Tuesday, 27th September 2022

Table of contents

1   News Snapshot

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Non-communicable diseases and their true impact

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Dharamshala Declaration 2022 - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Breakthrough Agenda Report 2022

2   Terms & Concepts

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Asian Palm Oil Alliance - Edukemy Current Affairs

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DART Mission - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Maharatna Status - Edukemy Current Affairs

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IBSA Forum - Edukemy Current Affairs

3   Editorial of the day

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What CBI’s shrinking jurisdiction implies: Hindustan Times

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How to fix India’s broken police forces, CBI and IB: IE

4   Case Study of the Day

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Urdu Poetry's Role in S. Africa's Anti-Apartheid

.... Show less Show more
News Snapshot

Non-communicable diseases and their true impact


In news

About Non Communicable Diseases

·       Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are ailments or illnesses that are not brought on by infectious agents. These long-lasting, often slowly progressing chronic diseases are brought on by a confluence of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioural variables. These illnesses are chronic ailments that, if undiagnosed or untreated, cause significant disability and death in children, adolescents, and young adults.

·       Over 60% of all deaths in India are caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases (such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders), and cardiovascular diseases like heart attacks and stroke. Of these, nearly 55% are premature deaths.

·       The World Economic Forum (WEF) estimates that between 2012 and 2030, non-communicable diseases will cost India $4.58 trillion (Rs 311.94 trillion).

According to a recently published World Health Organization (WHO) report "Invisible Numbers-The True Extent of Non-communicable Diseases and What To Do About Them," one person under the age of 70 passes away from a non-communicable disease (NCD) every two seconds, with 86% of those deaths taking place in low- and middle-income countries.

 

Risk Factors for NCDs

  • Tobacco Use-smoked, chewed or secondhand; kills one in every two smokers; more than 8 million deaths
  • Unhealthy Diet- includes both undernutrition (lack of essential micronutrients) and overnutrition (obesity); accounts for 19% of all NCD deaths
  • Harmful Use of Alcohol- linked to liver cirrhosis, some cancers and CVDs; 7 million NCD deaths in 2016
  • Physical Inactivity-one in three women, one in four men, 80% of adolescents are not physically active; 830,000 deaths a year
  • Air Pollution-both outdoor and indoor; 99% of the people live in places where WHO’s Air Quality Guidelines were not met; indoor pollution sourced from 2.4 billion people cooking and heating their homes from fuel like wood and kerosene
  • Raised blood pressure (hypertension)-major risk factor for CVDs and other diseases; currently affects 1.3 billion adults aged 30-79
  • Obesity-major risk factor for NCDs such as CVDs, Diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and some cancers;
  • Raised cholesterol-leads to built up of fat in blood vessels, blocking arteries and raising the risk of heart disease and strokes; responsible for 9 million deaths in 2017
  • Raised blood glucose- 20% of cardiovascular deaths – 8 million deaths are caused by raised blood glucose

 

Four Major NCDs

Diseases

Facts

Cardiovascular Diseases(CVDs)

1 in 3 deaths; 17.9 million people a year

Cancer

1 in 6 deaths; 9.3 million people a year

Chronic respiratory diseases (COPD)

1 in 13 deaths; 4.1 million people a year

Diabetes

1 in 28 deaths; 2 million people a year

.

 

Why do NCDs matter

  • NCDs undermine broader health and well being- negative effects on health, both as standalone diseases and in their interactions with other conditions
  • Covid 19 and NCDs- people with comorbidities more vulnerable to fatalities
  • Preventing and treating NCDs has benefits far beyondhealth- myriad impacts on economic growth
  • NCDs are at the heart of sustainable development- SDG 3.4 specific target of reducing premature deaths from NCDs by a third by 2030
  • Vicious cycle linking poverty and NCDs

Initiatives by India

·       The National Health Mission(NHM) is implementing the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Stroke (NPCDCS).

·       The establishment of State Cancer Institutes (SCI) and Tertiary Care Centers (TCCC) in various regions of the nation is supported by the Central Government's Strengthening of Tertiary Care Cancer Facilities scheme.

·       Under the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana, the new AIIMS and several refurbished institutions have an emphasis on oncology in all of its forms (PMSSY).

·       With the aim of providing patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease medications and implants at reduced costs, 159 institutions and hospitals now have Deendayal outlets under the Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment (AMRIT) programme.

·       National Tobacco Control Programme, a centrally sponsored scheme to bring about greater awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco use and about the Tobacco Control Law

·       National Cancer Control Programme aimed at primary (hazards of tobacco and health education, genital hygiene)  and secondary prevention of cancer deaths(early detection, screening methods); palliative care in terminal stage of cancer

  • Gender affects people’s risk of developing and dying from NCDs

 

How do NCDs affect our Economy

  • Low productivity at work
  • Leaving the workforce early or early retirement
  • Out of pocket health spending leading to less income to spend elsewhere
  • Reduced school attendance and qualifications
  • Less assistance with child care
  • Health care costs of NCDs are startling- Annual spending on health is around US$ 8.5 trillion globally
  • Indirect economic costs of NCDs are even greater- Between 2011 and 2030, the cost of this lost productivity from the four major NCDs is estimated to be a staggering US$ 30trillion – and adding mental health increases it to US$ 47 trillion.

 

What can be done

  • WHO Implementation Roadmap for the Global Action Plan on NCDs 2023–2030
    • the national response should be hastened
    • the most practical and effective initiatives should be scaled up and implemented.
    • To determine the most effective interventions, work across government, with civil society, individuals living with NCDs, and international organisations.
    • Improve the speed with which your nation implements these measures.
    • Gather and assess timely and accurate data on NCDs
    • Monitor NCD measures to demonstrate where there has been success and where more e­ffort is still required
  • Political Will
  • Right Policies and interventions
  • Stronger healthcare delivery
  • Protection for the vulnerable
  • All nations have agreed to adopt a set of voluntary global NCD targets as WHO Member States, including one mortality target (aligned with SDG 3.4), six risk factor targets (harmful alcohol use, physical inactivity, dietary sodium intake, tobacco use, raised blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity), and two national systems targets (drug therapy to prevent heart attacks and strokes, and essential NCD medicines and technologies to treat major NCDs).
  • Financing- An additional US$ 18 billion per year, or US$ 140 billion in total, would be needed to achieve SDG 3.4 in LMICs by 2030; Only 5% of external aid for health goes to addressing NCDs in LMIC.

Way Forward

  • Strong health system programmes are required to promote health, identify and control risk factors quickly and effectively, treat disease affordably, and stop untimely deaths.
  • Additionally, funding allocation and health system-strengthening measures with a strong focus on primary care must give NCDs a higher priority.
  • Building national consensus around the issue
  • Emphasising on the fact the this affects the poor and vulnerable sections disproportionately, alternative financing mechanisms and institutions for service delivery must be explored
  • Behavioural change is a large block of NCD prevention- can rope in Civil society and non-governmental bodies for this objective

Content Source Link:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/66-of-all-deaths-in-india-in-2019-due-to-non-communicable-diseases-who-report-8165201/,

 

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Keywords: GS paper II & III, Government Policies & Interventions, Health
News Snapshot

Dharamshala Declaration 2022 - Edukemy Current Affairs


In News:

India has set the goal to become a world leader in tourism by 2047.

 

About the News:

  • A three-day national conference on tourism was recently concluded with an announcement of the "Dharamshala Declaration 2022"
  • The conference saw representation from different states and centre which seeks to take steps aimed at revival of tourism sector in India.
  • The Indian tourism and hospitality industry have emerged as a key driver of growth among the services sector in India besides being an important source of foreign exchange earnings.
  • The agreement aims to attain recovery of tourism sector to the pre-pandemic level by 2024, $250 billion contribution to the GDP by 2030, and world leader by 2047.
  • States have recently saw a huge jump in domestic travellers and those from within the state, in the wake of the pandemic and an increased demand for wellness tourism.
  • In terms of foreign tourist arrivals, the Gulf countries, the UK, the US and Germany remain the top source markets.
  • The government has also pledged to take several steps including several visa reforms, while making immigration more visitor-friendly.

 

Major highlights of the agreement:

  • Normalisation of trend: Government to embark an ambitious plan for the tourism sector with long-term revenue goal of $1 trillion by 2047, when the country turns 100.
  • Tourism clubs: Government to form ‘Yuva Tourism clubs’ at district and mandal levels on the lines of NSS and NCC.
  • Uptick in footfall: States like J&K and Kerala have sawn more than 1.42 crore tourists, including 11,000 foreigners this year which had fell-down steeply during covid lockdown.
  • Diversification: Government to focus on promoting destinations beyond already established tourist spots such as Srinagar and Gulmarg towards promoting the Valley as an ideal filming destination.
  • Targeting new areas: States will develop the prospects of medical tourism in the country besides focusing on cultural tourism.

Tourism sector in India:

  • About: India is ranked 10th among 185 countries in terms of travel & tourism’s total contribution to GDP with contribution of travel & tourism to GDP being 6.8% of the total economy which translates into almost ~ Rs. 1,368,100 crore (US$ 194.30 billion).
  • Employment creators: Tourism sector in India accounts for almost 39 million jobs, which is 8% of the total employment in the country.
  • Future potential: By 2028, Indian tourism and hospitality is expected to earn US$ 50.9 billion as visitor exports compared with US$ 28.9 billion in 2018.
  • Aggressive future: By 2028, international tourist arrivals are expected to reach 30.5 billion and generate revenue over US$ 59 billion while domestic tourists are expected to drive the growth, post pandemic.
  • Share in global pie: The percentage share of Foreign Tourist Arrivals in India is among the top 15 source countries which is led by USA (24.58%) followed by UK (14.01%).
  • FDI: Foreign inflows in the Tourism & Hospitality sector has reached US$ 16.38 billion in last two years.
  • Medical tourism: This sector is expected to increase at a CAGR of 21.1% from 2020-2027.
  • Advantage India: The country is the most digitally advanced traveller nation in terms of digital tools being used for planning, booking, and experiencing a journey.
  • Leveraging demography: India’s rising middle class and increasing disposable income has potential to funnel growth of domestic and outbound tourism.

 

Government initiatives:

  • More budgetary allocation: Government has allocated Rs. 2,400 crore (US$ 309.13 million) to the Ministry of Tourism which is 42 %higher than the allocation for FY 2021-22.
  • NIDHI 2.0: National Integrated Database of Hospitality Industry scheme was launched in 2021 which aims to maintain a database of hospitality sector components such as accommodation units, travel agents, tour operators, & others on single digital platform.
  • Lighthouse: Government is planning to boost the tourism in India by leveraging on the lighthouses in the country for development as tourist spots.
  • Bharat Darshan: It is operated by the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) aimed at taking people to various pilgrimages across the country.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/shimla/at-3-day-event-india-sets-goal-world-leader-in-tourism-by-2047-8162913/lite/

 

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Keywords: General studies III: Tourism, Government Schemes
News Snapshot

Breakthrough Agenda Report 2022


In News:

IEA has recently released a report on global greenhouse gas emissions

About the News:

  • International Energy Agency (IEA) together with the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the UN Climate Change High-Level Champions have recently released the first “Breakthrough Agenda Report 2022”.

  • The report aims to assesses progress on reducing emissions in five key sectors – power, hydrogen, road transport, steel and agriculture.
  • It primarily focuses on supporting stronger international collaboration to drive faster reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • The report has also given valuable recommendations including steps for strengthening of collaboration in areas such as common standards, technology R&D, reaching a level playing field for trade, and improving technical and financial assistance.
  • Previously, the need for such report was requested by world leaders at the UN Climate Change Conference COP26 at Glasgow in 2021.
  • In this regard, the report is designed to inform policy makers, business leaders and civil society the most urgent priorities ahead of the Global Clean Energy Action Forum in Pittsburgh and the next UN Climate Change Conference COP27 in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt later this year.

Major highlights of the report:

About: The Breakthrough Agenda is part of the mandates under COP-26 and covers more than two-thirds of the global economy, with endorsement from 45 world leaders, including those of the G7, China and India.

Bright future: The report notes an increase in practical international cooperation in recent years, and progress in deploying the technologies needed, including:

  • A doubling of EVs sales in 2021 from the previous year, to a new record of 6.6 million
  • A forecast increase in global renewable capacity of 8% in 2022 – pushing through the 300GW mark for the first time and equivalent to powering approximately 225 million homes
  • Forecast global electricity generation cost reduction of at least USD 55 billion in 2022, based on new renewable capacity added in 2021.

Strengthened international collaboration in focus sectors:

Sectors

Priority

Important findings

 

 

 

 

Power

To increase the availability and affordability of renewable and low carbon hydrogen such as incentivise investment in production, which must scale up from less than 1 Mt in 2020 to around 140-155 Mt per year by 2030.

·       Hydrogen production and use accounts for around 0.9 GtCO2 of emissions, or 1.5% of total emissions.

·       Renewable and low carbon hydrogen production currently accounts for less than 1% of total.

·       Targets and commitments to use low carbon and renewable hydrogen are equivalent to 3% of current total hydrogen demand.

·       15% of ammonia and 28% of methanol is internationally traded.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Road transport

Countries and manufacturers should align target dates for all new vehicles to be zero emission, to shift investment more quickly towards the new technologies and accelerate their cost reduction.

 

·       The road transport sector accounts for around 6 GtCO2e, or 10% of total emissions which need to fall by nearly a 1/3 by 2030.

·       Public charging infrastructure needs to increase 10-fold by 2030.

·       If major markets align their policies with 100% ZEV sales by 2035, cost parity between ZEVs and ICE vehicles could be reached several years earlier.

·       Over 60% of the vehicles added to the roads in Africa each year are imported used vehicles. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steel sector

The immediate opportunity is for aggregation of demand to mobilise investment in the production of near-zero emission steel.

 

·       The steel sector accounts for around 3 GtCO2e of emissions, or 5% of total emissions which need to fall by around ¼ by 2030.

·       Global average direct emissions intensity of steel production needs to fall by around 30% by 2030.

·       114 Mt of conventional, high emission plants are currently underway or in the planning stage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agriculture

It is an immediate priority for international collaboration must be to improve access to finance for smallholder farmers in developing countries – by increasing the flow of public finance, and its leverage of private finance.

 

·       Agriculture and related land use accounts for around 10GtCO2e, or 17% of total emissions.

·       Farm-gate emissions have increased by 0.6% per year since 2000. These need to fall by around 20% by 2030 and agricultural expansion needs to halt.

·       Smallholder farmers produce about 30% of global food production.

·       27% of all agriculture and land use emissions can be attributed to agricultural products that are internationally traded. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emitting sectors

Countries and businesses should work together in each emitting sector to increase the chances of meeting the Paris Agreement goals, in line with the Breakthrough Agenda commitment

·       Technical and financial assistance must be made more available in all sectors.

·       In trade-exposed sectors where clean technologies or sustainable solutions are at a cost disadvantage to high emitting technologies or practices, level playing fields in international trade will be needed.

·       Coordinated efforts to research, develop and demonstrate technologies can support progress in many sectors.

·       Coordinated international deployment of low carbon infrastructure such as electricity interconnectors, hydrogen gas pipelines, and refuelling or recharging facilities for shipping, aviation etc.,

 

Major recommendations:

  • Demonstrate and test flexible low-carbon power systems to expand the range of solutions and increase the share of variable renewables
  • Create new cross-border super grids this decade to increase trade in low-carbon power, reduce emissions, improve energy security and enhance system flexibility
  • Set up new international centres of expertise to channel finance and technical assistance to help coal-producing countries’ transition
  • Agree a common definition and target dates by which all new road vehicles will be net zero, targeting 2035 for cars and vans and the 2040s for heavy duty vehicles
  • Mobilise investment in charging infrastructure, including prioritised assistance for developing countries and harmonise international charging standards to drive investment and accelerate adoption globally
  • Standards to boost the recyclability of batteries and supercharging research into alternative chemistries for batteries to reduce reliance on precious metals, such as cobalt and lithium
  • Government policies and private-sector purchase commitments to drive demand and deployment of low-carbon and renewable hydrogen alongside standards to enable global trade
  • Public and private commitments to purchase near-zero emission steel, and actions to level the playing field between steel producing nations
  • Investment for agriculture technologies and farming practices that can cut emissions from livestock and fertilisers, expand availability of alternative proteins and accelerate the development of climate resilient crops
  • International standards for monitoring and reporting on the state of natural resources on which agriculture depends, covering soil health, soil carbon content, and pollinator health

Source: 

  • https://www.iea.org/news/international-collaboration-gap-threatens-to-undermine-climate-progress-and-delay-net-zero-by-decades

Original report:

  •  https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/49ae4839-90a9-4d88-92bc-371e2b24546a/THEBREAKTHROUGHAGENDAREPORT2022.pdf

 

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Keywords: General studies III: Important reports, Breakthrough Agenda Report
Terms & Concepts

Asian Palm Oil Alliance - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: The apex edible oil industry associations from five major palm oil importing countries of Asia namely-India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepalhave recently come together to form the Asian Palm Oil Alliance (APOA).
  • The APOA aims is safeguarding theeconomic and business interests of the palm oil consuming countries and will work towards increasing the consumption of palm oil in member countries.

  • The alliance would work towards ensuring that palm oil is recognised as a high-quality, economical, and healthy vegetable oiland to change the negative image of palm oil.
  • Membership of APOA would be further expanded to include companies or industry bodiesassociated with production or refining of palm oil across the continent.
  • APOA held its first general body meeting on the sidelines of the Globoil Summit being held at Agra, India and the next meeting is expected to be heldin Indonesia early next year 2023.
  • Globoil Summitis one of the World’s Leading Edible Oils and Agri Trade Conference, Exhibitions & Awards.
  • Grown only in the tropics, the oil palm tree produces high-quality oil used primarily for cooking in developing countries. It is also used in food products, detergents, cosmetics and, to a small extent, biofuel.
  • India is the world’s largest importer of palm oil, buying over 9 million tonnes annually, or nearly two-thirds of its total edible oil imports. It is the second-largest consumer of edible oil globally, with imports of around 60 per cent of our edible oil requirement.

 

Source:

  • https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/elections/lok-sabha/india/atul-chaturvedi-elected-as-first-chairman-of-asian-palm-oil-alliance/articleshow/94368981.cms?from=mdr

 

Image source:

  • https://www.financialexpress.com/economy/palm-oil-alliance-formed-by-5-south-asian-countries/2686569/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Agricultural Marketing, Food Security
Terms & Concepts

DART Mission - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: NASA’s DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test) has successfully crashed into the asteroid Dimorphos. 
  • DART is a low-cost spacecraft used to testthe new technology to be prepared in case an asteroid heads towards Earth in the future.
  • The aim is to test the newly developed technology that would allow a spacecraft to crash into an asteroid and change its course.

  • The target of the spacecraft is a small moonlet called Dimorphos (Greek for “two forms”) that orbits a larger asteroid named Didymos (Greek for “twin”).
  • It is a suicide mission and the spacecraft will be completely destroyed.
  • The spacecraft hastwo solar arrays and uses hydrazine propellant for maneuvering the spacecraft. It also carries about 10 kg of xenon which will be used to demonstrate the agency’s new thrusters called NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster–Commercial (NEXT-C) in space.
  • The spacecraft carriesa high-resolution imager called Didymos Reconnaissance and Asteroid Camera for Optical Navigation (DRACO), the images of which will be sent to Earth in real-time and will help study the impact site and surface of Dimorphos (the target asteroid).
  • DART will also carry a small satellite or CubeSat named LICIACube(Light Italian CubeSat for Imaging of Asteroids) which is expected to capture images of the impact and the impact crater formed as a result of the collision.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/nasa-dart-live-double-asteroid-redirection-test-dimorphos-didymos-8173261/

Image source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/nasa-dart-mission-asteroid-explained-7617692/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3: Science and Technology: DART Mission, NASA, Asteroid
Terms & Concepts

Maharatna Status - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: Rural Electrification Corporation (REC)has been recently accorded the status of a ‘Maharatna’ Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE).
  • The Maharatna dispensationwas ushered in by the Union government for mega Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) to become global giants (introduced in 2010).
  • CPSEs are those companies in which the direct holding of the Central Governmentor other CPSEs is 51% or more.

  • The objective of the scheme is to delegate enhanced powers to the Boards of identified large-sized Navratna CPSEs to facilitate expansion of their operations, both in domestic as well as global markets.
  • “Maharatna” status is granted to a company which has recorded more than Rs. 5,000 crores of net profitfor three consecutive years, an average annual turnover of Rs. 25,000 crore for three years or should have an average annual net worth of Rs. 15,000 crore for three years. It should also have global operations or footprints.
  • A CPSE should also have aNavratna status, be listed on an Indian stock exchange.
  • The objective of the scheme is to delegate enhanced powers to the Boards of identified large-sized Navratna CPSEs to facilitate expansion of their operations, both in domestic as well as global markets.
  • CPSEs fulfilling the following criteria are eligible to be considered for grant of Maharatna status:
    • Having Navratna status
    • Listed on the Indian stock exchange, with a minimum prescribed public shareholding under SEBI regulations.
    • Criteria of turnovers as laid down.
    • Significant global presence or international operations
  • The other 11 Maharatna CPSEs at present are Power Finance Corporation, Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Bharat Petroleum Corp. Ltd, Coal India Ltd, GAIL (India) Ltd, Hindustan Petroleum Corp. Ltd, Indian Oil Corp. Ltd, NTPC Ltd, Oil & Natural Gas Corp. Ltd, Power Grid Corp. of India Ltd, and Steel Authority of India Ltd.

 

Source:

  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1861501#:~:text=REC%20has%20been%20accorded%20with,under%20the%20Ministry%20of%20Finance

Image source:

  • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1861501#:~:text=REC%20has%20been%20accorded%20with,under%20the%20Ministry%20of%20Finance

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 3, economy
Terms & Concepts

IBSA Forum - Edukemy Current Affairs


  • Context: India recently hosted a virtual summit of Tourism Ministers from India, Brazil, and South Africa (IBSA).
  • The IBSA is a trilateral, developmental initiativebetween India, Brazil and South Africa to promote South-South cooperation and exchange.
  • The idea of South-South Cooperation (SSC) is not new.
  • Its genesis can be traced back to the decades of efforts by countries and groupings working together to ensure South-South solidarity such as Bandung conference, Non-Aligned 1961,  G77 grouping,UNCTA,  the Buenos Aires Plan of Action 1978, and the 2009 Nairobi declaration.

  • The grouping was formalized and named the IBSA Dialogue Forumwhen the Foreign Ministers of the three countries met in Brasilia (Brazil) on 6th June 2003 and issued the Brasilia Declaration.
  • IBSA does nothave a headquarters or a permanent executive secretariat.
  • So far Five IBSA Leadership Summits have been held. The 5thIBSA Summit was held in Pretoria (South Africa) in 2011. The 6th IBSA Summit is to be hosted by India.
  • India is the current IBSA Chair.

 

Source:

  • https://www.mea.gov.in/outoging-visit-detail.htm?35736/Joint+Communique+following+the+10th+IBSA+Trilateral+Ministerial+Commission+Meeting

Image source:

  • https://www.ibsa-trilateral.org/

 

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Keywords: GS 2- International Treaties & Agreements, GS 3 - Growth & Development
Editorial of the day

What CBI’s shrinking jurisdiction implies: Hindustan Times


Essence - The editorial discusses about the jurisdiction of CBI in light of many state government withdrawing their consent for extending CBI jurisdiction within their state. It elaborates on the role of CBI since its inception in 1941 till present and highlighted the issue of political influence in its working. It also brings out the high quality investigation by CBI having more that 60% conviction rate. Then discusses the main reason behind withdrawal of the consent for CBI investigation by many states. Then it ponders upon the possible impact of shrinking jurisdiction of CBI in fight against corruption.

Towards the end it recommends certain reforms such as making CBI autonomous on line with ECI, restructuring selection process to make it free of political influence.

Why should you read this editorial?

To know about the functioning and jurisdiction of CBI.

To get the idea about the importance of cooperative federalism in fighting corruption.

 

Source:

  • https://www.hindustantimes.com/opinion/what-cbi-s-shrinking-jurisdiction-implies-101663770576349.html

 

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Keywords: GS2, Indian Polity
Editorial of the day

How to fix India’s broken police forces, CBI and IB: IE


Essence- The article calls for police reforms and their role in the development of the country. While doing so, it suggests 10 reasons why the reforms are necessary and immediately needed. The present police system is answerable to the executive, which is a remnant of the colonial era. This needs to be changed so that police personnel are answerable to the law alone.

Sound law and order would be better facilitation for economic development, and professional police are needed to ensure it.  The police reforms need to be structured around the law so that the infiltration of people into the legislature of questionable backgrounds can be checked, people have confidence in the police, and the law-and-order situation is strengthened to the extent that organized crimes are minimized and dealt with an iron fist.

The article further suggests that the reforms needed are not only modus-operandi and authoritative in nature, but are also needed in the technological and resources domains. This calls for better management of human resources, cutting the long working hours, access to housing, and proper infrastructure to all non-gazetted posts as well. Further, the article calls for the reforms to be extended to all wings under the center as well including CBI, IB, etc.

Why should you read this editorial?

  • The article is a good read to understand the obstacles hindering police reforms and what reforms are immediately needed.
  • The article rightly sums up all the aspects of the police reforms including the legal legislative framework and the social and organizational setup.

Source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/how-to-fix-india-police-force-cbi-ib-8168723/lite/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 2, Internal Security, Police reforms, CBI, Intelligence Bureau
Case Study of the Day

Urdu Poetry's Role in S. Africa's Anti-Apartheid


Background:

A special event was held recently, in a bid to celebrate the role that Urdu poetry played in South Africa’s freedom struggle.

About Urdu Poetry's role in South Africa

  • In South African anti-apartheid campaigns, the voice of Urdu poetry was always present on the agenda.
  • This is evident in the way how the patriotic song ‘par na jhanda yeh neeche jhukana’ (never lower the flag), which is believed to have been an anthem among the freedom fighters in India in the 1920s, had already achieved cult status during meetings of the Indian Congress movement in South Africa.
    • Also, in 1981, the song was revived and found new life among a new generation of activists.
  • Further, in the resistance campaign of 1946, one of the biggest campaigns within the Indian community after Mahatma Gandhi left South Africa, a number of Urdu poets gathered to write poems.
  • In this perspective, two teams are now researching the history of Urdu poetry in South Africa, which will come out with a book and documentary film in South Africa.
  • Hence, Urdu poetry has been consistent in recording the struggle history of South Africa, from the Defiance Campaign, the Rivonia Trial (that sent Nelson Mandela and others to prison for decades) and up to Mandela’s ascent to the Presidency after his release, in a very prolific and profound way

 

Quote

Language is the blood of the soul into which thoughts run and out of which they grow” - Oliver Wendell Holmes.

 

Source:

  • Special event on Urdu poetry’s role in anti-apartheid movement organised in S Africa

Image source:

  • https://indianexpress.com/article/world/special-event-urdu-poetrys-anti-apartheid-s-africa-8173008/

 

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Keywords: GS Paper 1: History of the World: Urdu Poetry, South Africa, Anti-apartheid movement
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