Wednesday, 6th September 2023

Table of contents

1   Editorial of the day


Women-led climate action - Edukemy Current Affairs

2   Daily Current Affairs


Significance and legacy of Parliament in India’s democracy


BS 6 Stage II ‘Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicle’


UN Urges Protection of World Heritage for Biodiversity


Artifacts to grace G-20 corridor


Gramodyog Vikas Yojana - Edukemy Current Affairs


Omission of disability-related questions from NFHS-6


Largest indigenously developed Nitrogen plant


Micronesia and COFA - Edukemy Current Affairs


Kigali (Rwanda) - Edukemy Current Affairs

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Editorial of the day

Women-led climate action - Edukemy Current Affairs

Exam View: Impact of climate change on women; Way forward.

Context: Women in the emerging countries are more vulnerable to climate change because of their dependence on natural resources and labour-intensive work.

Decoding the editorial: Impact of climate change on women

  • Women across the world face severe risks to their health, safety, and quality of life.
  • Women are more likely to live in poverty than men.
    • It is just one of several social, economic, and cultural variables that makes them more susceptible to the effects of climate change.
    • According to estimates, 130 million people could be pushed into poverty by 2050 due to climate change risks, natural disasters, and food inflation, impacting women’s inequality.
  • Women in developing and less developed countries are more vulnerable.
    • It is because of their dependence on natural resources and labour-intensive work for their livelihood.
    • According to the ILO, over 60% of working women in southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are still in agriculture, where they are often underpaid and overworked.
  • Women in low-income countries engaged in climate-vulnerable occupations such as farming face further issues.
    • Women own only about 10% of the land used for farming.
    • Women engaged in agriculture do not have access to quality inputs and possess low education and technical knowledge.
    • Heat stress affects workers a lot in this sector, especially in South Asia and Africa.
    • Changing precipitation patterns and more frequent extreme weather events are just the beginning of the problems.
    • Their effects on crop production and food security fall disproportionately on these people, who already face significant challenges in obtaining resources, expertise, and technology.
  • Women from low-income households are more at risk.
    • It is because they are more responsible for food, water, and other homely unpaid work.
  • Women in rural areas are impacted disproportionately by climate change.
    • Due to the climate crisis, more time and effort are needed to obtain basic necessities.
    • Rural women often shoulder the burden of ensuring access to clean water, adequate cooking fuel, and nutritious food for their families.
    • Women may be at increased risk for health and safety because they must travel long distances every day to collect water and fuel.
  • Women are more likely to be displaced by climate-related disasters.
    • According to a UN study, most (80%) of those displaced by climate-related disasters are women and girls.
  • Women, especially those from vulnerable communities, face particular difficulties during and after natural disasters.
    • When women are uprooted, they are more susceptible to prejudice and exploitation.
    • For instance, after the earthquake in Nepal in 2015, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) found women were more exposed to trafficking and exploitation.
    • Separation from social networks, a higher risk of gender-based violence, and decreased access to employment, education, and essential health services, such as sexual and reproductive health care and psychosocial support, are just some gender-specific issues women face.

Way forward

  • Invest in women’s education, training
    • Investments in women’s education, training, and access to resources are essential if we are to be resilient to the impact of climate change.
    • The negative impacts of climate change on people’s living standards can be reduced by teaching them how to practise sustainable agriculture, water management, and energy generation.
    • For example, in India, the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) teaches women farmers how to respond to shifting climate patterns to support themselves better financially.
    • Therefore, it is essential to support groups that educate the public, train people to adapt to climate change and invest in women’s education and training in environmentally-friendly farming methods.
  • Women’s participation in climate policy decision-making at all levels
    • As women face greater risks in climate change, gender parity in decision-making bodies is essential.
    • One such programme in South Asia is the Gender and Climate Change Development Programme, which aims to increase women’s influence in policy making by providing them with a stronger voice.

Gender equality and environmental goals are mutually reinforcing and create a virtuous circle that will help accelerate the achievement of the SDGs.



Keywords: GS Paper-2, Issues Related to Women, GS Paper-3, GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Daily Current Affairs

Significance and legacy of Parliament in India’s democracy

In News: Recently, the Speaker said that Parliament has created an elegant symphony of democracy, that rises above the occasional. 


The Indian Parliament is the highest deliberative body and supreme representative institution of the largest working democracy in the world. It is in its Chambers that the destiny of a nation of a billion-plus people is shaped, and their expectations, concerns, problems, and dreams are fulfilled. It is in this temple of democracy that the members of the two Houses of Parliament keep the Executive accountable at all times and closely monitor the policies and programs for national welfare.

Significance of Parliament in India’s democracy:

  • Historical Legacy: Deeply rooted in India’s historical and cultural heritage, reflecting participative governance for millennia. For example, India is widely regarded as the “mother of democracy”.Ancient texts and local self-governance traditions—Sabhas, Samitis, Republic.
  • Founding Fathers’ Vision: India’s founders had faith in people’s wisdom, leading to the adoption of an enlightened Constitution. For example, adoption of a democratic system post-independence.
  • Accommodative Democracy: Effective management of conflicts, celebration of diversity, and promotion of unity for development and prosperity. For example, Unity in diversity is a fundamental national ethos.
  • Watchdog of Public Exchequer: Oversight of public finances, budget approval, and accountability of the Executive. For example, Approval of budgets and financial allocations.
  • Voice of the People: Platform for citizens to raise concerns, and promote socio-economicchange through legislation and debates. For example, the issue of the Manipur crisis discussed in Parliament sessions.
  • Living Institution: Vibrant representation of the will of over a billion Indians, dedicated to citizens’ welfare and unity. For Example, Consistent legislative work for national progress.
  • Symphony of Democracy: Creation of an elegant symphony of democracy, upholding constitutional values and national interests. For example, successful parliamentary functioning despite disagreements.
  • Evaluation by Parliamentary Committees: Detailed scrutiny of bills,budget proposals, and ministries, enhancing oversight and accountability. For example, Committees’ role in policy evaluation and formulation.
  • Autonomy and Parliamentary Privileges: Protection of members’ autonomyand dignity through immunity and privileges for free expression. For example, Immunity from prosecution for parliamentary speech.
  • Accountability: Parliament is entrusted with securing accountability of the Executive throughvarious instruments such as the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business, tradition and well-settled precedents.
  • Empowering the Grassroots: India's democracy is not confined to the national level alone; it extends to the grassroots through a vibrant system of local self-governance. For example, Panchayati Raj institutions in decentralizing power and involving citizens in the decision-making process.
  • Use of Technology: In the digital age, technology has transformed the way democracy’s function. Technology makes parliamentary proceedings more accessible to the public and bridge the gap between citizens and their elected representatives.

Parliament shows the enduring elegance of Indian democracy, emphasizing unity in diversity, resilience, cooperation, accountability, and technological progress. India's democratic model continues to inspire and serves as a testament to the enduring strength of democratic principles.

Keywords: GS-2, Polity and Constitution
Daily Current Affairs

BS 6 Stage II ‘Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicle’

Why in News: Recently, Toyota Kirloskar Motor has launched the world’s first prototype of a BS 6 Stage II ‘Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicle’ in India.

Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs):

  • It is designed to run on a flexible combination of fuels, typically gasoline and ethanol.
  • These vehicles are equipped with engines that can adjust their fuel mixture based on the available fuel blend E.g., E20 (20% ethanol and 80% gasoline) or even higher percentages.

Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicles:

  • They are a more advanced version of FFVs that offer the advantage of being able to operate on both ethanol-based fuels and electricity.
  • They provide higher fuel efficiency and potentially reducing emissions compared to traditional gasoline-only vehicles.

Bharat Stage (BS6) Norms:

  • The BS regulations are based on the European emission standards and the Central Pollution Control Board implements these standards.
  • Presently, every newly sold and registered vehicle in India is required to adhere to the BS-VI version of emission regulations.

BS6 Stage II Norms:

  • These are even stricter emission limits compared to the initial BS6 norms.
  • BS6 (Stage II) incorporates Real Driving Emissions (RDE) and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE 2) and On-Board Diagnostics.
  • The new RDE test figures will provide a more realistic estimation of the amount of emissions likely to be produced by vehicles in real traffic conditions with frequent changes in speed, acceleration, and deceleration.
  • Onboard diagnostic (OBD) systems monitor and report the status and performance of various vehicle subsystems and sensors.

Significance of Flex Fuel Vehicles:

  • These vehicles offer higher ethanol use and better fuel efficiency similar to Strong Hybrid Electric Vehicles (SHEVs).
  • Electrified Flex Fuel Vehicles use minimal advanced chemistry batteries to reduce dependence on imports.
  • It reduces reliance on conventional fuels, contributing towards sustainable transportation and India's 'Aatmnirbhar Bharat' initiative as production of ethanol increases.
  • The vehicle represents a significant stride towards decarbonization and greener mobility, aligning with global efforts to combat climate change.

Challenges with FFVs:

  • Higher cost of ownership and running cost for customers, which may affect their acceptance unless retail fuel prices are competitive.
  • Developing FFVs requires significant effort and calibration with multiple fuel blends, making them less viable without widespread fuel availability.

Keywords: GS – 3, Environment and Ecology (Environmental Pollution and Degradation)
Daily Current Affairs

UN Urges Protection of World Heritage for Biodiversity

Why in News: According to the UNESCO and IUCN, protecting world heritage sites can help conserve biodiversity and meet the targets set by the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).

World Heritage Sites (WHS):

  • These are landmarks or areas of cultural, historical, scientific, or natural significance that are recognized and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
  • These sites are considered to be of outstanding value to humanity, and their preservation is of global importance.
  • There are two main types of World Heritage sites:
    • Cultural Heritage Sites: These include historical buildings, cities, monuments, archaeological sites, and cultural landscapes that hold cultural and historical significance. E.g., Pyramids of Egypt, the Historic Centre of Rome, and the Great Wall of China, etc.
    • Natural Heritage Sites: These encompass natural areas, ecosystems, and geological formations that are of exceptional natural beauty or scientific importance. E.g., the Galápagos Islands, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and Yellowstone National Park in the United States, etc.

Biodiversity in UNESCO WHS:

  • The total of 1157 World Heritage sites take up only 1 per cent of the earth’s surface.
  • UNESCO World Heritage sites (WHS) are home to 75,000 species of plants, and over 30,000 species of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians — a fifth of all the species mapped globally.
  • Today, up to 1/3rd of remaining elephants, tigers and pandas can be found in these sites, as well as at least one in 10 great apes, giraffes, lions and rhinos.
  • They are home to all remaining Javan rhinos, vaquitas (the world’s smallest cetacean) and pink iguanas, as well as more than half of all Sumatran rhinos, Sumatran orangutans and mountain gorillas.
  • Threats to these WHS:
    • Agricultural expansion,
    • Infrastructure development,
    • Poaching,
    • Overexploitation of resources and
    • Proliferation of invasive species.

Keywords: GS – 3, Environment and Ecology (Biodiversity)
Daily Current Affairs

Artifacts to grace G-20 corridor

Why in news? Several objects of cultural significance will be displayed at the special Culture Corridor which will be set up at the venue of the G-20 summit in New Delhi.


  • A copy of the Magna Carta, United Kingdom’s famous charter of rights, a 15th century bronze statue of Belvedere Apollo from Italy, and an 18th century Fahua-lidded jar from China would be Some of the physical items on display.
  • India’s contribution would be Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the ancient text.
  • Notable digital contributions include France’s Mona Lisa, Germany’s Gutenberg’s Bible, and Mexico’s statue of the deity ‘Coatlicue’.
  • The Culture Corridor-G-20 Digital Museum has been conceptualised by the Ministry of Culture to represent and celebrate the shared heritage of G-20 members and invitee countries and will create a “museum in the making”.
  • The Culture Corridor-G-20 Digital Museum will be unveiled at the G-20 Leaders’ Summit venue, ‘Bharat Mandapam,’.
  • This project is based on India’s G20 theme Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ and the Culture Working Group’s (CWG) hallmark campaign ‘Culture Unites All”.

More Information:

  • Submissions were requested from G-20 countries and nine guest nations under five categories:
  • Object of Cultural Significance (as a physical display); Iconic Cultural Masterpiece (as a digital display); Intangible Cultural Heritage (digital display); Natural Heritage (digital display); and Artefact Related to Democratic Practices (physical or digital display).

Keywords: GS – 2, Groupings & Agreements Involving India and/or Affecting India's Interests
Daily Current Affairs

Gramodyog Vikas Yojana - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, The Chairman of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), recently, distributed toolkits and machinery to artisans in Bhubaneshwar, Odisha, as part of the Gramodyog Vikas Yojana.


  • During this event, Electric Wheels were distributed to 100 potters, Footwear Toolkits were provided to 75 Leather Artisans and Paper Massey Machines were given to 60 artisans.

Gramodyog Vikas Yojana (GVY)

  • Gramodyog Vikas Yojana was launched in March 2020.
  • It is one of the two components of Khadi Gramodyog Vikas Yojana, which aims to promote and develop the village industries through common facilities, technological modernization, training
  • The other component of Khadi Gramodyog Vikas Yojana is the Khadi Vikas Yojana (KVY) which includes two new components such as Rozgar Yukt Gaon, Design House (DH).
  • Included Activities:
  • Agro Based & Food Processing Industry (ABFPI)
  • Mineral-Based Industry (MBI)
  • Wellness & Cosmetics Industry (WCI)
  • Handmade Paper, Leather & Plastic Industry (HPLPI)
  • Rural Engineering & New Technology Industry (RENTI)
  • Service Industry
  • Components
  • Research & Development and Product Innovation
  • Capacity Building
  • Marketing & Publicity,Lok%2DSabha%20Constituency%2C%20Smt.

Keywords: GS – 2, Government Policies & Interventions
Keywords: GS – 2, Health
Daily Current Affairs

Largest indigenously developed Nitrogen plant

Why in news? The third unit of the indigenously developed 700-megawatt electric (MWe) nuclear power reactor at the Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP3) in Gujarat, has started operations at full capacity.


  • The Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP3) is situated in the Kakrapar in Gujarat, India.
  • The plant boasts a total installed capacity of 1,950 MWe, comprising three units, each with a capacity of 700 MWe. KAPP3 represents the third unit of this facility.
  • The primary power source employed by the plant is Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs).
  • These PHWRs utilize natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as both moderator and coolant.
  • KAPP3 is anticipated to generate sufficient electricity to meet the annual power needs of approximately 4 million people. Furthermore, it is poised to contribute to reducing India's reliance on fossil fuels for power generation.
  • To ensure safety, the plant is equipped with several key features, including a containment building, a reactor pressure vessel, and a cooling system.
  • These features are meticulously designed to prevent the release of radioactive materials in the event of an unforeseen accident.
  • The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is the entity responsible for operating the plant.
  • NPCIL is a government-owned enterprise tasked with the development and operation of nuclear power plants throughout India.

More Information:

  • This marks a significant achievement in India’s civilian nuclear program, as it is the country’s first 700 MWe unit and represents a scale-up in technology.
  • The reactor uses Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) technology and is seen as a milestone in India’s effort to expand its nuclear power capacity to 22,480 MWe by 2031.
  • The reactor design also incorporates enhanced safety features, including a Passive Decay Heat Removal System.

Keywords: GS – 3, Biotechnology, Indigenization of Technology
Daily Current Affairs

Micronesia and COFA - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, The United States signed agreements with Micronesia to extend economic assistance to the island state.


  • The U.S. is also signed a renewed COFA agreements with Palau and the Marshall Islands.
  • Aim: The agreements were part of a strategic pact that the U.S. is using to counter China in the Pacific.


  • Micronesia is a region of islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
  • It is made up of thousands of islands, atolls, and reefs.
  • It is divided roughly along cultural and linguistic lines into the states of—from west to east—Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae.
  • The capital of Micronesia is Palikir, which is located on the island of Pohnpei.
  • To the west of the Federated States of Micronesia lies the Republic of Palau, also in the Caroline archipelago, and to the east is the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

The Compact of Free Association (COFA)

  • The Compact of Free Association (COFA) is an international agreement between the U.S. and the three Pacific Island states (Micronesia, Palau, and Marshall Islands).
  • The COFA allows the U.S. to base troops in these countries in exchange for economic and migratory benefits.
  • The COFA also denies military access to these countries by any outside party without U.S. consent.,against%20China%20in%20the%20Pacific.

Keywords: GS – 1, Geography
Daily Current Affairs

Kigali (Rwanda) - Edukemy Current Affairs

Why in news? Recently, The International Solar Alliance (ISA) hosted its 5th regional meeting in Kigali, Rwanda.


  • Kigali, city and capital of Rwanda.
  • It is located in the centre of the country on the Ruganwa River.
  • Rwanda is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley of Central Africa, where the African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge.
  • Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

More About the News:

  • ISA grants have facilitated the implementation of nine solar power demonstration projects in Uganda, Comoros, and Mali. These projects included the solarization of rural healthcare centres and primary schools in these countries.
  • ISA also launched the SolarX Startup Challenge, promoting entrepreneurship and clean energy in Africa.
  • The Global Solar Facility aims to boost innovative solar technologies in Africa through private investment and guarantees.

Keywords: GS – 1, Geography
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UPSC Daily Current Affairs focuses on learning current events on a daily basis. An aspirant needs to study regular and updated information about current events, news, and relevant topics that are important for UPSC aspirants. It covers national and international affairs, government policies, socio-economic issues, science and technology advancements, and more.

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UPSC Daily Current Affairs covers a wide range of topics, including politics, economics, science and technology, environment, social issues, governance, international relations, and more. It offers news summaries, in-depth analyses, editorials, opinion pieces, and relevant study materials. It also provides practice questions and quizzes to help aspirants test their understanding of current affairs.

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