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Women Empowerment  


  • No country can ever truly flourish if it stifles the potential of its women and deprives itself of the contributions of half its - Michelle Obama
  • "The difference between a broken community and a thriving one is the presence of women who are - Michelle Obama
  • "There is no limit to what we, as women, can " - Michelle Obama
  • "The empowered woman is powerful beyond measure and beautiful beyond " - Steve Maraboli
  • "A woman with a voice is, by definition, a strong " - Melinda Gates
  • "Women are the largest untapped reservoir of talent in the " - Hillary Clinton
  • "A woman is like a tea bag; you never know how strong it is until it's in hot " - Eleanor Roosevelt
  • "Empowered women empower " - Unknown
  • "I raise up my voice—not so I can shout, but so that those without a voice can be " - Malala Yousafzai
  • "A woman who knows her worth doesn't measure herself against another woman, but stands strong, calm and self-confident." - Unknown
  • "The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don't have " - Alice Walker
  • "Gender equality is not a woman's issue, it is a human rights It affects us all." - UN Secretary- General António Guterres
  • "Women's empowerment is intertwined with respect for human " - Former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
  • "When women thrive, all of the society benefits, and succeeding generations are given a better start in " - Former UN Women Executive Director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka
  • "Empowerment of women is a prerequisite for the development of a " - Former UN Development Programme Administrator Helen Clark
  • "Women are not just victims of discrimination, but also agents of " - Former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein
  • "The best way to change the world is to mobilize the women of the " - Former UN Deputy Secretary- General Amina J. Mohammed

Definition: Women Empowerment

As per the UN, women empowerment includes:

  • Women have a sense of self-worth that should be respected and valued.
  • Women have the right to make choices and control their own
  • Women should have access to resources and opportunities.
  • Women should have the power to make decisions both within and outside the
  • Women should be able to shape social change towards a more equitable and just society on a national and international

Economic Survey 2022-23

Impact of SHGs: Empowered Women, Empowered Hinterland

Women’s economic SHGs have a positive, statistically significant effect on women’s economic, social, and political empowerment, with positive effects on empowerment achieved through various pathways such as familiarity with handling money, financial decision-making, improved social networks24, asset ownership25 and livelihood diversification26.

According to an recent assessment27 of DAY-National Rural Livelihood Mission, which is being undertaken through the SHGs, (for details see para 6.104) both participants and functionaries perceived high impacts of the programme in areas related to women empowerment, self-esteem enhancement,personality development, reduced social evils; and additionally, medium impacts in terms of better education, higher participation in village institutions and better access to government schemes.

SHGs in action during Covid

The years of pestilence acted as an opportunity towards mobilising SHG women to unite, transcend their group identity and collectively contribute to crisis management.

They emerged as pivotal players in crisis management, leading from the front in - producing masks (with cultural variants such as Gamusa Masks in Assam), sanitisers, and protective gear, creating awareness about the pandemic (e.g. Patrakar Didis of Jharkhand), delivering essential goods (e.g. Floating supermarkets in Kerala), running community kitchens (e.g. Prerna Canteens in Uttar Pradesh), supporting farm livelihoods (e.g. Pashu Sakhis for animal health care services, Aajeevika Farm Fresh Online selling and distribution mechanism for vegetables in Jharkhand), convergence with MGNREGS (in UP, Bihar, Chhattisgarh), and in delivery of financial services (e.g. Bank Sakhis managing bank rush for availing Covid-relief DBT cash transfers).

The production of masks by SHGs has been a noteworthy contribution, enabling access to and use of masks by communities in remote rural areas and providing vital protection against the Covid-19 virus. As on 4 January 2023, more than 16.9 crore masks were produced by SHGs under DAY-NRLM.

Women Empowerment through Ages

  • The Rig Veda states that the husband and wife are equal halves of one substance and should share equal participation in religious and secular works.
  • The Upanishads declare that individual souls are neither male nor female.
  • The status of women in the Vedic era declined with the emergence of the later Vedic age, leading to gender inequality and social evils against women such as child marriage, Sati, and Jauhar. Despite this, there were women achievers like Lopamudra, Maitreyi, Gargi, and Ahilya Bai Holkar.
  • The Indian renaissance began during British rule and with exposure to Western education, leading to the rise of leaders like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, who advocated for This resulted in legislations such as the abolition of Sati, increasing the age for marriage, and widow remarriage.
  • The next phase in women’s empowerment came with the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi believed that women were well-suited to participate in the non-violent struggle for India’s Women like Sarojini Naidu, Aruna Asaf Ali, Kalpana Dutt, Pritilata Waddedar, Sucheta Kriplani, and Usha Mehta became integral parts of India’s independence movement.

Some inspirational women

Tessy Thomas- Missile Woman of India

Tessy Thomas, also known as the “Missile Woman of India,” is a scientist and engineer who played a key role in the development of India’s Agni-V missile. She was born on April 2, 1963, in Kerala, India, and earned her Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electrical Engineering from Government Engineering College, Thrissur. She later earned a Master’s degree in Guided Missiles from the Institute of Armament Technology (IAT) in Pune.

Tessy Thomas joined the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in 1988 and began working on various missile projects. She became the project director for the Agni-IV missile and later played a significant role in the design and development of the Agni-V, India’s first intercontinental ballistic missile. In 2013, she became the first woman scientist to lead a missile project in India.

Tessy Thomas has received numerous awards and honors for her contributions to India’s missile program, including the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award for Excellence in Public Administration, Academics, and Management Sciences, and the DRDO Scientist of the Year Award. She has also been featured in Forbes’ list of the world’s 100 most powerful women.

Today, Tessy Thomas is the Director-General of the Aeronautical Systems in DRDO and continues to work on the development of advanced missile technologies for India’s defense.

Rashmi Sinha

Rashmi Sinha is an entrepreneur and computer scientist who co-founded and served as the CEO of Slideshare, a website for sharing presentations and other professional content. She was born in Allahabad, India and earned a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi. She later earned a PhD in Cognitive Psychology from Brown University.

After completing her PhD, Rashmi Sinha worked as a user experience consultant for various tech companies before co-founding Slideshare in 2006 with her husband, Jonathan Boutelle. Slideshare quickly became a popular platform for professionals to share and view presentations and was eventually acquired by LinkedIn in 2012 for $119 million.

In addition to her work with Slideshare, Rashmi Sinha is also a published author and has written several books on the topics of user experience and design. She has been recognized for her contributions to the tech industry and was named one of Fortune’s Most Powerful Women Entrepreneurs in 2013.

Today, Rashmi Sinha is an angel investor and advisor to various startups, as well as a speaker and commentator on topics related to entrepreneurship, design, and technology.

Rashmi Sinha is an inspiration for Indian women today in several ways. As a successful entrepreneur, she has broken barriers in the male-dominated tech industry and shown that women can be leaders and

innovators in this field. She co-founded Slideshare, which became a global platform with millions of users, and ultimately led to its acquisition by LinkedIn. This success has paved the way for other Indian women entrepreneurs to pursue their dreams and create successful businesses.

Rashmi Sinha is also a role model for women in STEM fields. With her academic background in electrical engineering and cognitive psychology, she has shown that women can excel in traditionally male-dominated fields like technology and science. Her achievements have encouraged more Indian women to pursue careers in STEM and challenged gender stereotypes in these fields.

Moreover, Rashmi Sinha is a vocal advocate for diversity and inclusion in the workplace, particularly in the tech industry. She has spoken out against the gender gap and lack of diversity in the tech industry and has worked to create a more inclusive culture at Slideshare and other companies. Her advocacy has raised awareness of these issues and helped to inspire more women and minorities to enter and succeed in the tech industry.

Gargee Ghosh

Gargee Ghosh is an Indian social activist and entrepreneur who is known for her work in the field of women’s empowerment and education. She was born in Kolkata and completed her education at various institutions in India and abroad, including Jadavpur University, the Indian School of Business, and the Harvard Kennedy School.

After completing her education, Gargee Ghosh co-founded the nonprofit organization, Ekalavya Foundation, which works to promote education and women’s empowerment in rural India. The organization provides scholarships and mentoring to underprivileged students and supports women’s self-help groups and micro-enterprises.

In addition to her work with the Ekalavya Foundation, Gargee Ghosh has also been involved in various other social initiatives, including the International Foundation for Crime Prevention and Victim Care and the Kolkata Foundation.

Gargee Ghosh has received numerous awards and honors for her work, including the prestigious Jit Paul Memorial Award for Excellence in Social Service and the Women Leadership Achievement Award from the World Women Leadership Congress.

Gargee Ghosh has made significant contributions to humanity through her work in the fields of education and women’s empowerment. As the co-founder of the Ekalavya Foundation, she has played a key role in providing education and mentoring to underprivileged students in rural India. The foundation’s work has helped to create opportunities for students who may not have had access to education otherwise, enabling them to pursue their dreams and build a better future for themselves and their families.

In addition, Gargee Ghosh has been a vocal advocate for women’s rights and empowerment. Through the Ekalavya Foundation and other initiatives, she has supported women’s self-help groups and micro- enterprises, providing them with the resources and skills they need to succeed in business and in life. Her work has helped to empower women and promote gender equality in India and beyond.

Moreover, Gargee Ghosh’s contributions to society go beyond her work in education and women’s empowerment. She has been involved in various social initiatives aimed at promoting human rights, crime prevention, and victim care. Her advocacy and activism have helped to raise awareness of these important issues and inspire positive change in communities across India.

Zulekha Daud

Zulekha Daud is a UAE-based healthcare entrepreneur and philanthropist who is known for her contributions to the healthcare sector in the Middle East. She was born in India and later moved to the UAE, where she

founded the Zulekha Healthcare Group, a chain of hospitals and medical centers that provide high-quality healthcare services to patients in the UAE and other parts of the region.

Zulekha Daud’s inspiration comes from her personal experiences and desire to positively impact the world. As a child, she witnessed the suffering of her father, who was unable to receive proper medical treatment due to financial constraints. This experience motivated her to pursue a career in healthcare and to establish a healthcare group that would provide affordable and accessible healthcare services to all.

Despite facing numerous challenges and obstacles, Zulekha Daud persevered and succeeded in building a successful healthcare group that has made a significant impact in the region. Today, the Zulekha Healthcare Group employs over 2,500 people and serves thousands of patients every year.

In addition to her work in healthcare, Zulekha Daud is also a dedicated philanthropist who has contributed to various charitable causes and initiatives. She has established the Zulekha Daud Foundation, which supports healthcare and education projects in India and the UAE, and has also been involved in various other charitable initiatives aimed at improving the lives of marginalized communities.

Anshula Kant

Anshula Kant is an Indian banker and civil servant who has made significant contributions to the banking sector in India. She was born and raised in New Delhi and completed her education at Lady Shri Ram College for Women and Delhi School of Economics.

Anshula Kant’s inspiring story began when she joined the State Bank of India (SBI) as a probationary officer in 1983. Over the course of her career, she held several key positions within the bank, including serving as the Chief General Manager of the Mumbai Circle and the Deputy Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer of SBI.

Throughout her career, Anshula Kant faced numerous challenges and obstacles, including the male- dominated culture of the banking industry. However, she remained focused on her goals and worked hard to overcome these challenges.

In 2019, Anshula Kant was appointed as the Managing Director of the World Bank Group, making her the first Indian woman to hold this position. In this role, she oversees the bank’s operations in South Asia and is responsible for managing the bank’s relationships with its clients and stakeholders.

Anshula Kant’s inspiring story is a testament to the power of hard work, determination, and perseverance. Despite facing numerous challenges and obstacles, she remained focused on her goals and worked tirelessly to achieve them. Her success has inspired many women in India and around the world to pursue careers in banking and finance, and to break down barriers and glass ceilings in male-dominated industries.

In addition to her achievements in banking and finance, Anshula Kant is also a dedicated philanthropist who has supported various charitable causes and initiatives. She has been involved in several social initiatives aimed at promoting education, healthcare, and women’s empowerment in India, and has received numerous awards and honors for her contributions to society.

Arunima Sinha

Arunima Sinha is a remarkable Indian woman who has inspired many people with her courage and determination. She was born in 1988 in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, and grew up in a humble family. Arunima had always been interested in sports, particularly in volleyball, and had even played at the national level.

However, tragedy struck in 2011 when Arunima was travelling on a train to Delhi. She was attacked by robbers who tried to snatch her belongings. When she resisted, she was pushed out of the train and fell onto the tracks, resulting in the loss of her left leg.

Dimensions of Women Empowerment

An empowered woman is the one who has decision-making capacity in the absence of bias or any controlling authority such as husband or parents. Such a woman is aware not only of her choices and rights but also her due responsibilities. Dimensions of women empowerment are like branches of the same tree which include:

1. Socio-cultural empowerment

At the individual level:

  • Participation in decisions related to personal health, including reproductive health, contraception, menstrual hygiene, sanitation, surrogacy, and abortion
  • Involvement in decisions about major household purchases
  • Participation in decisions about their own mobility outside the domestic sphere, such as visits to family and friends, going to the marketplace, or staying with friends

At the familial and societal level:

  • Participation in decisions related to education and career
  • Involvement in decisions related to children, especially regarding son preference
  • Participation in decisions related to marriage, including the issue of honour killings if a family’s decision is not followed
  • Participation in decisions related to inheritance and parental property sharing
  • Involvement in collective decisions like family planning, managing expenses, and decisions involving lifestyle choices such as dress, choice of friends, and behaviour

Political Empowerment

  • In the absence of participation of women, no women-centric legal framework can be properly Therefore, it requires more and more female participation to empower legal status of women.
  • Further, recognition of wrongdoings is The recognition of marital rape as a crime is a positive step.
  • Another important aspect is grasping the opportunities in Parliament, Executive roles and Their representation in such kind of careers will empower them politically and economically.

2. Economic empowerment

  • Many women end up investing maximum hours each day on domestic chores, giving care to other family This is completely unpaid work without any recognition and appreciation. As a result of this, women leave behind their financial independence as they give up their careers.
  • Moreover, there are only a few jobs that people prefer women to opt for. Those jobs are considered Pink Collar Jobs that include teaching, nursing etc. This is because women have always been synonymous with custodians of bringing up people well.
  • Thus, for women to be more economically independent they should have the freedom of choosing their own career path that is nurtured without pressure.

Global Gender Gap Index 2022

1.  Political Empowerment:

  • India’s rank in terms of percentage of women in Parliament and ministerial positions is 48th out of 146 countries.
  • However, India’s score in this category is quite low at 267, compared to top-ranking countries like Iceland (ranked 1st with a score of 0.874) and Bangladesh (ranked 9th with a score of 0.546).

2.  Economic Participation and Opportunity:

  • India ranks 143rd out of 146 countries in terms of percentage of women in the labor force, wage equality for similar work, and earned income.
  • While India’s score has improved from 326 in 2021 to 0.350 in 2022, it is still much lower than
  • the global average.
  • Only Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan rank lower than India in this

3.  Educational Attainment:

  • India ranks 107th out of 146 countries in terms of literacy rates and enrollment rates in primary, secondary, and tertiary education.
  • India’s score in this category has marginally worsened since last year, when it was ranked 114th out of 156 countries.

4.  Health and Survival:

  • India ranks last (146th) among all countries in terms of sex ratio at birth and healthy life expectancy.
  • India’s score in this category has not changed since 2021, when it was ranked 155th out of 156 countries.

Issues faced by Working Women

1. Occupational Stress:

  • Women in India often face occupational stress, which is the stress associated with work.
  • Balancing work and family responsibilities is a significant challenge for women, and this can lead to daily stres
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), occupational or work-related stress occurs when work demands and pressures are not matched to an individual’s knowledge and abilities.

Reasons for Occupational Stress:

  • One of the main reasons for occupational stress among working women in India is an imbalance between work and family responsibilities.
  • Gender bias is another factor that leads to mental harassment, making women feel less capable and efficient than men in the workplace.
  • Sexual harassment is a prevalent issue faced by working women in India, which occurs at various places like workplaces, educational institutions, hospitals, and even police stations when filing complaints.
  • Women are often concentrated in low-paying service jobs, with men in supervisory positions, which gives them the opportunity to exploit their female

Challenges of Workplace Discrimination:

  • Despite progress, many Indian women still encounter discrimination in their workplaces. They are often denied opportunities for promotions and career growth.
  • This is particularly evident in labor-intensive industries, where women are underpaid compared to their male colleagues.
  • The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976, which mandates equal pay for equal work, is not always followed in practice.

Safety Concerns While Traveling:

  • Many Indian families have traditional views that make it difficult for working women to balance their personal and professional lives.
  • Some families may not allow women to work beyond a certain hour, leading to concerns about safety during This can cause anxiety and affect the woman’s work performance.

Lack of Family Support:

  • Working women often struggle with insufficient family support. Some families may not encourage women to work outside of the home, or resist late working hours.
  • This can negatively impact the woman’s performance and opportunities for Inadequate Maternity Leave:
  • Another major issue for working mothers is the lack of sufficient maternity leave.
  • This not only affects their work performance, but also their personal

Job Insecurity:

  • Corporate reorganizations and unrealistic expectations can create tremendous stress for employees. Increased workloads, long hours, and intense pressure to perform at high levels for the same pay can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.
  • Excessive travel and time away from family can also add to the Difficulty Adjusting to Workplace Culture:
  • Adapting to a new workplace culture can be extremely stressful, especially for new employees.
  • Learning to communicate effectively with bosses and co-workers, and navigating office politics, can cause conflicts and Other Factors:
  • Various personal demographics, such as age, education level, marital status, number of children, and personal income, can also affect working women’s stress levels.
  • Work situation characteristics, such as job tenure, size of employing organization, and hours worked per week, are other factors that can contribute to stress in the

Legislations related to Women

1.  Women Reservation Bill, 2008

  • The bill proposes reservation of one-third of all seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies for

2.  Women reservation in Panchayati Raj

  • Article 243 D of the Constitution mandates 1/3rd of Panchayati Raj seats and offices of the Chairperson at all levels to be reserved for
  • Bihar, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh provide 50% reservation for women in Panchayati Raj Institutions.
  • The government is considering increasing the reservation for women in panchayats from 33% to 50%.

3.  Women reservation in Police

  • The government has approved 33% reservation for women in police forces of all Union Territories through direct recruitment in non-gazetted posts.
  • Gujarat and Bihar have already implemented 33% reservation for women in the police

4.  Women in Armed/Paramilitary Forces

  • The Indian Air Force has opened a new combat role for women as fighter
  • The government has allowed direct-entry women officers in all 5 Central Armed Police Forces and also allowed direct entry to women in junior rank and supervisory combat
  • The government plans to induct women in 33% of constable-rank personnel in CRPF and CISF and 15% in the border guarding forces BSF, SSB, and

Women, Environment and Climate Change

The relationship between women, the environment, and climate change is complex and multifaceted. Women are often disproportionately affected by environmental and climate change-related issues, particularly in developing countries where they have limited access to resources and opportunities. Here are some key points to consider:

  • Women are often more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change than They are more likely to live in poverty, have limited access to resources, and depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. Climate change can exacerbate these inequalities, making it harder for women to support themselves and their families.
  • Women also play a crucial role in sustainable development and environmental They are often the primary caregivers and providers of food and water for their families, and are more likely to engage in activities that promote environmental conservation and sustainability.
  • Women’s participation in decision-making processes related to climate change is essential. Women’s perspectives and experiences can provide valuable insights and contribute to the development of effective policies and

Despite their importance in addressing environmental and climate change-related issues, women are often excluded from decision-making processes and leadership positions. This exclusion can perpetuate

gender inequalities and hinder progress towards sustainable development.

Empowering women can be an effective strategy for mitigating and adapting to climate change. When women are given access to education, resources, and opportunities, they are better able to adapt to changing environmental conditions and contribute to sustainable development.

  • According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), women are more likely than men to experience the negative impacts of climate change, such as food and water insecurity, displacement, and health (UNEP, 2019)
  • A study by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) found that women in developing countries are often the primary caretakers of natural resources, and therefore have a significant role to play in sustainable development and environmental (WWF, 2014)
  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes the importance of promoting gender balance and the participation of women in all climate change-related decision- making (UNFCCC, 2017)
  • A report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) found that women are underrepresented in decision-making positions related to climate change, and that gender inequality can hinder progress towards sustainable (UNDP, 2018)
  • Research by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has shown that empowering women through education and access to resources can improve their resilience to climate change, and contribute to sustainable (IUCN, 2013)
  1. UNEP (2019). Global Environmental Outlook 2019.
  2. WWF (2014). Women as Key Players in Biodiversity Conservation.
  3. UNFCCC (2017). Gender and Climate Change.
  4. UNDP (2018). Gender and Climate Change.
  5. IUCN (2013). Women and Climate Change.

Indian Women and Environmental Protection

India has a rich history of women who have been at the forefront of movements against ecological destruction. Here are some prominent examples:

  1. Vandana Shiva: Shiva, as mentioned earlier, is an Indian environmental activist and scholar who has been a prominent advocate for sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation. She has authored numerous books, including “Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply” and “Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace.”
  1. Medha Patkar: Patkar is a social activist and founder of the Narmada Bachao Andolan, a movement to protect the Narmada River and its people from the negative impacts of large She has been at the forefront of the fight against environmental degradation and displacement caused by development projects, and has faced government repression and harassment for her activism.
  2. Prafulla Samantara: Samantara is a tribal rights activist and environmentalist who has been involved in the fight against mining projects in the eastern Indian state of He led the campaign against the proposed Vedanta bauxite mine in the Niyamgiri hills, which was eventually cancelled by the Indian government.
  3. Arundhati Roy: Roy is a writer and political activist who has been an outspoken critic of India’s neoliberal economic policies and their impact on the environment and marginalized communities. She has written extensively on issues such as dam-building, mining, and the displacement of indigenous peoples.
  1. Sunita Narain: Narain is an environmentalist and director of the Centre for Science and Environment, a research and advocacy organization based in New Delhi. She has been a leading voice in the fight against air pollution and has advocated for sustainable transportation and energy

These women have made significant contributions to the environmental and social justice movements in India and have inspired many others to join the fight against ecological destruction.

Impact of Distress, Conflict and War on Women

The impact of distress, conflict, and war on women is significant and often more severe than on men. Here are some examples and citations to illustrate this:

  1. Sexual Violence: Women are at increased risk of sexual violence during times of conflict and war. According to a report by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), sexual violence is often used as a weapon of war to intimidate and control populations. For example, during the Rwandan genocide in 1994, an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 women were raped. (UNFPA, 2015)
  2. Forced displacement: Women and children make up the majority of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in conflict and post-conflict situations. They are often forced to flee their homes and communities, and face heightened risks of violence, exploitation, and abuse. For example, during the Syrian refugee crisis, women and girls made up more than half of the refugee population, and many faced violence and harassment on their journeys. (UNHCR, 2019)
  3. Health risks: Conflict and war can have severe health consequences for women, including reproductive health issues, mental health problems, and For example, during the war in Yemen, there has been a significant increase in maternal mortality rates due to lack of access to healthcare and nutrition. (UNFPA, 2019)
  4. Economic marginalization: Women often face economic marginalization during and after conflict and war, with limited access to education, employment, and other resources. For example, during the civil war in Liberia, many women were widowed and forced to become the primary breadwinners for their families, but faced significant barriers to accessing economic (World Bank, 2017)
  5. Political exclusion: Women are often excluded from political decision-making processes during and after conflict and war, despite their unique perspectives and experiences. For example, in Afghanistan, women have faced significant barriers to participating in political processes, even though they have been disproportionately affected by the ongoing conflict. (UN Women, 2019)

These are just a few examples of the ways in which distress, conflict, and war can have a disproportionate impact on women. It is important to recognize these gendered impacts and to work towards addressing them in policies and interventions aimed at promoting peace and security.

  • UNFPA (2015). Sexual Violence in Conflict: A War
  • UNHCR (2019). Figures at a
  • UNFPA (2019). Yemen
  • World Bank (2017). Liberia - Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality
  • UN Women (2019). Women, Peace and Security in

Women, Media and Technology

Empowerment in media and technology refers to the ways in which these industries can be used to promote greater equality and agency for individuals and marginalized communities. Here are some examples of empowerment in media and technology:

Access to Information: Technology can be used to increase access to information and education, particularly for individuals and communities that have been historically marginalized. For example, online courses and educational resources can provide access to knowledge and skills that may not be available in traditional educational settings.

Amplifying Diverse Voices: Social media and other digital platforms have the potential to amplify diverse voices and perspectives, providing a platform for individuals and communities to share their stories and experiences. This can be particularly empowering for groups that have been underrepresented or misrepresented in traditional media.

Community Building: Technology can facilitate community building and connection, allowing individuals to connect with others who share their interests and experiences. This can be particularly important for individuals who may not have access to physical community spaces or who face social isolation.

Political Engagement: Technology can be used to promote political engagement and activism, allowing individuals to organize and advocate for social and political change. For example, social media can be used to share information about protests and events, mobilize supporters, and raise awareness about issues.

Digital Literacy: Building digital literacy skills can be empowering for individuals and communities, providing them with the tools and knowledge to navigate digital spaces and take advantage of digital resources. This can be particularly important for groups that have been historically excluded from the technology industry.

Overall, empowerment in media and technology involves using these tools to create more inclusive and equitable spaces, and to provide individuals and communities with greater agency and access to resources.


Boczkowski, P. J. (2019). Media technologies and democracy in an increasingly polarized world. Information, Communication & Society, 22(10), 1387-1399.

Gillespie, T. (2010). The politics of “platforms”. New Media & Society, 12(3), 347-364.

Warschauer, M., & Matuchniak, T. (2010). New technology and digital worlds: Analyzing evidence of equity in access, use, and outcomes. Review of Research in Education, 34(1), 179-225.

Women in Sports

Women in sports have faced significant challenges and barriers throughout history, but in recent years there have been many positive developments in terms of increased representation and support for female athletes. Here are some examples of the current state of women in sports in India and the world:

Representation: In India, female athletes have made significant strides in recent years, with increased representation in international competitions and greater support from the government and sports organizations. However, there is still significant work to be done to ensure equal representation across all sports and to address issues of discrimination and harassment.

Pay and Support: Female athletes in India and around the world have historically received lower pay and less support than their male counterparts. However, there have been recent efforts to address this issue, with organizations like the Women’s Sports Foundation and Women’s Sports Trust advocating for greater support and funding for female athletes.

Stereotypes and Barriers: Women in sports have historically faced stereotypes and biases that have limited their opportunities and representation. However, there have been many examples of female athletes breaking through these barriers and challenging traditional gender roles in sports. For example, Indian boxer Mary Kom has become an icon of women’s empowerment and has inspired many young girls to pursue sports.

Role Models and Representation: Representation and visibility are important factors in empowering female athletes and encouraging more women to participate in sports. The success of female athletes like Serena Williams, Simone Biles, and PV Sindhu has helped to inspire a new generation of young girls to pursue sports and challenge traditional gender roles.

Access and Infrastructure: Access to sports facilities and infrastructure can also be a significant barrier for female athletes, particularly in developing countries. However, there have been recent efforts to address this issue, with organizations like the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and UN Women working to promote gender equality in sports and increase access for female athletes.

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