Biogeography is the study of the distribution patterns of plants, animals, and other organisms in different geographical regions. It is a field of science that combines biology and geography to understand how living organisms have evolved and adapted to the diverse environmental conditions of the Earth.
The discipline of biogeography is based on the principles of ecology, evolution, and geology. Scientists use various techniques such as phylogenetics, biogeographic models, and paleontology to identify and explain the patterns of biodiversity across different spatial and temporal scales.
One of the key concepts of biogeography is the idea of biotic provinces or regions. These are areas of the Earth that share similar biological characteristics such as climate, soil, and vegetation, and therefore support similar groups of species. Biogeographers also study the movement of species between different regions, and how environmental factors such as climate change or human activities can affect the distribution of biodiversity.
The study of biogeography has significant practical applications, such as conservation biology and the management of ecosystems. By understanding the distribution patterns of species and the processes that shape them, scientists can make informed decisions about how to protect and manage biodiversity, particularly in the face of climate change and other environmental challenges.
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Biogeography Previous Year Questions (UPSC CSE Mains Geography Optional)
- Well-developed soils typically exhibit distinct layers in their soil profile. Elaborate. (10 Marks/2022)
- Gene pool centres are ‘Good Hope’ for biodiversity conservation. Elucidate. (10 Marks/2021)
- Soil erosion and soil degradation are threat to food supply. Discuss. (15 Marks/2021)
- Which factors influence the growth of wild plants in India? Discuss their economic significance. (10 Marks/2020)
- Explain the effects and causes of deforestation, and its impact on the pattern of agriculture in India. (15 Marks/2020)
- Land use/Land cover and soil types influence forage quantity and quality in semi-arid regions of the world. Discuss with relevant examples. (15 Marks/2020)
- How are soil acidity and alkalinity related to soil fertility? (10 Marks/2019)
- Distinguish between intrazonal and azonal soils. Describe in brief the characteristics and importance of azonal soils. (10 Marks/2018)
- Discuss the causes of degradation of tropical rainforests and suggest remedial measures for their prevention, conservation and development. (15 Marks/2018)
- Describe the characteristics of biological deserts. (10 Marks/2017)
- Distinguish between the characteristics of Chernozem and Sierozem soils. (15 Marks/2017)
- Give a classification of plants based on the amount of water requirement. (15 Marks/2017)
- Bring out the ecological significance ofTropical Rainforest Biome. (10 Marks/2016)
- Describe Newbigin’s scheme of Floristic regions of the world and explain the Mediterranean Floristic region. (15 Marks/2016)
- Classify soils based on their zonal distribution and describe the characteristics of pedocals. (15 Marks/2015)
- State the uniqueness of the Eurasian Steppe Biome. (10 Marks/2014)
- Explain weathering and mass wasting, and describe their geomorphic significance. (20 Marks/2014)
- Define zoogeographic region. Also describe the basic faunal makeup of the NeoArctic zoogeographic region. (15 Marks/2014)
- Types of endemic plants and their degree of vulnerability to extinction. (10 Marks/2013)
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