Thursday, 29th September 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

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India reduces Child Mortality Milestones

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Anti-Microbial Resistance - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Navigation with Indian Constellation (NaVIC)

2   Terms & Concepts

●  

Nord Stream Pipeline - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Mission Integrated Biorefineries

●  

Flex Fuel Vehicles - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Make in India completes 8 years

3   Editorial of the day

●  

India's Garbage Disposal: Solutions - IE

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Pitching India as a signature destination: The Hindu

4   Case Study of the Day

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Remembering Bhagat Singh for his Sacrifices and Courage

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News Snapshot

India reduces Child Mortality Milestones


In News

  • Statistical Report 2020 for the Sample Registration System (SRS) has been released by the Registrar General of India (RGI).
    • According to the research, India's infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and neonatal mortality rate have all gradually decreased (NMR).

Key Findings of the Report:

  • Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR):
    • It has shown significant decline of 3 points (Annual Decline Rate: 8.6%) from 2019 (32 per 1000 live births in 2020 against 35 per 1000 live births in 2019). It varies from 36 in rural areas to 21 in urban areas.
    • U5MR for Female is higher (33) than male (31). There has been a decline of 4 points in male U5MR and 3 points in female U5MR during the corresponding period.
    • Highest decline of U5MR is observed in the State of Uttar Pradesh (5 points) and Karnataka (5 points).

  • Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):
    • It has registered 2-point decline to 28 per 1000 live births in 2020 from 30 per 1000 live births in 2019 (Annual Decline Rate: 6.7%).
    • The Rural-Urban difference has narrowed to 12 points (Urban 19, Rural-31).
    • No gender differential has observed in 2020 (Male -28, Female - 28).

  • Neonatal Mortality Rate
    • It has also declined by 2 points from 22 per 1000 live births in 2019 to 20 per 1000 live births in 2020 (Annual Decline Rate: 9.1%). It ranges from 12 in urban areas to 23 in rural areas.

About Under 5 Mortality Rate

  • The mortality rate of children aged under 5 years is the probability that a child born in a specific year or period will die before reaching the age of 5 years, subject to the age-specific mortality rates of that period.
  • Infant Mortality Rates
  • Infant Mortality Rate or IMR is the number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per one thousand live births

Neonatal Mortality Rate

  • Number of deaths during the first 28 completed days of life per 1000 live births in a given year or other period.

Way Forward

  • Adopting preventive measures is urgently needed to significantly accelerate the progress being made in avoiding child deaths.
  • Reaching high coverage of quality antenatal care, competent treatment at birth, postnatal care for mother and baby, and care of small and unwell babies can prevent newborn deaths.

Content Source Link:

  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1861710 

Image Source Link:

  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1861710

 

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Keywords: GS paper II, Health, Government Policies & Interventions, Human Resource
News Snapshot

Anti-Microbial Resistance - Edukemy Current Affairs


In news

A recent report by the World Health Organisation (WHO), has highlighted that Refugees and migrant populations are particularly vulnerable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR), due to the poor access to healthcare in the backdrop of an increased probability of infections.

About the findings in report

  • More than 27 million people across the world die every year due to AMR.
  • The report underlines that, maintaining the ability to treat serious infections requires a balance between equitable access to and appropriate use of existing and new antimicrobial medicines for all.
  • International refugees and migrant populations have seen an increase in AMR, accounting for 281 million, or about 3.5% of the global population, in 2020.
  • Long waiting times to consult a doctor, limited capacity of health services, high healthcare costs, inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and lack of translated materials or interpretation services are the key barriers to accessing and using antibiotics across the world, the analysis revealed.

About Antimicrobial Resistance

  • Antimicrobials, including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitic are medicines used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals and plants.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines, making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.
  • In India, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has found severe disease-causing bacteria to be resistant to top class antibiotics in 87.5% of hospitalised patients tested for antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

Measures taken to contain AMR in India

  • National programme on AMR containment, was launched during 2012-17, under which AMR Surveillance Network has been strengthened by establishing labs in State Medical College.

  • National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (NAP-AMR) focusing on One Health approach was launched in 2017, with the aim of involving various stakeholder ministries/departments. In line with NAP-AMR, states have also launched their action plans.
  • AMR Research & International Collaboration, by ICMR to develop new drugs /medicines through international collaborations in order to strengthen medical research in AMR.
  • Initiatives to control overuse/misuse of antibiotics
    • ICMR has initiated antibiotic stewardship program (AMSP) on a pilot project basis in 20 tertiary care hospitals across India to control misuse and overuse of antibiotics in hospital wards and ICUs.
    • ICMR worked in collaboration with Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fisheries and the DCGI to ban use of Colistin as growth promoter in animal feed in poultry.
  • Further, Media material has been developed to create awareness among various stakeholders regarding AMR and appropriate use of antibiotics.             

Source:

  • Refugees, migrant populations particularly vulnerable to antimicrobial resistance: WHO
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Measures Taken to Rising Anti-Microbial Resistance in The Country 

Image source:

  • https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2020.629120/full
  • https://www.uicc.org/what-we-do/thematic-areas-work/antimicrobial-resistance-and-its-impact-cancer-care

 

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Keywords: GS2: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Antimicrobial resistance.
News Snapshot

Navigation with Indian Constellation (NaVIC)


In news:

  • According to a directive from the Indian government, new smartphones sold in India starting in 2019 must have the NavIC navigation system.
  • The move necessitates hardware upgrades, which worries the manufacturers, including firms like Samsung, Xiaomi, and Apple, who are concerned about rising prices and disruptions.

About NavIC

  • The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) developed NavIC, or Navigation using Indian Constellation, as a standalone, independent navigation satellite system (ISRO).

  • NavIC was first approved in 2006. Although it was supposed to be completed by the end of 2011, it only became operational in 2018.
  • The entire landmass of India and up to 1,500 km from its boundaries, are covered by NavIC, which has eight satellites..

Current Use of NavIC

  • The use of NavIC is currently restricted.
  • It is used for tracking and delivering information about natural disasters, providing emergency warning alerts to fishermen travelling into the deep sea where there is no terrestrial network connectivity, and public vehicle tracking in India.

Difference between NavIC and other satellite navigation systems

  • The primary distinction between these systems is the serviceable region they cover. While NavIC is now only for usage in India and the surrounding areas, GPS serves people all around the world and has satellites that orbit the planet twice daily.
  • In addition, there are three other navigation systems with global coverage, including China's Beidou, GLONASS, and Galileo from the European Union.
  • Another regional navigation system, the Japan-operated QZSS covers the Asia-Oceania region with a focus on Japan.

Why is India promoting NavIC?

  • The purpose of NavIC was to end reliance on foreign satellite systems for navigation service needs, particularly in relation to key industries.
  • Using navigational aids like GPS and GLONASS, which are run by the armed forces of the respective countries, may not always be safe as it is possible for civilian services to be interrupted or denied.

Global standards body 3GPP has approved India’s regional NavIC

About 3GPP

  • It is made up of seven international organizations that develop telecommunications standards (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TSDSI, TTA, and TTC), and it offers its members a stable environment in which to develop the specifications that define 3GPP technologies.
  • In terms of cellular positioning, 3GPP currently has support from BDS (Chinese), Galileo (European), GLONASS (Russian), and GPS (US).
  • Earlier, the Indian Space Research Organization's regional navigation system NavIC received approval from the international standards group 3GPP, which creates protocols for mobile telecommunications (ISRO).
  • With the specification's approval, both domestic and foreign mobile device manufacturers will be more likely to use NaVIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation) commercially. As a result, these manufacturers can now mass-produce navigation devices that are NaVIC compatible, enabling users of these devices to quickly access desi GPS or NaVIC signals.
  • If NavIC is approved by 3GPP, this might lead to the commercialization of the technology for usage in 4G, 5G, and the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • Indian businesses and startups would have the chance to develop products and integrated circuits (ICs) based on NavIC.

Content Source Link:

  • https://wap.business-standard.com/article-amp/current-affairs/india-s-homegrown-navigation-system-navic-to-serve-as-an-alternative-to-gps-122092700223_1.html

Image source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-sci-tech/explainer-navic-indias-home-grown-alternative-to-the-gps-navigation-system-8173951/,

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, Science & Technology
Terms & Concepts

Nord Stream Pipeline - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: There has been a gas leak at the Nord Stream 2 pipeline recently. 
  • Two pipelines, each with two lines, make up the Nord Stream system.
  • Nord Stream 1 is an underwater pipeline through the Baltic Sea that carries natural gas from Russia to Germany.

  • Its twin, Nord Stream 2, whose commissioning got cancelled after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, had been filled with gas, in anticipation of exports commencing from the fully built pipeline.
  • Nord Stream 1 was finished in 2011 and connects Lubmin near Greifswald, Germany, to Vyborg in Leningrad, Russia.
  • The Nord Stream 2 pipeline, which connects Ust-Luga in Leningrad with Lubmin, was finished in September 2021 and, when fully operational, has the potential to transport 55 billion cubic meters of gas annually.
  • Together, the twin pipelines can provide 110 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas to Europe per year for at least 50 years.
  • The Nord Stream crosses numerous nations' Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs), including those of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Germany, as well as through territorial waters of Russia, Denmark and Germany.
  • The pipeline connects the OPAL (Baltic Sea Pipeline) and NEL (North European Pipeline) in Germany, which connects to the European grid as well.

Source:

  • https://www.livemint.com/opinion/online-views/mint-explainer-how-nord-stream-leaks-will-hit-the-world-11664348878098.html

Image Source:

  • https://www.livemint.com/opinion/online-views/mint-explainer-how-nord-stream-leaks-will-hit-the-world-11664348878098.html

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2, International Relations: Nord Stream Pipeline, Russia- Europe Relations
Terms & Concepts

Mission Integrated Biorefineries


  • Context: India has recently announced the Launch Of “Innovation Roadmap Of The Mission Integrated Biorefineries” (IRMIB) at Global Clean Energy Action Forum.
  • Mission Integrated Biorefineries (MIB) is the 7th mission under Mission Innovation (MI) which was launched in April 2022.
  • MI is a global initiative catalysing a decade of action and investment in research, development and demonstration (RD&D) to make clean energy affordable, attractive and accessible for all.
  • MI consists of 22 countries and EU. India is a founding member.
  • MIB aims at greater international collaboration and financing for Energy RD&D during the next five years.
  • The Goal of the mission is to develop and demonstrate innovative solutions to accelerate the commercialization of integrated biorefineries.
  • The target is to replace 10% of fossil-based fuels, chemicals and materials with bio-alternatives by 2030.

  • It prioritizes eight collaborative actions organized around 3 Pillars of
    1. Supporting Research, Development and Demonstration.
    2. Accelerating Pilots and Demonstrations.
    3. Improving Policy and Market Conditions.

Source:

  • http://mission-innovation.net/

Image source:

  • https://www.civilhindipedia.com/blogs/blog_post/mission-integrated-bio-refineries

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, economy
Terms & Concepts

Flex Fuel Vehicles - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: India is all set to get its first flex-fuel car by Toyota powered by flex-fuel.
  • Flex Fuel Vehicles are not confined to a certain kind of fuel and can flexibly run on a blend of petrol and ethanol up to 83%.
  • FFVs are more efficient and show improved acceleration performance when they are fuelled with higher ethanol blends, according to the US Department of Energy, and they are already available in countries such as Brazil, the US and Canada.

  • Prime benefits of flex-fuel car owners over petrol car owners are that they can switch to ethanol whenever they want, thus shielding them from highly volatile fuel prices.
  • The ‘National Policy on Biofuels’ notified by the Government in 2018 targeted the introduction of E20 flex-fuel (80 percent petrol, 20 per cent ethanol) by 2030 (now 2023) and 5% blending of biodiesel in diesel by 2030
  • As per the new regulation automakers will be compelled to manufacture engines compatible with the fuel.
  • Since India is one of the largest sugarcane producers, it has great potential to produce enormous amounts of ethanol.
  • As of now, ethanol is way cheaper than petrol in India, providing scope for the flex fuel car owners to use the fuel to save on their fuel bills. It will also help India in reducing its dependence on fuel imports.

SOURCES:

  • https://www.livemint.com/auto-news/toyota-to-launch-india-s-first-flex-fuel-car-know-all-about-it/amp-11664253428503.html

Image source:

  • https://www.cnbctv18.com/auto/toyota-to-launch-in

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, economy, Transport/ Science and Technology, Flex Fuel Cars
Terms & Concepts

Make in India completes 8 years


  • Context: The Government’s Flagship Scheme “Make in India” has recently completed 8 years of successful implementation.
  • Make in India initiative, launched in 2014, facilitates investment, fosters innovation, enhances skill development, and builds best-in-class manufacturing infrastructure.
  • It has substantial accomplishments across 27 sectors which include strategic sectors of manufacturing as well as services.
  • Progress & Key achievements under Make in India include:
    • FDI inflows in India doubled to $83.6 billion, highest ever in FY2021-22 from US $45.15 billion in 2014-2015.
    • Import of toys in FY2021-22 have reduced by 70%.
    • Production Linked Incentive scheme across 14 key manufacturing sectors was launched to strengthen domestic manufacturing, boosting export potential etc.
    • Incentive scheme was launched to build a semiconductor, display, design ecosystem in India.
    • National Single Window System to improve Ease-of-doing-business (EODB).

    • As per World Bank, India's rank in EODB has improved from 142 in 2014 to 63 in 2020.
    • The Govt’s Gatishakti programme for providing multimodal connectivity infrastructure to various economic zones.
    • One District, One Product initiative to help districts by identifying, promoting, and branding a product.
    • Public Procurement (Preference to Make in India) Order 2017 promote manufacturing and production of goods and services in local industry to enhance income and employment.

Source:

  • https://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/8-years-of-modi-govt-swachch-bharat-to-ujjwala-ten-flagship-schemes-launched-since-2014/2538120/

Image source:

  • https://scoreupblog.wordpress.com/2016/05/07/introducing-scoreup-cards-for-govt-schemes/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Economy: Make in India, Production Linked Incentive, Gatishakti
Editorial of the day

India's Garbage Disposal: Solutions - IE


Essence - The editorial tries to analyse the issue related to plastic waste disposal in the light of the problem of chocking and flooding of sewer drains in many cities. It explains the underlying science and economics behind the building pile of garbage in the cities. It mentions about the price dynamics of plastic packaging which is the main culprit for waste mismanagement. It also points out the structural loop holes in the provisions of "extended producer responsibility". It supports its argument by citing the case of Chiplun, Maharashtra.

Towards the end, it suggests imposing sustainability based consumption tax to arrange the fund for cities to manage the menace of garbage.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To know the main reason behind waste mismanagement.
  • To know what can be done to address this situation.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/what-is-the-solution-to-indias-garbage-disposal-problem-8176816/

 

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Keywords: GS3, environment.
Editorial of the day

Pitching India as a signature destination: The Hindu


Essence - The article talks about the ‘Dharmashala Declaration’ which was drafted earlier this month to encourage both international and domestic tourism in the country. The declaration is in line with the PM’s call to all citizens to explore the country’s natural, cultural, and spiritual beauty while simultaneously reaching the goal of ‘Ek Bharat, Shrestha Bharat’.

The declaration is in line with the National Tourism Policy 2022 which calls for promoting sustainable, responsible, and inclusive tourism in the country. It focuses on giving impetus to digitalization, innovation and technology through the National Digital Tourism Mission and skilling through the Tourism and Hospitality Sector Skill Mission.

India’s presidency for G20 which starts in December 2022, provides it a good opportunity to showcase its philosophy of ‘Atithi Deo Bhawah’ by promoting its tourism. The declaration seems to be in line with the tourism ministry’s vision to project India as the best tourism destination by 2047.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To understand the present state of the tourism sector in India and the government’s plans and visions to develop it.
  • To understand how India can leverage its tourism sector for better economic growth and as a soft-power tool.

Source:

  • https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/pitching-india-as-a-signature-destination/article65938881.ece

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, Tourism, environment
Case Study of the Day

Remembering Bhagat Singh for his Sacrifices and Courage


Background:

The Indian Prime Minister recently paid tribute to revolutionary Bhagat Singh on the occasion of his birth anniversary.

About Bhagat Singh

  • Bhagat Singh was born on 28 September 1907 in Punjab province, which is now in Pakistan.
  • He belonged to a family who were involved in the freedom struggle, which is the reason he was drawn towards India’s movement for Independence at an early age.
  • His contributions to Indian freedom struggle include:
    • In his early days, Bhagat Singh was a follower of the ideals of non-violence popularised by Mahatma Gandhi, and hence supported him in the Non-Cooperation Movement.
    • He founded the Naujawan Bharat Sabha in the year 1926 to encourage the peasants and workers to fight against British rule.
    • In 1928, the Hindustan Socialist Association (HSRA) was also established by him, along with Sukhdev, Chandrasekhar Azad and others.
  • His acts of courage and sacrifice, that makes him remembered are:
    • In 1928, Bhagat Singh, along with Sukhdev and Rajguru, planned to avenge the death of Indian nationalist leader Lala Lajpat Rai and plotted to assassinate the Superintendent of Police James Scott in Lahore; but in case of mistaken identity shot John Saunders.
    • In 1929, Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt bombed the Central Assembly Hall in Delhi to scare British , and shouted the slogan of “Inquilab Zindabad”.
  • Eventually, Bhagat Singh and his revolutionary comrades Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged by the British in 1931, in the Lahore Conspiracy case.
  • As a tribute to his legacy, it has been decided that the Chandigarh airport will now be named after Shaheed Bhagat Singh.

Quote: "Revolution is an inalienable right of mankind. Freedom is an imperishable birth right of all." – Shaheed Bhagat Singh

Source:

  • 14 facts about Bhagat Singh, the jewel of Indian freedom struggle

Image source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/life-style/shaheed-bhagat-singh-birth-anniversary-2020-inspirational-quotes-famous-thoughts-interesting-lesser-known-facts-revolutionary-indian-freedom-movement-6618746/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1: Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant personalities: Bhagat Singh, Revolutionary
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