24 Nov to 10 Dec, 2023

Table of contents

1   Feature Article



2   News in Brief





3   Key Terms


Loss and Damage Fund - Edukemy Current Affairs


Agri Food systems


Extended Producer Responsibility


E Prime Layer


Rat Hole mining - Edukemy Current Affairs

4   Case Study of The Week



5   Places in the News


Places in news

6   Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice



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Feature Article


Why in news :  A recent study published in the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems highlights the unequal impact of the climate crisis on women engaged in agri-food systems across the globe.

About :

  •  Agricultural food systems encompass the entire cycle of food production, distribution, and consumption, involving cultivation, harvesting, processing, packaging, transportation, marketing, and consumption. This complex network includes farmers, processors, distributors, retailers, and consumers. 
  • Climate change has posed challenges to global agri-food systems, impacting crop yields, food quality, and supply chain stability. These challenges have led to economic disparities and social consequences. The need for resilient and sustainable agri-food systems is crucial to address these multifaceted issues and ensure the stability of the global food supply chain.


  • Farmers and Producers:  According to the Food Agriculture Organisation ,  women make up nearly 43% of the agricultural labor force at the global level. Eg. In Sub-Saharan Africa, women produce up to 80% of the food, yet they face challenges in accessing resources and credit (World Bank).
  • Processing and Distribution: UN Women reported that in  Latin America, women-run cooperatives have emerged, enhancing food processing and contribution to economic resilience
  • Access to Resources: In Southeast Asia, limited land rights for women impact their ability to adopt sustainable farming practices .
  • Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Women entrepreneurs contribute to agri-food innovation and value addition. Example: Start-ups led by women in Africa are introducing innovative solutions in food processing, reducing post-harvest losses 



  • Food Security and Nutrition:  Sustainable farming practices, such as agroecology, enhance soil fertility, increase crop diversity, and contribute to improved nutrition.  Initiatives promoting sustainable agriculture, like the UN's Food Systems Summit, emphasize the importance of achieving food security through resilient and sustainable food systems.
  • Economic Growth and Livelihoods:  Agriculture employs over 40% of the global workforce. Investments in sustainable agriculture, such as regenerative farming practices, are gaining traction as governments and businesses recognize their potential for both economic growth and environmental sustainability.
  • Environmental Sustainability: Agroforestry and precision farming techniques contribute to sustainable land use, reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. The global push for carbon-neutral initiatives highlights the need for sustainable agricultural practices to mitigate climate change impacts.
  • Innovation and Technology Adoption: Digital technologies are transforming agri-food systems, improving efficiency and sustainability.  Precision agriculture, blockchain in supply chains, and AI-driven farming practices enhance productivity while reducing environmental impact.


  • Global Ranking of Climate Change Threats: The study ranks 87 countries based on the climate change threat faced by women in agri-food systems.
    • India ranks 12th, with other Asian nations like Bangladesh, and Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nepal also facing significant risks.
  • Identification of High-Risk Regions: Agri-food systems, encompassing production, post-harvest handling, and distribution, are particularly at risk.
    • Within African and Asian regions, central, east and southern Africa and west and south Asia emerge as regions with heightened vulnerability.
    • People living in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at heightened risk.
  • Climate Agriculture Gender Inequality Hotspots: The research combined insights on climate, gender and agri-food systems to map the regions as ‘climate–agriculture–gender inequality hotspots’.
    • The study calculated each country’s risk based on these indicators and plotted the score for each LMIC ( Low Middle Income Country ) country on a color-coded map.
    • The hotspot maps can guide gender-responsive climate action, especially in upcoming climate conferences like Climate Conference (COP 28) and climate investments.
    • This is particularly relevant in ongoing negotiations around a loss and damage fund and other climate investments.
  • Policymaking and Climate Action: The study serves as a crucial entry point for policymaking by illustrating the unequal impact of hazards on women in agriculture.
    • Previous studies highlighted that women and girls are more likely to go hungry following natural disasters linked to climate change.
    • In India, twice the number of women compared to men reported eating less in response to a drought.
    • The hotspot maps can aid decision-makers and investors in targeting finance and investments to areas where women are hardest hit by climate change risks.



Cuba's Local Agricultural Innovation Project  with a focus on its gender-specific elements  was first introduced in Cuba in the early 2000's as a means of carrying out participatory plant-breeding to facilitate the development and use of locally-adapted seed varieties and help farmers diversify their production. This model facilitates female participation and leadership and how this contributes to positive economic, ecological and sociocultural changes in farming households and communities. 

Key impacts include  increased inclusion of women in developing and implementing farm innovations; increased self-confidence for female farmers and farm-family members; increased productive diversification on family farms; and, increased employment and household income through women-led micro-industry projects and facilitation of commercialization opportunities. 




Reduced Food Security & Income

Climate change disrupts agricultural production, reduces crop yields and quality, and increases the risk of pests and diseases. 

Increased workload

Women farmers also have to adapt to changing weather and rainfall patterns, which may require them to adopt new crops, technologies, or practices, or to migrate to other areas.

Reduce Health and Well being 

Climate change heightens the vulnerability of women farmers in India, limiting their access to healthcare, sanitation, and hygiene, while simultaneously exacerbating gender-based violence, particularly in conflict and disaster scenarios.

Limited Participation & Environment.

Women farmers also have less access to information, education, and training, which limits their awareness and capacity to adapt to climate change.


Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana

Aims to empower women by enhancing their participation in agriculture and to create sustainable livelihood opportunities for them.

National Policy for Farmers (2007)

Aims for dedicated women centric government efforts.

Gender Based Budgeting 

30% of the budget allocation has been earmarked for women beneficiaries in all ongoing schemes/programmes and development activities.

Women Self-Help Groups (SHG)

Connect them to micro-credit through capacity building activities.

Recognizing the  role of women in agriculture 

15th October of every year as Women Farmer’s Day


  • Adaptive Strategies for Women Farmers:  To navigate climate-related challenges, women farmers should be encouraged to adopt adaptive strategies, including income diversification and cultivating climate-resilient crops.
  • Training, Capacity Building and Weather Information: Providing women farmers with training in climate-resilient farming techniques, such as agroforestry, crop diversification, water-efficient irrigation, and soil conservation practices.
  • Financial Inclusion: Providing women with access to microfinance services and insurance products that cover climate-related risks, ensuring they have the financial capacity to adapt and recover from climate shocks. Establishing women's savings groups that serve as safety nets during times of crop failure or economic stress.
  • Access to Resources:  Enhancing women's access to water-saving technologies and efficient irrigation methods to cope with water scarcity caused by climate change.
  • Role of Policymakers in Resource Availability: Land tenure reforms that prioritise women’s rights and insurance mechanisms tailored to their needs can bolster resilience against climate-induced risks.
  • Social Security: Ensuring adequate social cover for all women who work in agriculture is another indispensable factor in modern sustainable farming.

Where to Use ?

Paper II ( Geography ) : Agriculture 

Paper III ( General Studies ) : Inclusive Growth, Gender Budgeting ,  Agriculture 

Source : 




News in Brief


Why in news :  Researchers from Arizona State University and an international team discovered the origin of the previously known E prime layer in the Earth’s interior, which until now remained a mystery.

About : 

  • Experiments revealed that when water reaches the core-mantle boundary, it reacts with silicon in the core, forming silica.


  • Tectonic plates carrying surface water , transported deep into the Earth, initiates significant chemical changes, influencing the core's structure.
  • Subducted water reacts chemically with core materials under high pressure and leads to the formation of a hydrogen-rich, silicon-depleted layer at the outer core, resembling a film-like structure.
  • Silica crystals generated by this process ascend and blend into the mantle, impacting the overall composition.
    • These modifications could potentially result in reduced density and altered seismic characteristics.


  • This enhanced our comprehension of Earth's internal mechanisms, indicating a broader and more intricate global water cycle 
  • It would have significant implications for the interconnected geochemical processes linking surface water cycles with the deep metallic core.


            Transition zone between

Conrad Discontinuity

Upper crust and the lower crust

Mohorovicic Discontinuity

Crust and Mantle.

Repetti Discontinuity

Outer mantle and Inner mantle.

Gutenberg Discontinuity

Mantle and Core.

Lehmann Discontinuity

Outer core and Inner core.

Where to use ?

Paper I ( Geography optional ) : Geomorphology , Earth Interior 

Source : 


News in Brief


Why in news :  Continuous warm temperatures for prolonged periods may have led to the serious pest infestation in Assam that damaged around 28,000 hectares of paddy crop in at least 15 districts. The crop was nearing maturity and about to be harvested when the pests attacked it. 

About : 

  • The pest (Mythimna separata) is known as the ear head cutting caterpillar feeds on leaves and can cut off panicles from the base of a crop plant
  • The pest was first reported as a sporadic pest from Tamil Nadu during 1937 and Kerala and Odisha in 1957.
  • The pest multiplies in large numbers and moves in swarms from field to field, like an army, to feed and attack the crops.
  • This attack was partly due to continuous warm temperatures for prolonged periods. 
  •  Changes in both temperature and rainfall are the two big drivers of shifts in how and where pests and diseases spread.
  • Studies revealed that  every small rise in global temperatures will reduce the lifecycle of insects, resulting in a higher population of pests, increasing generations, an extension of geographical range and development season, high risks of invasion by migrant pests and overwintering.
  •  India is  home to 6.83 per cent of the world’s insect species. One  degree Celsius rise in temperature would enable them to expand in presence about 200 kilometre northwards and 40 metres upward in terms of altitude.

PM Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY):  State is gearing  to ensure that affected farmers get benefits under the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, the national crop insurance policy.

  • Launched on 18 February 2026.
  • It aims to reduce the premium burden on farmers and ensure early settlement of crop assurance claims for the full insured sum.
  • The Scheme covers all Food & Oilseeds crops and Annual Commercial/Horticultural Crops for which past yield data is available and for which a requisite number of crop-cutting experiments (CCEs) are being conducted under the General Crop Estimation Survey (GCES).


  • To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crops as a result of natural calamities, pests & diseases.
  • To stabilize the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming.
  • To encourage farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices.
  • To ensure the flow of credit to the agriculture sector.

Implementing Agency:

  • It will be implemented through a multi-agency framework by selected insurance companies under the overall guidance & control of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW),Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare (MoA&FW), Government of India (GOI) and the concerned State in coordination with various other agencies; viz Financial Institutions like Commercial Banks, Co-operative Banks, Regional Rural Banks and their regulatory bodies, Government Departments viz. Agriculture, Co-operation, Horticulture, Statistics, Revenue, Information/Science & Technology, Panchayati Raj etc.

Where to use ?

Paper II ( Geography ) : Agriculture and Climate

Paper I ( General Studies  ) :  Factors influencing Cropping Pattern 

Source : 


Key Terms

Loss and Damage Fund - Edukemy Current Affairs

Loss and Damage Fund : It is a financial mechanism designed to address the irreversible consequences of climate change that cannot be avoided or mitigated through adaptation efforts.  This fund recognizes and aims to compensate for the real losses incurred by communities, countries, and ecosystems due to the impacts of climate change.

Keywords: Loss and Damage fund
Key Terms

Agri Food systems

Agri Food systems: Agrifood systems encompass the primary production of food and non-food agricultural products, as well as in food storage, aggregation, post-harvest handling, transportation, processing, distribution, marketing, disposal and consumption.  Within agrifood systems, food systems comprise all food products that originate from crop and livestock production, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture, and from other sources such as synthetic biology, and that are intended for human consumption.

Keywords: Agri Food systems
Key Terms

Extended Producer Responsibility


Extended Producer Responsibility :  Extended producers’ Responsibilities is a globally recognized policy used as an effective tool to put the onus on the producers for efficient end of life waste management of the plastic, electronic and electrical equipment.The concept of EPR responsibility is based on three foundation principles: Pollution prevention approach , Life cycle thinking and Polluter pay principle.

Keywords: Extended Producer Responsibility
Key Terms

E Prime Layer


E Prime LayerThe E-Prime Layer is a distinct layer at the outermost part of Earth’s core, formed by surface water penetrating deep into the planet over billions of years. This layer is characterized by a hydrogen-rich, silicon-depleted composition, influenced by a chemical reaction with the core’s silicon at the core-mantle boundary.

Key Terms

Rat Hole mining - Edukemy Current Affairs

 Rat Hole mining  :  It is a method of extracting coal from narrow, horizontal seams, prevalent in Meghalaya.The term “rat hole” refers to the narrow pits dug into the ground, typically just large enough for one person to descend and extract coal. Once the pits are dug, miners descend using ropes or bamboo ladders to reach the coal seams. The coal is then manually extracted using primitive tools such as pickaxes, shovels, and baskets.

Keywords: Rat Hole mining
Case Study of The Week


  • Punsari has been dubbed as a "model village" by the state government .
    • Wi-Fi connectivity in the entire village.
    •  Infrastructure and facilities of schools have improved with furniture, air conditioning, projectors for better teaching and CCTV cameras for surveillance. 
    • Mid-day meal scheme of the central government was very well regulated and the benets of the scheme were being properly reached out to children. They have been successful in stopping the migration of children to schools in nearby towns. All this has collectively made school dropout rate to 0.
    •  Mini-buses are used for transportation purpose within the village. A bus facility called the Atal Express has been started for women to collect milk from every house .
    • 120 waterproof speakers have been installed which the Sarpanch uses to inform people about new schemes and initiatives.
    • Installed a Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant in 2010 to supply clean drinking water to the village people .
    • Two banks in the village  have been successful in opening accounts of every household. 
    • Every household has a toilet which is fullling the objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission
    • Village has been successful in making Anganwadis, ATM for cash withdrawal and has even brought in skill development centres, health care centres, and even veterinary centre. 
    • Door to door waste collection two times in a day.

Where to use ?

Paper II ( General Studies ) : Governance. Inclusive Growth 

Paper II ( Geography Optional ) : Multi level planning 

Source : 


Places in the News

Places in news

1. Kodungallur

Why in news :  Kolkali is a folk art form performed in the Kodungallur region of Kerala 

  • It is a historically significant town situated on the banks of river Periyar on the Malabar Coast in Thrissur district of Kerala, India.
  • It is  renowned for its port and the temple dedicated to Goddess Bhagawati.
  • Kodungallur was the gateway for Christianity and Islam.
  • Approx. Thrissur 

2. Udupi 

Why in the news :  Recently , an annual buffalo race  known as Kambala was  held at this place. 

  • It is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
  • It is notable for the Krishna Temple and is also known as the temple city.
  • Approx. Chikamagalur

3. Galathea National Park 

Why in the news : Union Minister for Ports, Shipping and Waterways (MoPSW) and Ayush visited the site of the proposed International Container Transhipment Port (ICTP), at Galathea Bay.

  • It is a national park located in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
  • Galathea National Park forms part of Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve, which also includes the larger Campbell Bay National Park.
  • The Galathea River is one of the prominent rivers in the area, originating from Mount Thullier.
  • Approx. : Great Nicobar 

4. Tirora 

Why in news : Adani Power Maharashtra Limited (APML), a subsidiary of Adani Group constructed a super-critical technology based thermal power plant at Tiroda, Maharashtra.

  • It  is a city and municipal council in the Gondia district of Maharashtra, India.
  • It is the largest coal based Thermal Power Plant in the state of Maharashtra, India.
  • Kawlewada Dam is one of the major attractions in Tirora.
  • Approx :  Nagpur.

5. Bongaigaon 

Why in news : Recently , it has faced a pest attack due to warm temperatures for prolonged periods .

  • It is a major town in the Indian state of Assam. Its urban area spans across Bongaigaon and Chirang district.
  • It  has a major petrochemical industry.
  • The city is the entry point for the Manas National Park and wildlife sanctuary, a UNESCO listed natural World Heritage Site.
  • Approx.  :  Chiranj 

Keywords: Places in news
Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ Practice


Q1.  Consider the following locations:

  1. Galathea Bay
  2. Indira Point
  3. Car Nicobar Island
  4. Little Andaman Island
  5. Barren Island

Arrange these locations from North to south and choose the correct order:

  1. 1, 4, 5, 3, 2
  2. 1, 5, 4, 3, 2
  3. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
  4. 5, 4, 3, 1, 2

Q2. India has recently announced the first Night Sky sanctuary in the South East Asia in which of the following wildlife sanctuary ?

  1. Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary.
  3. Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary.
  4. Daying Ering Wildlife Sanctuary.

Q3. Consider the following statements regarding Rat hole mining : 

  1. This type of  mining is economically viable in regions with thick coal seams.
  2. Rat coal mining in Meghalaya is in accordance with the provisions mentioned in  Sixth schedule of  the Constitution .

Which of the above mentioned statements is / are correct ?

  1. Only 1 
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 

Q4. With reference to Global  Status on Black  soils , consider the following : 

  1. Globally , black soils have the potential to provide 10% of the total Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) sequestration .
  2. Black soils are rich in iron, lime and nitrogen .
  3. India has the highest coverage of Black soil in the world .

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1.  1 and 2 only 
  2. 1 only 
  3.  2 and 3 only 
  4.  1, 2 and 3 

Q5. With reference to The Global Report on Internal Displacement 2023 (GRID-2023), consider the following statements: 

  1. Pakistan had the highest number of disaster displacements in the world in 2022. 
  2. Weather related disasters are largely the result of the effects of La Niña. 
  3. Internally Displaced and Rehabilitation Agency is the leading source of information and analysis on internal displacement . 

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ? 

  1. One only 
  2. Two only 
  3. Three only 
  4. None   

Q6. Consider the following statements regarding Ground water extraction and Land subsidence: 

  1. Kolkata and parts of eastern India experience overexploited groundwater blocks and land subsidence due to rampant mining . 
  2. More than 80% of the groundwater blocks are over exploited in Delhi.

 Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct? 

  1. Only 1 
  2. Only 2 
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 

Q7. Consider the following statements regarding Malnutrition:

  1. Severe Acute Malnutrition also known as wasting, is defined by a weight-for-height indicator.
  2. Moderate Acute malnutrition is defined by a weight-for-height indicator.

 Which of the above mentioned statements is / are correct? 

  1. Only 1 
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q8. With reference to International Day for Biological Diversity, consider the following statements: 

  1. 1. It’s goal is to deliver research based solutions to harness biodiversity. 
  2. UN designated the day to commemorate the conference on the Human Environment .

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q9. Consider the following statements regarding Greenhouse Gas Watch : 

  1. It’s  mission is to build and support a global community of experts for  measuring, accounting , auditing and managing GHG emissions 
  2. It  develops technically rigorous GHG training curricula delivered globally via a “low carbon” e-learning portal.
  3. It conducts multiple training programs for leading climate change institutions including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

 Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct?

  1. Only one 
  2. Only two 
  3. Only three 
  4. None 

Q10. Consider the following statements regarding Overturning Circulation : 

  1. These are spiralling circulations of swirling water that can travel long distances before dissipating. 
  2. They are centred around 60 degrees North and South latitudes  and Southern Ocean. 

 Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1 
  2. Only 2 
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 

Q11. Consider the following statements regarding Chilika lake : 

  1. Major attraction at Chilika lake is Irrawaddy dolphin , often spotted at Satpada island 
  2. Chilika lake recorded the highest number of bird sightings in India. 

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ? 

  1. Only 1 
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2  

Q12. Consider the following statements regarding Chytrid infects:

  1. Chytrid infects frogs by reproducing in their skin, affecting their ability to balance water and salt levels. 
  2. Chytrid originated in Asia and has the lowest mortality rate comparison to other fungal disease. 

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct ?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q13. Consider the following statements regarding Plastics :  

  1. Primary plastics are designed for commercial use , even in textiles . 
  2. Secondary plastics formed from the breakdown of larger plastics. 

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct? 

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2 
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

 Q14. With reference to  Central Pollution Control Board Guidelines for stone crushing sector : 

  1. The stone crushers should obtain consent to establish and consent to operate (CTO) from the District Magistrate  before starting their operations.
  2. Stone crushing unit shall comply with norms prescribed under Air ( Prevention and Control of pollution ) Act , 1981. 

Which of the above mentioned statements is/ are correct? 

  1. Only 1 
  2. Only 2 
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 

Q15. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) urges immediate global action to honour the Paris Agreement. Which among the following countries are part of it?

  1. Pakistan  
  2. India  
  3. Myanmar  
  4. Bangladesh

 Select the correct code from the following: 

  1. 1, 2 and 3 
  2. 2,3 and 4 
  3. 1, 3 and 4
  4. 1, 2 , 3 and 4 

Keywords: Fortnightly KOSMOS MCQ PRACTICE
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Geography Current Affairs focuses on the contemporary issues, events, and developments in the field of geography. It covers recent geographical phenomena, environmental changes, geopolitical shifts, and related news. This differs from regular geography studies which may focus more on foundational concepts, historical contexts, and theoretical frameworks.

Updates are provided regularly to ensure that subscribers stay informed about the latest developments in geography. Typically, updates are provided on a fortnightly basis, depending on the frequency of significant events and changes in the field.

Absolutely. Geography Current Affairs serves as a valuable resource not only for Geography optional but also for GS papers, especially GS Paper 1 (covering Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society) and GS Paper 3 (covering Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster Management). It aids in building a holistic understanding of various topics and strengthens answer-writing skills by incorporating contemporary examples and perspectives.

Geography Current Affairs holds immense importance for UPSC preparation, particularly for aspirants opting for Geography optional. It helps candidates stay updated with the latest developments, geographical phenomena, environmental issues, and geopolitical shifts worldwide, aligning them with the dynamic nature of the subject as tested in the UPSC examinations.

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