigants in the courts and tribunals in the country.
  • it aimed to transform the government into an efficient and responsible litigant.

Major reason of the delay?

  • The shortage of judges and the impact of the pandemic are considered the top reasons for high pendency of cases, adding to the burden of the judiciary.
  • The sanctioned strength of judicial officers in subordinate and High Courts saw a gradual increase with the population explosion in India.
  • However, vacancies increased from 18% to 21% across courts between 2010 and 2020, an analysis by PRS Legislative Research reveals.
  • By April 2021, the SC had five vacancies, while 411 of 1,080 positions (38%) were vacant in High Courts.

How can the Government Litigation be controlled?

  • The service matters should not be normally appealed;
  • Only cases which involve questions of constitutional interpretation should be pursued all the way till the Supreme Court.
  • The government should implement this reform suggested by its own policymakers.

Need for to reduce government litigation:

  • To reduce the burden on the courts is a prime reason to reduce litigation that involves the government.
  • As Vidhi 2018 notes, the costs involved in pursuing litigation eat into public funds.
  • And a court battle between the individual and the state is also a battle of unequals.

Way forward:

  • What we need to address the overburdened court system is for the largest litigant (The government) to use the court system more efficiently and cautiously.
  • This would be a tremendous start to addressing the problem of pendency.
  • Appointing more judges would be a massive step to helping more dispute resolution as well.

Source: Indian express.

Keywords: GS Paper 2, Governance
News Capsules

Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas Convention

Context: The 17th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD) Convention 2023 is being organized in partnership with the Madhya Pradesh Government from 08-10 January 2023 in Indore.

The theme of this PBD Convention is "Diaspora: Reliable partners for India’s progress in Amrit Kaal”.



  • Pravasi Bharatiya Divas is observed on 9 January to mark the contribution of the Overseas Indian community in the development of India.
  • PBD Convention is the flagship event of the Ministry of External Affairs.
  • Since 2003, PBD conventions are being held every year. In 2015 it was revised and was decided to be celebrated every two years.

Why January 9?

  • January 9 was chosen as the day to celebrate this occasion since it was on this day in 1915 that Mahatma Gandhi, the greatest Pravasi, returned to India from South Africa, led India’s freedom struggle and changed the lives of Indians forever.


Source: PIB

Keywords: Prelims specific, Important events
News Capsules

Digital India Awards 2022 - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: recently, The President of India, Smt Droupadi Murmu presented the seventh edition of the Digital India Awards.

  • Digital India Awards (DIA) are instituted under the aegis of National Portal of India which provides single-window access to information & services being offered by Indian government entities at all levels.
  • The awards recognize and honor individuals and organizations that have made significant contributions to the Digital India initiative.
  • DIA 2022 aims to inspire and motivate not only the government entities but also start-ups and grassroots level digital initiatives in fulfilling the Digital India vision.

Digital India initiative:

  • The Digital India initiative was launched in 2015 by the Government of India to promote the use of digital technologies in various sectors such as healthcare, education, agriculture, and financial services
  • The initiative aims to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.

Source: PIB

Keywords: Prelims specific, Awards and Honour
News Capsules

Purple Fest: Celebrating Diversity

Context: India's first-of-its-kind inclusivity, 'Purple Fest: Celebrating Diversity' began in a glorious ceremony in Goa.

  • 'Purple Fest’ is the first-ever inclusive festival in the Goa for persons with disabilities (PwDs).
  • The festival’s aim is to show to all how to bring inclusivity in our society, and how to support one another.
  • In recent days, purple colour has been associated with disability and denotes the contribution of a wider community of disabled people workforce.

Source: PIB

Keywords: Prelims specific, Festival
News Capsules

Kangla Nongpok Thong - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: The ‘Kangla Nongpok Thong’ built over the Imphal River in Manipur was inaugurated by Union Home Minister, recently.

  • It was destroyed during colonial rule, there is a belief that due to its closure Manipur has suffered a lot.
  • The re-opening of this sacred bridge will bring more peace, prosperity and unity.

Source: PIB

Keywords: Prelims specific, infrastructure
News Capsules

Zebrafish - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: A protein called "GDF5" was found in zebrafish that can help regenerate aged discs in human vertebrae.

  • This protein is important for maintaining the structure and function of cartilage.
  • In a study, researchers administered GDF5 to mice with degenerative disc disease, and found that it improved the structure and function of the discs.

key facts about Zebrafish:

  • The zebrafish is a tropical fish native to southeast Asia, mostly found in the paddy fields and even in stagnant water and streams.
  • It is about 2.5 cm to 4 cm long.
  • It attracts developmental biologists due to its adequate regeneration capacity of almost all its organs, including the brain, heart, eye, and spinal cord.
  • It has a similar genetic structure (around 70%) to humans.
  • IUCN Red List Status: Least concerned.


Source: livemint

Keywords: GS Paper 3, Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
News Capsules

Parshuram Kund Festival - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: The Parshuram Kund Festival to be held in Arunachal Pradesh from 12th to 16th January.

  • Parasuram Kund is a Hindu pilgrimage site located in Arunachal Pradesh, India.
  • It is believed to be the site where the Hindu sage Parasurama, an avatar of Vishnu, meditated and performed penance.
  • The site is home to a temple dedicated to Parasurama and a natural hot spring.
  • Pilgrims visit the site to take a dip in the hot spring, which is believed to have healing properties.

Parshuram Kund

  • Parshuram Kund is situated within the Kamlang Reserve Forest area in Lohit District of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The Kund is surrounded by dense forest of Ruddraksha trees.
  • The site is also known for its scenic surroundings, including the Lohit River and the Mishmi Hills.


Source: newsonair

Keywords: Prelims specific, Festival
News Capsules

Ganga Vilas - Edukemy Current Affairs

Context: MV Ganga Vilas- set to be the world's longest river cruise- will be launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Key points:

  • The MV Ganga Vilas is a river cruise that travels along the Ganges River in India.
  • The luxury cruise will cover over 3,200 km across 27 river systems in five Indian states and Bangladesh.
  • The tour of the cruise would be around 51 days, covering over 50 tourist spots including the World Heritage Sights, National Parks, river Ghats, and major cities like Patna, Sahibganj, Kolkata, Bangladesh's capital Dhaka and Guwahati.
  • Currently, Eight river cruise vessels are operational between Kolkata and Varanasi while cruise movement is also operating on National Waterways 2 (Brahmaputra).

Source: Hindustan times.

Keywords: Prelims specific, infrastructure
Case Study of the Day

Cancel Sri Lanka’s debt, global scholars tell creditors


A group of global scholars have called on the international community to cancel Sri Lanka's debt.

  • The scholars argue that the country's debt burden is unsustainable and that debt cancellation is necessary to support economic development and poverty reduction.
  • Sri Lanka's debt has reached unsustainable levels, with the country's debt-to-GDP ratio standing at around 80%.
  • The scholars also call on creditors to support the Sri Lankan government's efforts to reform the economy and to implement policies that promote inclusive growth.
  • The call for debt cancellation comes as the Sri Lankan government is seeking a loan of around $1.5 billion from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to address its economic challenges.
  • The scholars argue that debt cancellation, rather than additional loans, is the best way to support the Sri Lankan economy and to enable the country to achieve sustainable development.

Keywords: GS paper 4, Ethics in International Relations.
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