Starts on Nov 10, 2022

Geography Optional - Hard Copy Notes

Starts on Nov 10, 2022

This subscription is for all the aspirants aiming at UPSC with Geography as the optional subject.

Enroll now to get the benefit of accessing the class notes of the most recent Geography optional batch with well-designed structure of topics, modules required to crack the exam. It includes diagrams which helps you to study effectively & prepare for the Mains exam to score more.

*After successful purchase, students are requested to drop us a mail at support.edukemy.com with payment receipt & address.

1400+

Pages

3

Books

90+

Model Q&As

15

Modules

This subscription is for all the aspirants aiming at UPSC with Geography as the optional subject.

Enroll now to get the benefit of accessing the class notes of the most recent Geography optional batch with well-designed structure of topics, modules required to crack the exam. It includes diagrams which helps you to study effectively & prepare for the Mains exam to score more.

*After successful purchase, students are requested to drop us a mail at support.edukemy.com with payment receipt & address.

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Course Schedule

02
Aug
Theories in Origin of Earth
03
Aug
Composition of Earth
04
Aug
Rocks
05
Aug
Earth's Internal Structure
06
Aug
Chemical Layering of the Interiors
07
Aug
Interiors of Earth
08
Aug
Seismic Waves Evidences
09
Aug
Types of Seismic Waves and their Nature
10
Aug
Behavior of Seismic Waves and Associated Inference
11
Aug
Continental Drift Theory

12
Aug
Wegner's Hypothesis
13
Aug
Driving Mechanism of Continental Drift
14
Aug
Evidence of Continental Drift as given by Wegner
15
Aug
Smeiter's Observation
16
Aug
Development towards Modern Tectonic Theory - Convection Current Hypothesis and Sea Floor Spreading Hypothesis
17
Aug
Harry Hess
18
Aug
Plate Tectonic Theory
19
Aug
Plate Boundaries, Associated Interactions and Features
20
Aug
Evidences of Plate Tectonics
21
Aug
Driving Mechanism of Plate Tectonics
22
Aug
Critical Evaluation of Plate Tectonics

23
Aug
Volcanism
24
Aug
Partial Melting
25
Aug
Volcanic Landforms
26
Aug
Mountain Building
27
Aug
Fold Mountains
28
Aug
Geosynclines
29
Aug
Modern Theory of Fold Mountains
30
Aug
Geosynclines
31
Aug
Formation of Geosynclines according to Arthur Holmes
01
Sep
Formation of Geosynclines into Fold Mountains
02
Sep
Modern Theory of Fold Mountains
03
Sep
Phases of Fold Mountain Building

04
Sep
Isostasy
05
Sep
Modern Interpretation of Isostasy according to Plate Tectonics
06
Sep
Origin and Evolution of Earth's Crust
07
Sep
Wilson's Cycle

08
Sep
Geomagnetism
09
Sep
Origin of Earth's Magnetic Field
10
Sep
Paleomagnetism
11
Sep
Paleomagnetism as evidence of Crustal Movement

12
Sep
Forces and Processes that impact Earth's Surface and Landforms
13
Sep
Exogenic Process and Studies
14
Sep
Geomorphic Models and Landform Developments
15
Sep
Geomorphic Cycle of Davis
16
Sep
Landform Development Model
17
Sep
Davis Geomorphic Cycle
18
Sep
Base Level Change
19
Sep
Penck's Model
20
Sep
Penck's Models
21
Sep
Slope Models
22
Sep
Slope Retreat
23
Sep
Equilibrium Models of Slope Development

24
Sep
Denudation Chronology
25
Sep
Erosion Surface
26
Sep
Challenges in studying Erosional Surfaces

27
Sep
Channel Morphology
28
Sep
Meandering Rivers
29
Sep
Channel Types

30
Sep
Applied Geomorphology

01
Oct
PYQ Discussion on Geomorphology

02
Oct
Write a short note on Geomorphological Analysis
03
Oct
The shape of the landforms reflects the balance between the resistance of the underlying materials to erosion and the erosive energy of the active processes. Discuss
04
Oct
Discuss Periglacial Cycle of Erosion
05
Oct
Write a short note on S.A Schumm's Model
06
Oct
What is Topographic Discordance? Discuss the features of Topographies of Discordance

07
Oct
Composition of Atmosphere
08
Oct
Nature and Layering of Atmosphere
09
Oct
PYQ Discussion
10
Oct
Heat Budget
11
Oct
Temperature Pattern on Globe
12
Oct
Isotherm Pattern
13
Oct
Atmospheric Circulation Model
14
Oct
Pressure Pattern of the Globe & Winds
15
Oct
Surface Pattern of Pressure considering Land-Water Differential

16
Oct
Winds
17
Oct
Mediterranean Type of Climate
18
Oct
Upper Tropospheric Conditions
19
Oct
Rossby Waves
20
Oct
Jet Streams
21
Oct
Thermal Winds
22
Oct
Condensation
23
Oct
Clouds and Fog

24
Oct
Climate Change
25
Oct
Evidences of Climate Change
26
Oct
Conditions related to Precipitation
27
Oct
Precipitation Process
28
Oct
Patterns of Precipitation

29
Oct
Air Masses & Fronts
30
Oct
Modification of Air Masses and associated Weather and Climate
31
Oct
Cyclones
01
Nov
Polar Front Theory
02
Nov
Temperate Cyclone
03
Nov
Tropical Cyclone
04
Nov
Structure of Cyclone
05
Nov
Key Locations & Tracking of Tropical Cyclone
06
Nov
Atmospheric Disturbances

07
Nov
Climatic Classifications
08
Nov
Koeppan Classification
09
Nov
Thornwaite Classification
10
Nov
Trewartha Classification

11
Nov
Climate Change has disrupted Global Atmospheric Circulations. Illustrate with examples
12
Nov
Discuss the air-masses of North America and their influence on the Climate of the Region
13
Nov
What is the role of Evaporation in Hydrological Cycle?
14
Nov
Discuss the salient features of Sirocco and Mistral
15
Nov
Discuss the reason for the increasing frequency of cyclone in Arabian Sea. What are the emerging challenges along the Western Coast of India in the wake of this

16
Nov
Ocean Bottom Relief
17
Nov
Continental Shelf
18
Nov
Continental Slope
19
Nov
Deep Sea Plain
20
Nov
Features & Landforms of Abyssal Plain

21
Nov
Ocean Properties
22
Nov
Ocean Temperature & Temperature Patterns
23
Nov
Salinity of Ocean & Salinity Patterns
24
Nov
Density Stratification
25
Nov
Ocean Habitat/Realm
26
Nov
Ocean Deposits
27
Nov
Ocean Current
28
Nov
Western Intensification
29
Nov
Counter Currents
30
Nov
El-Nino and La-Nina Oscillations

01
Dec
Current Generation Factors & Coral Reefs
02
Dec
Theories on Coral Reefs
03
Dec
Coral Bleaching
04
Dec
Ocean Heat & Salt Budget

05
Dec
UNCLOS

06
Dec
Write a short note on Arctic Ocean Bottom Relief?
07
Dec
Discuss the surface and vertical temperature pattern in Ocean
08
Dec
Write a short note on Salinity Pattern of Indian Ocean
09
Dec
What are the different types of tides. Explain their formation
10
Dec
Explain the currents of North Atlantic Ocean and their significant role in the climate of Western Europe
11
Dec
Compare the subsidence and glacial control theories on the formation of coral reefs
12
Dec
Describe the ideal conditions for coral reef formation and discuss the glacial control theory
13
Dec
Discuss the causes and consequences of Ocean Water Warming in different parts of the world
14
Dec
Discuss maritime zone

15
Dec
Factors affecting distribution of Plants and Animals
16
Dec
Historical Factors associated with Climate Change
17
Dec
Patterns of Life form Distribution
18
Dec
Biogeographical Realm
19
Dec
Gene Pool Centers
20
Dec
Biomes
21
Dec
Forests and Vegetation of India
22
Dec
Florestic Kingdoms
23
Dec
Social Forestry
24
Dec
Deforestation
25
Dec
Ecosystem

26
Dec
Soil
27
Dec
Soil Horizon and Soil Profile
28
Dec
Soil Classification
29
Dec
Different Types of Soils
30
Dec
Evaluation of USDA

31
Dec
Ecosystem Balance
01
Jan
Biodiversity distribution
02
Jan
Biodiversity Loss
03
Jan
Biodiversity Hotspot
04
Jan
Environmental Management
05
Jan
Ecological Imbalance and Environmental Degradation
06
Jan
Human Ecological Adaptations

07
Jan
Role of Barrier in deciding distribution of Plants and Animals
08
Jan
Write a short note on Antarctic Florestic Kingdom. Discuss the impact of climate change on Antarctic Floristic Kingdom
09
Jan
Agroforestry has failed to achieve its objective in India. Discuss
10
Jan
Examine the biogeographical significance of soils
11
Jan
Classify soil on basis of Zonal Distribution. Describe the characteristics of pedogals
12
Jan
Discuss the Biosphere as an Ecosystem

13
Jan
Geographical Thoughts
14
Jan
Evolution of Geography through Time

15
Jan
Contribution in Ideas of Immanuel Kant
16
Jan
Contribution of Humboldt and Ritter

17
Jan
Dichotomy and Dualism
18
Jan
Dichotomy of Determinism and Possibilism
19
Jan
Contribution of F. Ratzel
20
Jan
Stop and Go Determinism

21
Jan
Aerial Differentiation

22
Jan
Quantitative Revolution
23
Jan
Criticism of Quantitative Revolution
24
Jan
Contribution of Quantitative Revolution
25
Jan
Location Analysis

26
Jan
Behavioral & Humanistic Geography
27
Jan
Approach in Humanistic Geography
28
Jan
Existentialism
29
Jan
Time Space Geography of Haggerstrand
30
Jan
Regional Synthesis

31
Jan
Radical Revolution

01
Feb
Welfare Geography
02
Feb
Social Relevance Revolution
03
Feb
Structuralism

04
Feb
Environmentalism
05
Feb
Limits to Growth

06
Feb
Post Modernism
07
Feb
Cultural and Religion Studies in Geography
08
Feb
Secularization

09
Feb
Aerial differentiation forms a core theme in Geography
10
Feb
Discuss the approaches to the study of behavioral Geography
11
Feb
Geography is simultaneously both regional and systematic. Discuss
12
Feb
Critically examine the concept of dualism with special reference to Physical vs Human Geography
13
Feb
Discuss the contribution of Geographers in the development of Radical Geography

14
Feb
Population Distribution and Growth
15
Feb
Measures of Population Growth

16
Feb
Population Theories - Malthus Theory
17
Feb
Marxian Interpretation of Population Growth
18
Feb
Other theories of Population Growth
19
Feb
Poverty and Population Growth Relationship
20
Feb
Modern Theories
21
Feb
Demographic Transition Theory
22
Feb
Demographic Transition Theory Model
23
Feb
Concept of Optimum Population

24
Feb
India's Population Growth - Temporal Pattern, Spatial Pattern
25
Feb
India's Population Growth and linking various theories
26
Feb
National Family Health Survey

27
Feb
Demographic Attributes
28
Feb
Demographic Dividend
01
Mar
Sex Ratio

02
Mar
Migration
03
Mar
Hunger and Food Security Issue
04
Mar
Food Problems
05
Mar
Food Insecurity

06
Mar
Migration
07
Mar
Global Migration
08
Mar
Migration - Answer Writing

09
Mar
Indian Migration
10
Mar
Culture
11
Mar
Ethnicity and Races
12
Mar
Cultural Ethnicity and Races
13
Mar
Racial Composition of India
14
Mar
Language
15
Mar
Cultural Regions
16
Mar
Occidental Realm

17
Mar
Tribal Areas
18
Mar
Tribal Population
19
Mar
Demographic Attributes

20
Mar
Tribal Problems & Solution

21
Mar
Public Services
22
Mar
Left Wing Extremism
23
Mar
Population Problems
24
Mar
Population Development

25
Mar
Human Development
26
Mar
Gross National Happiness
27
Mar
Social Capital

28
Mar
Trace India's Demographic Journey through the stages of Demographic Transition
29
Mar
Discuss the Global Population Distribution and Population Growth Trends across different regions of the world
30
Mar
How has the tribal diversity of India been impacted by migration? Discuss with example
31
Mar
What is the concept of Geriatric and challenges related to managing aging population in context of India?
01
Apr
Provide an account of World Population Transition in the context of fertility decline and socio-economic development
02
Apr
What are the recent migration patterns globally? How does the migration patterns impact the economic development of the region?
03
Apr
Define quality of life and explain its parameter with adequate examples
04
Apr
Reproductive Health and Gender Equality are essential for achieving Sustainable Development. Critically Analyze
05
Apr
Describe the regional pattern of Life Expectancy in the world. Bring out the challenges faced by developing countries due to increasing life-expectancy

06
Apr
Why Settlement started in Geography?
07
Apr
Types of Settlement
08
Apr
Patterns and Shapes of Settlement
09
Apr
Study of Morphology of Settlement
10
Apr
Morphology of Indian Rural Settlement

11
Apr
Models of Urban Morphology
12
Apr
Changing Morphology in Contemporary Times
13
Apr
Morphology of Indian Cities
14
Apr
Bazaar Model
15
Apr
Port City Model
16
Apr
City Region
17
Apr
Quantitative Methods in City Region Demarcation

18
Apr
Rural-Urban fringe
19
Apr
Urban Expansion and Types of Settlement
20
Apr
Urban Sprawls

21
Apr
Urban Agglomerations
22
Apr
Canurbation
23
Apr
Settlement Classification

24
Apr
Problems of Urbanization and Remedies
25
Apr
Urban Heat Islands
26
Apr
Remedies for Sustainable Urbanization
27
Apr
Principle of Planning
28
Apr
Models for Sustainable Urban Planning
29
Apr
Settlement Hierarchy
30
Apr
Primate City Concept
01
May
Rank Size Rule
02
May
Central Place Theory
03
May
Conclusions of Christaller on how to resolve settlement space efficiency
04
May
Patterns of Nesting
05
May
Modifications of August Losch

06
May
Discuss the causes of environmental issues in rural settlements of India. What measures can be taken to address these issues for sustainable development in rural settlements?
07
May
Write short note on sectoral model of urban structure
08
May
Examine factors and concerns regarding population growth in Indian towns, especially the million plus cities of India
09
May
Discuss the factors responsible for counter urbanization
10
May
Describe the changing regional morphology of rural settlements in India

11
May
Systems
12
May
Concepts
13
May
Systems Approaching Human Geography
14
May
Types of Systems
15
May
Analysis of System Approach
16
May
Location Theories
17
May
Van Thinness Agriculture Location Theories
18
May
Alfred Weber's Theory - Industrial Location Theory
19
May
Geopolitical Theory
20
May
Mackinder's Theory
21
May
Spy Kannan's Rimland Theory

22
May
Frontiers and Boundaries
23
May
Types of Boundaries

24
May
Discuss the relevance of Von-Thunen's Model on Agricultural Location in the Contemporary Context
25
May
Write Short-Note on Isolated State
26
May
Mackinder's Heartland Theory is applicable in Contemporary Geo-Political Scenario. Analyze
27
May
Discuss the genetic classification of boundaries as proposed by Hartshorne
28
May
Discuss how feminist Geography can be relevant in addressing gender Disparities

29
May
Geography & Federalism
30
May
Geographical Basis of Indian Federation
31
May
Federal Basis of Indian Planning
01
Jun
Regionalism and Regional Consciousness

02
Jun
Indian and Indian Ocean Rim

03
Jun
Why is federalism is considered the most geographically expressive of all forms of government?
04
Jun
Demarcation of industrial regions in India is illogical. Comment
05
Jun
How can India leverage its geographical advantage to advance its interest and position in the emerging global order?
06
Jun
Indo-pacific region is vital for India to not only secure its geopolitical but economical, security and military interests
07
Jun
How is geographical insights important in nation - state building and common national sentiments?

08
Jun
Hunger and Food Security Issues
09
Jun
Food Problems
10
Jun
Malnutrition
11
Jun
Patterns of Hunger and Food Security
12
Jun
States of Hunger Report

13
Jun
Interlinking of Rivers

14
Jun
What is Geosophy? How did it influence the development of Geography in Humanistic Traditions?
15
Jun
Describe the Flood Prone Areas and their management problems in the Ganga Plains
16
Jun
Landslides and Soil Erosion are major ecological hazards in hilly areas. Examine why? What strategies should be adopted for controlling and mitigating their efforts?

17
Jun
India Physiography
18
Jun
Rocks of India
19
Jun
Triple Tectonic Division of India
20
Jun
Denudation Chronology of India
21
Jun
Physiographic Features of Indian Peninsular
22
Jun
Himalayan & Northern Mountains
23
Jun
Origin of Himalayas
24
Jun
Structural Details of Himalayas
25
Jun
Northern Plains
26
Jun
Structural Details of Himalayas
27
Jun
Gangetic Plains
28
Jun
Coastal Plains

29
Jun
Indian Climate - Monsoon
30
Jun
Factors Affecting Monsoon Climate
01
Jul
Indian Ocean Dipole
02
Jul
Seasons of India