10 Aug to 24 Aug, 2023

Table of contents

1   Feature Article



2   News in Brief





3   Key Terms


Palaeo Proxies


Carbon capture & Storage


Biomass Co firing


Cavern based storage


Tail Water streams

4   Case Study of The Week


Women led climate resilient farming in Maharashtra

5   Places in the News



6   Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice


Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice

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Feature Article


Why in the news?:  Recently the Government of India and NITI Aayog has released India's National Multidimensional Poverty Index.


  • The Multidimensional Poverty Index, often referred to as MPI, is a powerful and comprehensive tool in the assessment of poverty that goes beyond the traditional income-based measures. While income is undoubtedly a crucial aspect of poverty, it doesn't provide a complete picture of the challenges and deprivations that individuals and households face in their daily lives.
  • The importance of the Multidimensional Poverty Index lies in its ability to offer a more nuanced and holistic understanding of poverty. By considering a range of dimensions, such as health, education, living standards, gender inequality, environmental vulnerability, and social inclusion, the MPI provides a comprehensive assessment of an individual's or a community's well-being. This multi-dimensional approach allows policymakers, researchers, and organizations to identify not only who is poor but also why they are poor and what specific deprivations they face.


  • The MPI is a poverty measurement framework developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  • It assesses poverty by considering multiple dimensions of well-being, aiming to provide a more comprehensive understanding of poverty beyond just income.
  • Dimensions of Poverty in MPI:
    • The MPI typically includes dimensions such as health, education, and living standards.
      1. Health: Access to clean water, nutrition, and healthcare.
      2. Education: School attendance, literacy, and quality of education.
      3. Living Standards: Access to basic services like sanitation, electricity, and adequate housing.
  • Deprivations in Multiple Dimensions:
    • In MPI, individuals or households are considered poor if they are deprived in more than one of the selected dimensions.
    • Deprivation means that they lack access to essential components within each dimension, such as clean water or schooling.
  • Contrasting with Income-Based Measures:
    • Traditional income-based measures, like the poverty line or income per capita, assess poverty solely based on income or consumption levels.
    • They often focus on a single economic dimension and set a threshold income level below which individuals or households are considered poor.
    • Income-based measures may not capture non-monetary deprivations in health, education, and living standards, which are critical aspects of well-being.


Poverty is a universal challenge that extends its grip across the globe, transcending the boundaries of developed and developing nations. It affects diverse populations and manifests in various forms, supported by real-time examples and evidence:

  • Developed Countries and Poverty: In the United States, nearly 11% of the population lived below the poverty line in 2020, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Homelessness, a stark manifestation of poverty, remains a pressing issue in developed cities like Los Angeles, where the homeless population exceeded 66,000 people in 2020.
  • Income Inequality Worldwide: The Global Wage Report 2021-22 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) emphasized that income inequality is a global concern. Even In developed countries like the United Kingdom, the top 10% of earners possess significantly more wealth than the rest of the population, contributing to income disparities.
  • Hidden Poverty in Developed Nations:. In the United Kingdom, for instance, food banks have seen a surge in demand, reflecting food insecurity even in wealthy nations. In the European Union, an estimated 25% of children face the risk of poverty or social exclusion, underscoring the hidden nature of child poverty.
  • Urban and Rural Poverty: In Australia, a developed nation, both urban and rural areas experience poverty. Some remote Indigenous communities face inadequate access to basic services like clean water and healthcare.In the United Kingdom, cities like London have high living costs and homelessness rates, while rural areas contend with agricultural challenges contributing to poverty.
  • Vulnerable Populations in Developed Nations: Vulnerable groups, including refugees and migrants, face poverty challenges in developed countries. In Germany, migrants and refugees often experience higher poverty rates due to language barriers and limited employment opportunities.


  • Sustainable Development Goal 1 (SDG 1) is a pivotal component of the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It underscores the global commitment to eradicate poverty in all its forms. SDG 1 recognizes that poverty is not just about income; it encompasses various dimensions of well-being.
  • According to the United Nations, as of 2022, nearly 9.2% of the global population lived in extreme poverty, surviving on less than $1.90 per day. This equates to approximately 700 million people.
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated poverty. The World Bank estimated that in 2020, the pandemic pushed an additional 88 million to 115 million people into extreme poverty. 


The  multi-dimensional approach of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) highlights variations in poverty experiences beyond traditional income-based measures.

Regional Variation in MPI

  • Sub-Saharan Africa: Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest MPI rates globally. As of 2022, approximately 57% of people in this region experienced multidimensional poverty. Countries like Niger and Chad have MPI rates exceeding 90%.
  • South Asia: South Asia also faces significant poverty challenges. In countries like Afghanistan and Bangladesh, over 50% of the population lives in multidimensional poverty.
  • Latin America: Some Latin American countries have made notable progress in reducing MPI. For example, Colombia reduced its MPI from 30.7% in 2010 to 19.3% in 2020
  • East Asia: East Asia, led by countries like China, has witnessed remarkable reductions in poverty. China's MPI fell from 15.3% in 2010 to 3.5% in 2020.

Country-Specific Examples:

  • India: As of 2020, India had an MPI of 27.9%, indicating that a substantial portion of its population experiences multidimensional poverty. Several Indian states, such as Bihar and Jharkhand, have higher MPIs compared to more prosperous states like Kerala.
  • Nepal: Nepal has made impressive progress in reducing MPI. Between 2006 and 2016, Nepal's MPI decreased from 65.1% to 28.6%, demonstrating that targeted policies and development efforts can yield positive outcomes.
  • Nigeria: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, faces a high MPI of 54.1% as of 2020. The northern regions, in particular, experience elevated poverty rates compared to the south.

Factors Contributing to Variation:

  • Economic disparities, access to education, healthcare, infrastructure, and governance are among the factors contributing to variations in MPI across regions and countries.
  • Cultural and geographical differences also play a role in shaping poverty experiences.


  • China has witnessed remarkable reductions in multidimensional poverty. Its MPI fell from 15.3% in 2010 to 3.5% in 2020.
  • Rapid economic growth, urbanization, and targeted anti-poverty programs, such as the "Dibao" assistance program and poverty alleviation campaigns in rural areas, have contributed to this success.
  • Note : To combat poverty in China's rural areas, Chinese government has established an unconditional cash transfer program known as the Rural Minimum Living Standard Guarantee (Rural Dibao) Program


  • Identifying Vulnerable Populations: MPI identifies vulnerable populations and the dimensions where they are deprived, enabling policymakers to design interventions tailored to the specific needs of these groups. Example: In India, MPI data revealed that certain tribal communities faced severe deprivations in health and education. The Indian government launched the Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana to address their unique challenges.
  • Geographic Targeting: MPI findings help target regions with high poverty concentrations, allowing for geographically specific strategies. In Nepal, MPI data guided the "One Village, One Product" program, which supports income-generating activities in the poorest districts.
  • Education and Healthcare Investments: MPI highlights the critical role of education and healthcare in poverty reduction, necessitating increased investments in these areas. Rwanda's success in reducing MPI is partly attributed to its investments in primary healthcare and universal primary education.
  • Targeting Environmental Sustainability: MPI can incorporate environmental dimensions, emphasizing the need for policies that ensure sustainable development. Bhutan's MPI includes an environmental dimension, encouraging policies that promote environmental conservation alongside poverty reduction.





Data Quality and Availability

Data quality and availability can be a limitation, especially in low-income countries and regions.

Improve data collection methods and ensure regular updates. Initiatives like the World Bank's Global Database on Multidimensional Poverty are working to enhance data accessibility.


Environmental Dimensions:


MPI primarily focuses on social dimensions, often neglecting environmental aspects

Initiatives like the Bhutan MPI include environmental indicators and serve as examples for other countries.


 Inequality Within Dimensions

MPI considers deprivations equally within dimensions, potentially overlooking inequalities within each dimension

Developing indices that consider the depth of deprivations within dimensions can provide a more nuanced understanding of poverty. For example, measuring the quality of education and healthcare services, not just access, can address this challenge.


Dynamic nature of poverty

Poverty is dynamic, and the MPI's static approach may not capture changes over time.


Developing dynamic MPIs that can track changes in poverty over time and adapt to evolving circumstances is essential. This may involve using panel data or incorporating real-time data sources.


The Multidimensional Poverty Index has been a valuable tool for understanding and addressing poverty, but it continues to face challenges. Addressing these challenges, such as improving data quality, integrating environmental dimensions, and adapting to dynamic poverty, is essential to enhance the MPI's effectiveness in guiding policies and programs aimed at reducing poverty worldwide. Collaboration between governments, international organizations, and researchers is crucial to overcoming these challenges and ensuring that poverty reduction efforts are evidence-based and impactful.

Where to use?

Paper II ( Geography Optional ) : Poverty , Longevity , Contemporary issues

Source :






Keywords: WCA
News in Brief


Why in the news?:  Bhutan emerged as the country with impressive net zero carbon emissions and not curbed its carbon footprints.

About :

  • Bhutan is the world’s first carbon negative country because of its extensive forests, covering 70% of the land. The Kingdom is able to absorb more carbon dioxide than it produces.


  • Most countries in the world generate more carbon than they can absorb, posing a great risk of world climate change. According to estimates, the top 5 emitting countries in 2020 were China (31% of global emissions), the US (14%), India (7%), Russia 5%), and Japan (3%).


  • Bhutan’s constitution stipulates that at least 60% of Bhutan should be covered by forest.
  • The Government also creates good conditions for people living in protected areas, both to protect the forest and to prevent hunting, mining, and forest pollution.
  • National resource protection programmes such as Clean Bhutan or Green Bhutan are very active.


  • Free Electricity: To reduce the amount of CO2 produced by burning wood, the Bhutanese government offers farmers free electricity. Bhutan uses its many rivers to generate electricity.  It generates so much electricity from hydropower that it actually sells energy to its neighbors like India.  It is also a way to ensure that no carbon-intensive energy production takes place in their surrounding areas.
  • Environmental Subsidies: Bhutan subsidises LED lights, which are more environmentally friendly than other types of lighting. Additionally, it collaborated with Nissan to develop a subsidy programme to promote the usage of electric vehicles across the nation.
  • Biological Corridors: The government has created biological corridors connecting protected areas with each other. Thus, the vast diversity of animals , free to roam around the country, helps them better adapt to climate change and increase their population naturally.


  • Any country that owns hydroelectricity (like Portugal), geothermal power (like Iceland), a well-built electricity network, less dependence on fossil fuels, and preferential policies to reduce carbon will all have emissions that are smaller than usual.
  • Not every country in the world has such easy access to renewables. Bhutan is a very small area in the mountains with only about 800,000 residents. Moreover, since it is not an industrial country, the energy demand in this country is much lower than in many other countries.
  • Although investing in a clean electricity system on a global scale is also possible, there are still many problems to bring carbon emissions to zero. Because clean energy that is strong enough to supply all could only be atomic electricity – which is relatively dangerous.


  • At the 2015 COP21 conference in Paris, Bhutan pledged that its greenhouse gas emissions would not exceed the carbon sequestered by the country’s forests.
  • Despite projections suggesting its emissions could nearly double by 2040, the country will remain carbon negative if it keeps current levels of forest cover.
  • Maintaining negative carbon is extremely important to the South Asian country as environmental consciousness and appreciation of the natural environment are immensely valued here.
  • Bhutan is “on the path of green and low-carbon development” thanks to government initiatives on making the country zero waste by 2030.
  • Restrictions on the number of visitors entering the country, who also have to pay a daily fee of up to US$250 per person, is also a great way to ensure the environment is not damaged by mass tourism.

Where to use?

Paper I ( Geography Optional ) : Global climate , Human Ecological Adaptations , Environmental Education and Legislation







Keywords: WCA
News in Brief


Why in news? The study indicates that an eastward shift of the Indian monsoon has been a pivotal factor contributing to the arid conditions in the west and northwest regions of India

About :

  • The Thar Desert is located partly in Rajasthan, and partly in the Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan, covering over 200,000 square kilometers of territory. It is the world's 20th-largest desert and the world's 9th-largest hot subtropical desert.


  • While many deserts across the globe are predicted to expand with rising temperatures, the Thar Desert might defy this trend and actually turn green within the next century. For instance, experts have estimated that the Sahara Desert could increase in size by over 6,000 square kilometers annually by 2050.

However, the newly published study offers an unexpected perspective on the Thar Desert.

  • The mean rainfall over the semi-arid northwest regions of India and Pakistan witnessed an increase of 10–50 per cent between 1901 and 2015. Under moderate greenhouse gas scenarios, this rainfall is anticipated to surge by 50–200 per cent.
  • Indian monsoon is indeed expanding westward, leading to a 10 per cent decrease in mean rainfall in the northeast and a 25 per cent increase in the west and north-west
  • "This happens due to the seasonal migration of the rainband or the active Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from south of the equator over the Indian Ocean in winter to about 25 degrees North in summer over the Indian continent,"
  • The expansion of the warm water pool in the equatorial Indian Ocean, brought about by climate change, has led to a westward shift of the ITCZ. This, in turn, drives rain further westward over the land during the summer months.


  • Researchers reveal that reversal of the eastward shift of Indian monsoon coupled with a westward expansion of the present-day Indian monsoon, could radically transform the west and northwest regions of India into a humid "monsoonal" climate.
  • This transformation, in turn, might enhance food security for the nation's burgeoning population.
  • It is crucial for the potential greening of semi arid regions in North west India.
  • The trend will lead to significant agricultural socio-economic changes in the region.


  • Thar desert potentially transforms into a greener landscape, the delicate balance of its ecosystem and the broader implications for the environment and local communities remain subjects of ongoing research.
  • Pastures across Bikaner are shrinking due to the growth of agricultural farms and the expansion of built-up areas because of population changes.
  • Large quantities of vegetation will provide food for locust swarms, allowing them to reach previously unfrequented regions like Delhi, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

Where to use?

Paper 1( Geography optional ) : Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances ,  Monsoons and jet streams , Ecosystem their management and conservation;





Keywords: WCA
Key Terms

Palaeo Proxies

Palaeo Proxies : Palaeo proxies, short for paleoclimate proxies, are indirect pieces of evidence that scientists use to infer past climate conditions. These proxies are typically derived from physical, biological, or chemical processes that respond to changes in temperature or other climatic factors. Recently, it was proclaimed that a particular day in July 2023 as the Warmest in over 100,000 Years is scientifically unfounded. This claim is based on "Palaeo Proxies".

Keywords: WCA
Key Terms

Carbon capture & Storage

Carbon capture & Storage : Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) encompasses methods and technologies to remove CO2 from the flue gas and from the atmosphere, followed by recycling the CO2 for utilization and determining safe and permanent storage options. CO2 captured using CCUS technologies is converted into fuel (methane and methanol), refrigerants and building materials.

Keywords: WCA
Key Terms

Biomass Co firing

Biomass Co firing : Biomass co-firing is a promising technology to decrease the use of fossil fuels for energy generation and hence mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. It stands for adding biomass as a partial substitute fuel in high efficiency coal boilers.

Keywords: WCA
Key Terms

Cavern based storage

Cavern based storage : Cavern-based storage facilities are storage facilities for crude oil or petroleum products that utilize naturally occurring underground caverns for storage purposes. These caverns are typically formed in salt formations or other geological formations through processes such as solution mining or excavation.

Keywords: WCA
Key Terms

Tail Water streams

Tail Water streams : Tail water streams are found below dams and their water source flows from the reservoir. The outlet comes from controlled head gates which release water out from the bottom of the dam.As a result, the most dense and coldest water is released.

Keywords: WCA
Case Study of The Week

Women led climate resilient farming in Maharashtra

  • In 2014, when the Marathawada region of Maharashtra was reeling under a second successive year of severe drought, Swayam Shikshan Prayog (SSP), a Pune-based organization implement a climate resilient farming model which promotes long-term sustainability for marginal farmers directly through use of diversified businesses, marketing of nutritious locally grown foods and water management systems.
  • With training and financial assistance, the women practise water efficient organic farming, cultivation of vegetables, millets, cereals and pulses through mixed cropping, diversifying to 6-12 crops and by increasing crop cycles.
  • SSP recognizes that stand-alone solutions to food security are not sufficient to ensure resilience. All programmes incorporate and inculcate training on water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH), nutrition and education in the engagement journey with the women and their children at home, at school, in the farms and marketplaces.
  • This model addresses the issues of food security, income security, natural resource management and women’s empowerment all at the same time. The project highlights the importance of integrated approach for women and child-centric adaptation and has been scaled up in Maharashtra to more than 300 villages of five drought-prone districts, reaching out to 20,000 women farmers.

Where to use?

 Paper I ( General Studies ) :  Women Empowerment.

Source :





Keywords: WCA
Places in the News


  1. River Devika:  Devika River originates from the hilly Suddha Mahadev temple in the Udhampur district of Jammu and Kashmir and flows down towards western Punjab (now in Pakistan) where it merges with the Ravi River. The Devika Rejuvenation Project is nearing completion as of August 2023, with substantial progress achieved in restoring the Devika River's ecological and cultural vitality. ( Approx. Udhampur)
  2. Chandikhole : It is a place in Jajpur district, Odisha, India. The place has been named after Goddess "Chandi" worshipped by late monk Baba Bhairabananda Bramhachari. Chandikhol has been selected for the establishment of one of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (India) location. ( Approx. Jajpur )
  3. Loni Kalbhor: Loni Kalbhor is a village 11 kilometres east of the City of Pune, Maharashtra, India. The Mula-Mutha river flows close on the northern side of the village. The village is also part of the ever-expanding Pune metropolitan area. ( Approx. Pune )
  4. Kacheguda : It is located in Hyderabad city and is known for to become the first energy-efficient ‘A1 Category’ railway station in India.  South Central Railway is planning to launch its first Vande Bharat express from Kacheguda to Bengaluru. ( Approx. Hyderabad)
  5. Mechi river : The Mechi River is a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India. It originates in the Mahabharat Range in Nepal and is a tributary of the Mahananda River. Recently, The Union Cabinet has approved construction of a new Bridge over Mechi River at Indo-Nepal border.

Keywords: WCA
Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice

Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice

Q1. ‘ Lone Pine Creek' , sometimes , mentioned in news is related to :

  1. Xerophyte species
  2. Wildfire
  3. Peatlands
  4. Cotton Grass

Q2. Consider the following pairs :

              Mangroves.          :     State

  1. Dhamra mangroves     :  West Bengal
  2. Coringa mangroves      :  Andhra Pradesh
  3. Coondapur mangroves :  Karnataka
  4. Vaitarna mangroves     :  Maharashtra

Which of the above mentioned pairs are correct ?

  1. One pair
  2. Two pairs
  3. Three pairs
  4. Four pairs

Q3. Consider the following pairs:

Tiger reserve            :        State / Places

  1. Pench Tiger reserve           : Maharashtra
  2. Amrabad Tiger reserve      :  Andhra Pradesh
  3. Palamau                           : Chhattisgarh
  4. Dandeli- Anshi.                 :  Karnataka

Which of the above mentioned pairs are correctly matched ?

  1. One pair
  2. Two pairs
  3. Three pairs
  4. Four pairs

Q4. Which of the following statements about Bisphenol (BPA) is incorrect?

  1. Bisphenol (BPA) is commonly used in the production of certain types of plastics, such as polycarbonate and epoxy resins.
  2. BPA has been linked to potential health concerns, including its potential to mimic estrogen and disrupt hormonal balance.
  3. Bisphenol (BPA) is primarily used in the manufacturing of textiles and clothing materials.
  4. BPA exposure can occur through the consumption of certain food and beverage containers made with BPA-containing plastics.

Q5. Consider the following pairs :

Tribes             :       States

  1. Limboo.           :       Sikkim
  2. Karbi.              :       Himachal Pradesh
  3. Dongaria Kondh. :    Odisha
  4. Bonda.              :     Tamil Nadu

Which of the above are correctly matched ?

  1. One pair
  2. Two pairs
  3. Three pairs
  4. Four pairs

Q6. Consider the following :

  1. Ice cores
  2. Tree Rings
  3. Coral records
  4. Pollen records

Which of above mentioned are used for “ Palaeo proxies “  or measurements of climate and environmental conditions?

  1. Only one option is correct
  2. Only two options are correct
  3. Only three options are correct
  4. All four options are correct.

Q7. With reference to Western Tragopan , consider the following statements:

  1. They are among the rarest of all living pheasants.I.e a large long tailed bird
  2. The growing population of it signals climate change as they  are known to grow and thrive in dry conditions.

Which of the above mentioned statements is / are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q8. Consider the following :

  1. Arunachal Pradesh
  2. Manipur
  3. Nagaland
  4. Meghalaya

With reference to the states mentioned above , in terms of percentage of Forest cover to the total area of State , which one of the following is correct ascending order?

  1. 2-3-1-4
  2. 2-3-4-1
  3. 3-2-4-1
  4. 3-2-1-4

Q9. Which among the following are not included in process of carbon capture and storage?

  1. Co2 is isolated from other gases generated during industrial processes or power generation.
  2. Co2 is compressed and transported to designated sites frequently through pipelines.
  3. Co2 injected into subterranean rocks , when it remains stored for  extended periods.
  4. None of the above

Q10. Consider the following statements regarding Vultures:

  1. Vultures thrive in densely forested habitats , where they primarily feed on carcasses.
  2. Ketoprofen drug have been found to be harmful to vultures causing their death

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q11. Which of the following statements regarding the geological occurrences in specific regions of India is/are correct?

  1. The Deccan Traps, known for extensive volcanic rock formations, are primarily located in the western part of India.
  2. The largest coal reserves in India are found in the Damodar Valley region.
  3. The Aravalli Range is renowned for its rich deposits of iron ore.

Select the correct code from the following :

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. None

Q12. Consider the following :

  1. Vishakhpatnam
  2. Padur
  3. Digboi
  4. Chandikole

Which of the above mentioned places have Strategic petroleum reserves in India ?

  1. Only one
  2. Only Two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q13. Consider the following statements regarding Devika river:

  1. It originates from hilly Suddha Mahadev Temple in Jammu and Kashmir.
  2. It flows down towards Punjab and meets Satluj at Pathankot.
  3. It is revered by Hindus as the sister of river Ganga.

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. Only 1
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 2 and 3

Q14. Consider the following:

  1. Libya
  2. Mali
  3. Mauritania
  4. Chad
  5. Sudan

Which of the above mentioned are considered as part of Sahel region?

  1. 1, 2 ,4 and 5
  2. 1, 2, 3 and 4
  3. 2,3,4 and 5
  4. 1,2 ,3,4 and 5

Q15. What is the primary function of “Ionization technology”  in the context of ambient air pollution reduction?

  1. Initiating chemical reactions to neutralize harmful compounds.
  2. Creating a physical barrier to prevent pollutants from entering buildings.
  3. Releasing negatively charged ions to remove particulate matter and pollutants.
  4. Enhancing the dispersion of air pollutants for effective monitoring.

Keywords: WCA
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Geography Current Affairs focuses on the contemporary issues, events, and developments in the field of geography. It covers recent geographical phenomena, environmental changes, geopolitical shifts, and related news. This differs from regular geography studies which may focus more on foundational concepts, historical contexts, and theoretical frameworks.

Updates are provided regularly to ensure that subscribers stay informed about the latest developments in geography. Typically, updates are provided on a fortnightly basis, depending on the frequency of significant events and changes in the field.

Absolutely. Geography Current Affairs serves as a valuable resource not only for Geography optional but also for GS papers, especially GS Paper 1 (covering Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society) and GS Paper 3 (covering Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster Management). It aids in building a holistic understanding of various topics and strengthens answer-writing skills by incorporating contemporary examples and perspectives.

Geography Current Affairs holds immense importance for UPSC preparation, particularly for aspirants opting for Geography optional. It helps candidates stay updated with the latest developments, geographical phenomena, environmental issues, and geopolitical shifts worldwide, aligning them with the dynamic nature of the subject as tested in the UPSC examinations.

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