Wednesday, 28th September 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

●  

PMJAY completes 4 years - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

India’s Modified Incentive Scheme for the chip-making sector

●  

CSR Policy Amendment Rules 2022

2   Terms & Concepts

●  

JALDOOT App - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Madhav National Park - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Neelakurinji Flowers - Edukemy Current Affairs

●  

Bathukamma Festival at India Gate

3   Editorial of the day

●  

Demagogues, not monarchs, are the threat to democracy: LiveMint

●  

First Principles | Hold the hosannas for web3: Hindustan Times

4   Case Study of the Day

●  

Odisha: A data-driven solution to child marriage

.... Show less Show more
News Snapshot

PMJAY completes 4 years - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News

The Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare inaugurated “Arogya Manthan 2022”, to celebrate four years of implementation of Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY).

About PM-JAY

  • The program was introduced in 2018 and suggested by the National Health Policy 2017 in order to achieve the goal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC).
  • Previously known as the National Health Protection Scheme (NHPS), PM-JAY is a centrally sponsored scheme with a central sector component within the Ayushman Bharat Mission.
  • Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), which was initially introduced in 2008, was subsumed into it.

Features

  • The cost of implementation is split between the Central and State Governments, making it the largest health insurance/assurance program in the world that is totally funded by the government.
  • It offers coverage of 5 lakhs per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization in public and private empanelled hospitals in India.

PMJAY and Transgenders

  • Recently, the National Health Authority and the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment inked a historic memorandum of agreement to include transgender people in the AB PM-JAY program and provide them with health coverage up to 5 lakh per beneficiary per year.
  • For transgender people, a thorough master package is offered, comprising current AB PM-JAY packages and tailored packages (Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) and treatment).
  • The list specifically for surgery and treatment of transgender people under PM-JAY includes gender change treatments such as male to female and female to male, hormone therapy, laser hair removal, voice surgery, breast augmentation, etc.
  • To facilitate the treatment procedure for all beneficiaries who have been proved to be transgender, NHA will also produce an Ayushman Bharat TG Plus Card.
  • Pre-hospitalization charges up to three days and post-hospitalization costs up to fifteen days, including medicine and diagnostics, are both covered.
  • There is no restriction on the family size, age or gender.
  • Under the RSBY, there is a family cap of five members.

Eligibility

  • The households included are based on the occupational and deprivation criteria from the 2011 Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) for rural and urban areas, respectively.
  • Therefore, families who were covered in RSBY but are not included in the SECC 2011 database are also included in the coverage indicated under PM-JAY.

Benefits

  • The beneficiary has cashless access to medical services at the site of delivery, which is the hospital.
  • It aims to lessen the catastrophic medical costs that, every year, drive over 6 crore Indians into poverty.

Achievements

  • The program has expanded to include 33 States and Union Territories, making it easier for beneficiaries to receive treatment.
  • The beneficiary of the program has received more than 2 crore treatments.
  • Ayushman cards have been issued to more than 17 crore beneficiaries who have undergone Beneficiary Identification System (BIS) verification.
  • It has turned out to be beneficial for ladies.
    • More than half of the overall individuals who have benefited from the program are female.

About National Digital Health Mission

  • The National Digital Health Mission was established in 2020.
  • The NDHM is a complete digital health ecosystem with four essential features: health ID, personal health records, Digi Doctor, and health facility register.
  • Each citizen will have a unique 14-digit identification number known as a health ID, which will serve as a repository for their medical history and allow for identification.

Challenges Ahead

  • It is challenging to identify the true targeted beneficiaries due to the unequal geographic distribution of poor families. Despite the fact that many people have received treatment under the program, many others are still unaware of it.
  • Due to the program's limited coverage of the entire population, it lacks fair pricing and universal health insurance.
  • Due to the underdeveloped health capacities of the public sector, collaborations and coalitions with private sector providers are essential.
  • The Health Benefit Package (HBP) Master for the program has been updated by the National Health Authority. The rates of several health packages have increased by 20% to 400% in the updated version of the Health Benefit Package (HBP 2.2).
  • Private hospitals have voiced worries about the costs of the scheme's package deals.

Steps taken by the Government

  • The Union government has clarified that the data is stored in a federated architecture as described in the National Digital Health Blueprint published by the Government of India in 2019.
  • This addresses the issue of the privacy of Indian citizens being violated regarding health ID data being stored with an external company.
  • The privacy of Indian individuals is not violated because the NDHM allows each person's health information to be used appropriately for their personal healthcare with their express consent alone.
  • The development of the health benefit package is a participatory process involving extensive consultations with all parties involved, including participants in the commercial sector.

Way Forward

  • Effectively utilizing innovation and technology can help to reduce the overall cost of healthcare. Mobile apps with AI capabilities can provide better, more cost-effective, patient-centered, smart wellness solutions.
  • This program must expand while retaining its integrity and long-term viability for all parties concerned.
  • The government must enhance the delivery system, which means expanding the network of private providers, switching to organized care delivery, putting new ideas into practice, and offering speciality, reasonably priced, and value-based care.
  • Along with providing high-quality services, the government must employ innovative financial solutions for long-term sustainability.

Content Source Link:

  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1861702#:~:text=Dr.%20Mansukh%20Mandaviya%2C%20Union%20Minister,Bharat%20Digital%20Mission%20(ABDM),
  • https://www.livemint.com/news/india/mandaviya-to-inaugurate-arogya-manthan-2022-as-ab-pmjay-completes-4-years-11663976513891.html,

 

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Keywords: GS paper II, Government Policies & Interventions
News Snapshot

India’s Modified Incentive Scheme for the chip-making sector


In News

  • Nations are competing to gain a foothold in the production of semiconductors, which are crucial components that power everything from traffic lights to cutting-edge weaponry, as they become the new high-tech battleground.
  • The government approved modifications to the plan for the growth of a semiconductor and display manufacturing ecosystem in the nation in an effort to increase the bid of India's $10 billion chip-making project to investors.

About Semiconductors

  • A substance with specific electrical properties, which can be used as the basis for computers and other electronic devices are called as Semi-conductors.

Significance

  • It serves as the foundation for nearly all contemporary electronic devices, from smartphones to connected devices in the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • The global electronics sector, which is currently valued at roughly $3 trillion, depends on the $500–600 billion global semiconductor industry.

About Semiconductor Chips

  • Materials that fall between conductors and insulators in terms of conductivity are called semiconductors.
  • They may be pure substances like silicon or germanium, or compounds like gallium, arsenide, or cadmium selenide.

Components of Semiconductor Chip

  • A sliver of silicon that has been carved with billions of microscopic transistors to regulate the flow of current serves as the fundamental building block of a semiconductor chip.
  • The 3 nanometre (nm) and 5 nm nodes of semiconductor technology are now the most advanced ones.
  • Higher nanometer value semiconductors are utilized in consumer electronics, vehicles, and other applications, while lower nanometre value semiconductors are employed in gadgets like laptops and smartphones.

Significance

  • All contemporary electronics and information and communications technology products are made of these fundamental building components, which act as the brain and heart of the devices.
  • Modern autos, household appliances, and vital medical equipment like ECG machines all contain these chips as standard equipment.

Changes approved by India to Chip-making Scheme

Previous Scenario

  • To promote the manufacturing of semiconductors and displays in the nation, India unveiled its approximately $10 billion Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) program in 2021.
  • Also, a Design-Linked Initiative (DLI) program, which aims to promote domestic and international investment in design software, intellectual property rights, etc was announced.

Changes Made

  • In the previous iteration of the program, the Center offered to support 30% of the project costs for chips produced at 45nm to 65nm, 40% for chips produced at 28nm to 45nm, and 50% or half of the money for chips produced at 28nm or lower. The redesigned plan offers each node a uniform 50% financial support.
  • A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was inked between Vedanta and Taiwanese chipmaker Foxconn to establish a $1,54 billion semiconductor plant in Gujarat.

Two Projects Announced

  • A $3 billion plant in Karnataka by the International consortium ISMC (a joint venture between Abu Dhabi-based Next Orbit Ventures and Israel’s Tower Semiconductor).
  • $3.5 billion plant in Tamil Nadu by Singapore’s IGSS Ventures.

Present Global Scenario

  • The semiconductor manufacturing sector is highly concentrated, with major participants including Taiwan, South Korea, and the United States. In fact, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company produces 90% of the world's 5nm chips in large quantities (TSMC).
  • Due to the global chip scarcity, the rivalry between the United States and China over Taiwan, and supply chain disruptions brought on by the Russia-Ukraine conflict, major economies are making a renewed effort to enter the chip manufacturing industry.
  • The worldwide electronics sector, which is currently valued at roughly $3 trillion, depends on the $500–600 billion global semiconductor market.

Indian Scenario

  • The market for chips is expected to grow from $24 billion today to $100 billion by 2025, with India currently importing all of its chips. India has recently started a number of steps, to promote indigenous semiconductor chip manufacture.
  • For promoting the creation of a "semiconductor and display manufacturing ecosystem," the Union Cabinet has allotted a sum of 76,000 crore.
  • The Scheme for Promotion of Manufacturing of Electronic Components and Semiconductors (SPECS) has also been introduced in India to promote the production of semiconductors and electronic components.
  • The Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme was introduced by the MeitY in 2021 with the aim of fostering at least 20 domestic semiconductor design companies and helping them reach a revenue of more than Rs. 1500 crore within the next five years.
  • The increase in India's domestic semiconductor consumption is expected to cross $80 billion by 2026 and to $10 billion by 2030.

45nm Nano-chip

  • The 45nm chip's manufacture, which requires less time and is more cost-effective, was also emphasized in the amended scheme.
  • High demand for these chips is mostly driven by automotive, power, and telecom applications.

Significance of the Changes

  • Government incentives will be harmonized as a result of the adjustments for all semiconductor technology nodes.
  • It will support the development of an integrated ecosystem for chip production across the board in India.
  • The redesigned program will speed up these investments and draw in more applicants.
  • PLI and DLI programmes had attracted numerous international semiconductor manufacturers to build up semiconductor fabrication units (fabs) in India.

Challenges

  • The plan is a positive step, but producing chips is an expensive and resource-intensive operation.
  • The new plan allocates the same amount of money to each stage of the procedure. The scheme's total cost is still $10 billion, though.
  • Just one semiconductor fab setup costs anywhere from $3 to $7 billion.

 Way Forward

  • Although India is first concentrating on "lagging-edge" technology nodes to supply the automotive and appliance sectors, it may be challenging to create global demand because major companies like Taiwan already provide viable cutting-edge chip-tech on a global scale.
    • Therefore, luring major international firms to establish themselves here would be advantageous as they bring their consumer base.
  • Chip production also demands liters of ultrapure water each day, which the government may find challenging to supply to firms given the frequent drought conditions that plague most of the nation.
    • Furthermore, the process depends on an uninterrupted power supply; even brief swings or spikes can result in losses of millions of dollars.

Content Source Link:

  • https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/explained-india-semiconductor-and-display-ecosystem-development-scheme/article65939231.ece,
  • https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/indias-semiconductor-push-is-well-worth-it/article65221808.ece,

 

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Keywords: GS paper II & III, Government Policies & Interventions, GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT, Indigenization of Technology, Industrial Policy
News Snapshot

CSR Policy Amendment Rules 2022


In news

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) in exercise of the powers conferred under 'Companies Act 2013', has amended the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014, to notify the new rules.

What is CSR?

  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) implies a concept whereby companies integrate social and other useful concerns in their business operations for the betterment of their stakeholders and society in general.

About the Amendment Rules 2022

  • Unspent Funds & CSR Committee
  • Now, Companies are allowed to keep unspent amounts earmarked for CSR in this designated account but have to utilise it within three financial years.
    • The businesses having any amount in its ‘unspent corporate social responsibility account’ should set up a CSR committee to oversee the implementation of its CSR obligations.
  • Impact Assessment
    • The Ministry modified the way companies can calculate the expenditure towards conducting an impact assessment.
    • The law requires large CSR spenders to carry out an independent impact assessment of their activities, for businesses with RS 10 crore or more CSR budget and for all projects with an outlay of ₹1 crore or more.
    • This allows companies to understand the impact of their social investments and target it better, while also helping them in framing better CSR programmes.
  • Expenditure for Impact Assessment
    • The expenditure for social impact assessment, which can be included in the CSR spending, shall not exceed 2.5% of total CSR expenditure for the relevant financial year or ₹50 lakh whichever is higher.

About Corporate Social Responsibility Law in India

  • The concept of CSR is governed by clause 135 of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • In 2014, India became the first country to legally mandate corporate social responsibility.
  • The Act requires companies with a net worth of ₹500 crore or more, or turnover of ₹1,000 crore or more, or a net profit of ₹5 crore or more during the immediately preceding financial year, to spend 2% of the average net profits of the immediately preceding three years on CSR activities.

Issues with CSR in India

  • A qualitative analysis of CSR projects exhibits the tendency of companies to treat CSR funds as an expense account for marketing and lobbying.
  • This combined with the government’s proclivity to change the rules, has created a situation where it is difficult to identify the ‘spirit’ of CSR law.
  • Structural issues include:
    • lack of clarity in the Act
    • loosely defined categories of Schedule VII of the Act
    • lack of information regarding CSR activities of private companies.
  • Even though amendments have been made, changes are reactive, ad-hoc, arbitrary and do not consider any specific direction or underlying philosophies. While some of these changes reflect poor drafting; others reflect momentary political or policy priority of the government

Thus, a clear theoretical framework for CSR law must be established; not one that can be changed in an arbitrary bureaucratic manner based on political or policy immediacy.

Further, broad categories in Schedule VII, can be aligned with SDGs, to assist companies in monitoring and reporting their CSR projects.

Source:

  • Centre revises CSR rules
  • Corporate Social Responsibility under Companies Act
  • Missing spirit of CSR: Structural causes of the challenge

Image source:

  • https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/in/pdf/2017/12/SDG_New_Final_Web.pdf

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency and Accountability: Corporate Social Responsibility, Amendment Rules.
Terms & Concepts

JALDOOT App - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: MoS for Rural Development and Steel has launched the “JALDOOT App & JALDOOT App e-brochure".
  • The app will enable Gram Rojgar Sahyak (JALDOOT) to measure the water level of well twice a year pre-monsoon and post-monsoon.

  • Jaldoots, that is, officers assigned to measure the water levels, should also upload the geo-tagged photographs through the app on every occasion of measurement.
  • The regular data by the Jaldoots would be integrated with the database of National Water Informatics Centre (NWIC).
  • This Mobile app will work in both online and offline mode.
  • Manual monitoring of water levels in open wells will be measured twice in a year, from 1st May to 31st May as pre-monsoon water level and from 1st October to 31st October for post-monsoon level for the same well.
  • So water level can be captured even without internet connectivity and captured date will be stored in mobile and when mobile comes in the connectivity area, data will synchronize with the central server.
  • With the rapidly declining water table threatening to push many regions into drought, the Union government has launched this mobile application.
  • JALDOOT app has been jointly developed by Ministry of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj. 

Source:

  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1862606
  • https://www.livemint.com/news/india/centre-launches-jaldoot-app-11664288824443.html

Image source:

  • https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/government-app-jaldoot-to-capture-data-on-ground-water-tables/article65942349.ece

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Environment and Ecology: Conservation, Environmental Pollution & Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment
Terms & Concepts

Madhav National Park - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has given nod to relocate five tigers from three national parks of Madhya Pradesh to Madhav National Park.
  • Madhav National Park is situated in Shivpuri District, Madhya Pradesh and is a part of the upper Vindhyan hills.

  • The Park was the hunting ground of Mughal emperors and Maharaja of Gwalior which later got the status of a National Park in 1959.
  • It has a diverse ecosystemconsisting of lakes, dry deciduous & dry thorn forests. The forest is home to tigers, leopards, Nilgai, and Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) and Chousingha (Tetracerus quadricornis) and Deers (Chital, Sambar and Barking Deer) among others.
  • The Park falls within one of the 32 major Tiger Corridorsof the country, which are operationalised through the Tiger Conservation Plan (implemented under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972).  
  • Madhav National Parkis a part of the Ranthambhore-Kuno-Madhav (Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan) Tiger Corridor of Central India & Eastern Ghats landscape.
  • The Park is currently facing displacement and rehabilitationissues as it is home to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) like 
  • Other National Parks in Madhya Pradesh:Bandhavgarh, Kanha NP, Pench (Priyadarshini) NP, Panna NP, Mandla Plant Fossils NP, Sanjay NP, Satpura NP, Van Vihar NP.

Source:

  • https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/60-years-after-they-were-last-seen-tigers-to-come-back-to-madhya-pradesh-s-madhav-national-park-85133

Image source:

  • https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Map-of-the-study-area-Madhav-National-Park-in-Shivpuri-District_fig1_330998282

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Environment and Ecology: Conservation of Endangered Species, Tiger Relocation, Madhav National Park
Terms & Concepts

Neelakurinji Flowers - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Tourists are witnessing the remarkable blooming of Neelakurinji flowers in Chikmagalur that happens once in 12 years
  • Scientific Name: Strobilanthes kunthianus.
  • Common Names: Neelakurinji; Kurinji.

  • Distribution: It is a shrub prominently found in the shola forests of the Western Ghats. Besides it is also seen in the Shevroys in the Eastern Ghats.
  • Blooming period: The blue flowers of Neelakurinji blossoms only once in 12 years.
  • Conservation: Core area of Kurinjimala Sanctuary, in Idukki district of Kerala, protects the kurinji.
  • Cultural significance: Nilgiri Hills(Literally meaning the blue mountains), got their name from the blue flowers of Neelakurinji. The Paliyan tribes (in Tamil Nadu) use it as a reference to calculate their age.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/photos/lifestyle-gallery/tourists-blooming-neelakurinji-flowers-chikmagalur-karntaka-12-years-8174358/

Image source:

  • https://newsable.asianetnews.com/india/after-chikkamagaluru-hills-now-kodagu-witnesses-neelakurinji-flowers-that-bloom-once-in-12-years-ycb-qy3779

 

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Keywords: GS Paper-3, Environment & Ecology
Terms & Concepts

Bathukamma Festival at India Gate


  • Context: The Minister of Tourism Culture and development of Northeast has announced the celebration of Bathukamma at the India Gate.
  • Bathukamma is a flower festival celebrated predominantly in Telangana and some parts of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The festival is celebrated as per the Satavahana calendar during Navarathri and it honours the `life-giver’ Bathukamma, with women seeking her blessings for prosperity and a good year.

  • It is a symbolic expression reflecting the connection between earth, water and human beings.
  • It is one of the most unique festivals of Telangana and one celebrated mainly by the women of this region.
  • Made of flowers, the Bathukamma is a collection of flowers, on a brass plate, known as tambalan, stacked one layer at a time and rising in a series of concentric circles. It can be compared to the ‘gopuram’ (a monumental entrance tower, usually ornate), seen in the temples of southern India.
  • During the nine-day annual festival, women and girls sing and dance around specially arranged flowers.
  • At the end of the festival, the floral arrangements will be immersed in local
  • The festival got a major fillip after Telangana declared it as a state festival.

Source:

  • https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/telangana/2022/sep/28/bathukamma-uyyalo-sing-all-telangana-parties-2502731.html
  • https://www.outlookindia.com/outlooktraveller/travelnews/story/72004/bathukamma-saying-it-with-flowers

Image Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/religion/bathukamma-2017-significance-and-how-it-is-celebrated-4852775/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1, Art and Culture
Editorial of the day

Demagogues, not monarchs, are the threat to democracy: LiveMint


Essence - The article highlights the points from the ongoing debate over the relevance of lineal monarchy in the present age of modern republics. The debate was aroused after the death of Queen Elizabeth II, the popular monarch of England.

The camp in favor argues by stating that there is no need to disrupt a system that is stable and often acts as a binding political force for the nation. While the other side argues that the very basis of lineal monarchy violates the principle of equality, and while constitutional monarchies are in no sense different from constitutional republics, there is no need for it to be continued. Further, the monarchy adds an unnecessary burden to the state exchequer owing to huge spending on trivial ceremonies and customs.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To understand the ongoing debate around the role of monarchs in England.
  • To understand the functions of the head of the state and how they play important role in democracy.

Source:

  • https://www.livemint.com/opinion/online-views/could-constitutional-monarchy-crack-a-democratic-conundrum/amp-11664214237003.html

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2, democracy, Constitutional Democracy
Editorial of the day

First Principles | Hold the hosannas for web3: Hindustan Times


  • Essence - The editorial discusses about new prospects and possibilities opened due to development of Web 3.0. It highlights that Web 3.0 will actually give way to the rise of a New middle class on internet who will own the content they create directly. It has also mentioned about the Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 along with its contribution towards developing Creator's economy. It discusses Kelly's essay to bring out the functioning of Creator's economy. Later it discusses a few examples where people were not able to monetise their content despite directly controlling them. Later, it has highlighted the natural tendencies of a typical Indian towards handling there digital recorded personal information which has earned many big techs billions in profit.
  • Towards end it mentioned about huge investment in internet based company during Financial crisis of 2008 which provided strong footing to them. So it assumes if history repeats itself then rise of New Middle class on internet is improbable.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • To know about the New Middle class and the creator economy on internet.
  • To know how basically the contents on internet are handled.
  •  

Source:

  • https://www.hindustantimes.com/opinion/first-principles-hold-the-hosannas-for-web3-101664099978917.html

 

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Keywords: GS 3, Science and Technology
Case Study of the Day

Odisha: A data-driven solution to child marriage


Background:

Nayagarh, a district in Odisha,  has adopted a unique initiative by recording information on all adolescent girls in the district, with the aim of eradicating child marriage.

About the solution

  • Nayagarh, has a skewed sex ratio at 855, and Child marriages in isolated locations of the district are still considered a part of their social life.
  • Observing that child marriages are solemnised in the age group of 14-19 and dropouts among girls’ students continued to be high, the district administration launched the Aliva programme this year.

  • Aliva is a register, which contains basic information of adolescent girls, relating to birth registration date, Aadhaar number, address, education status, contact details and family details.
  • Towards the end of the register, information about child marriage, educational progress, skill training status and health issues of the adolescent girls, are also maintained.
  • As per Odisha’s child marriage prevention strategy, the State aims to eradicate child marriage by 2030, and hence Nayagarh district has decided to maintain the record for a period of 10 years from 2020 to 2030.

  • Utilities of register include:
    • For law enforcement agencies, to verify age, as parents attempt to lie about the age of their girls to escape punishment.
    • It has been very useful for tracking the health of girls, especially if they are anaemic.
    • As a result, in the past eight months, the district administration has managed to prevent 61 child marriages.
  • Assessing the impact of such an innovation, there is a need for other districts in the country to come up with such comprehensive solutions to address social issues.

Source:

  • In Odisha’s Nayagarh, a data-driven solution to child marriage

Image source:

  • https://factly.in/data-number-of-registered-cases-of-child-marriage-increased-by-about-50-in-2020-as-per-ncrb/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2: Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States: Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections: Child Marriage, Odisha, Aliva.
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